Table 2a. Summary of dietary nutrient requirement and utilization of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon
Nutrient level (as g/kg)     Life stage/size class  
    Akiyama, Dominy and Lawrence (1991), 38% CPt Larvae Post-larvae (PL) Juvenile P. monodon bodyu Adult/ broodstock Data source
      [a] [b] [c] [d] [e]  
Crude protein, % min   38 45 45, 40–44d 35–40, 40d, 33–44, 35, 40, 40b, 44b 70 35–38d [a] 34 [b] 34, 26 [c]28, 26, 23, 15, 16, 20, 20 [d] 30  [e] 26
Amino acids, g/kg diet for feed and g/kg dry matter for P. monodon                
  Arginine 22     18.5–25.0–30, 37.1, 25 49.9   [c] 1,5,7, 21, 27 [d] 30
  Histidine 8   8 6.9–9.2 11.8   [b] 6, [c] 21,7 [d] 30
  Isoleucine 13.2   10.1 6.1–17.6 26.5   [b] 6, [c] 21,7 [d] 30
  Leucine 20.5   17 10.3–29 59.6   [b] 6, [c] 21,7 [d] 30
  Lysine 20.1     20.8–27.5–31.6 44   [c] 5,7,21
  Methionine 9.1   8.9 10, 12.4, 6r 15   [b] 2, [c] 7, 21, 64
  Methionine + Cysteine       10.6r 23   [c] 64
  Phenylalanine 15.2   14 16.2, 17 29.7   [b] 6, [c] 7, 21 [d] 30
  Threonine 13.7   14 15.6, 16.1 26.9   [b] 4, [c] 7, 21 [d] 30
  Tryptophan 3   2 4.4 6.6   [b] 6, [c] 7, 21 [d] 30
  Valine 15.2   13.5 20.3 30.4   [b] 3, [c] 7 [d] 30
Crude lipid, % min   6.0–7.5 7.5 7.5 7, 3.5–8.0, 5–8 5.88   [a] 34 [b] 34 [c] 23, 21,34,37 [d] 30
Essential fatty acids, % min                
  18:2n–6 Linoleic acid 0.4     0.05   0.8712 [e] 8, [c] 21
  20:4n–6 Arachidonic acid           0.79 [e] 8
  18:3n–3 Linolenic acid 0.3     0.1   0.4598 [e] 8, [c] 21
  20:5n–3 Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)  0.4     0.01   1.43; 1.77 [e] 8, 9, [c] 21
  22:6n–3  Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 0.4     0.005   0.75; 0.9 [e] 8, 9, [c] 21
  n3/n6 ratio       2.5:1   1.81 [c] 38 [e] 8
Lecithin (%)   >1 1 1 0.1–2     [a] 60 [b] 60 [c] 21
Cholesterol (%)   0.3–0.4 0.4, 1 0.4, 1 >0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.17, 0.1     [a] 34, 60 [b] 34, 60 [c] 39, 34, 21, 61, 62
Carbohydrate, % max         32     [c] 23
Crude fibre, % max   <4.0     <4     [c] 41
Gross energy, min kJ/g           19.17   [d] 30
Gross energy, min kcal/100 g         330a, 280–370, 263–331, 330e     [c] 22, 21, 23, 29
Digestible energy, min kJ/g                
Metabolizable energy, min kJ/g                
Protein to energy ratio, mg/kcal         146–150, 125, 121a     [c] 23, 24, 25
P/E ratio (mg protein/kJ)         28, 29.86     [c] 25,35
Lipid:carbohydrate ratio         1:4.6c     [c] 23
Minerals (%)                
Ash (%)       <14 <16 16.35   [b] 26 [c] 26 [d] 30
Macroelements (%)                
  Calcium, max       <2.3      [c] 31 [d] 31
  Calcium: Phosphorus       01:01     [c] 42
                 
  Phosphorus, min 1.5h (0.8)i   0.5g 1–2f     [b] 33 [c] 32 [d] 32
  Potassium, % 0.9     1.2–1.5 g/100 g     [c] 17
  Magnesium, min 0.2   0l 0l     [b] 45 [c] 45
  Sodium, min 0.6            
Microelements, min mg/kg dry diet                
                 
  Iron 300   0l 0l     [b] 45 [c] 45
  Copper 35     15–21, 30k     [c] 44
  Manganese 20            
  Zinc 110     15j     [c] 43
  Cobalt 10            
  Selenium 1   <0.3 <0.3     [b] 45 [c] 45
  Iodine     1 1     [b] 45 [c] 45
Vitamins, min IU/kg                
  Vitamin A 10 000 IU/kg     8 400     [c] 56
  Vitamin D 5 000 IU/kg     0.1 mg/kg (4 000 IU/kg)      [c] 50
Vitamins, min mg/kg                
  Vitamin E 300     85–89 (179n)     [c] 57
  Vitamin K (menadione) 5     5o, 35p, 30–40     [c] 50, 63
  Thiamine (B1) 50     13–14     [c] 13, 27
  Riboflavin (B2) 40     22.3, 22.5     [c] 46, 27
  Pyridoxine (B6) 50     72–89     [c] 47
  Pantothenic acid 75     101–139     [c] 14
  Niacin 200     6.4, 17.4–37.5, 6.83     [c] 27, 48, 49
  Folic acid 10     1.9–2.1, 2–8     [c] 52, 27
  Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) 0.1     0.2, 0.05–0.4     [c] 53, 27
  Choline 400     6 200, 600     [c] 51, 50
  Inositol 300     3 400     [c] 12, 50
  Biotin 1     1, 2–2.4     [c] 50, 10
  Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)   >>40 ppm to 2000 ppm   2 000–2 500, 209–220m, 100–500m     [a] 11, [c] 27, 54, 55
Astaxanthin (mg/kg)         50–100     [c] 58
Paraaminobenzoic acid (mg/kg)         270q     [c] 57
Chitin         5%     [c] 59
1Chen, Leu and Roelants (1992); 2Millamena, Bautista Teruel and Kanazawa (1996a); 3Millamena, Bautista Teruel and Kanazawa (1996b); 4Millamena et al. (1997);
5Millamena et al. (1998); 6Millamena et al. (1999); 7Donghui et al. (2000); 8Millamena (1989); 9Chayaburakul et al. (1999); 10Shiau and Chin (1998); 11Swings (1999); 
12Shiau and Su (2004); 13Chen, Wu & Tang (1991); 14Shiau and Hsu (1999); 15Dayal et al.  (2003); 16Alava and Lim  (1983); 17Shiau and Hsieh (2001);
19Liao and Liu (1989); 20Shiau, Kwok and Chou (1991); 21Ayyappan and Ahamad Ali (2007); 22AQUACOP (1977); 23Chuntapa et al. (1999); 24Shiau and Peng (1992); 
25Bautista, 1986; 26FAO, 2007b; 27Chen, 1993; 28Lin et al., 1982; 29Shiau and Chou, 1991; 30Sarac et al, 1993; 31Davis and Lawrence, 1997;
32Davis, Lawrence & Gatlin, 1993b (L. vannamei); 33Penaflorida, 1999; 34Akiyama, Dominy and Lawrence, 1991; 35Shiau and Peng, 1992; 
36Hajra, Ghosh and Mandal, 1988; 37D’Abramo, 1989; 38Glencross et al., 2002b; 39Sheen et al.,1994; 40Goh, 2005; 41Hertrampf, 2006; 42Piedad–Pascual, 1988; 
43Davis, Lawrence and Gatlin, 1993a; 44Lee and Shiau, 2002; 45Davis and Lawrence, 1997; 46Chen and Hwang, 1992; 47Shiau and Wu, 2003; 48Shiau and Suen, 1994; 
49McVey, 1993; 50Conklin, 1997; 51Shiau and Lo, 2001; 52Shiau and Huang, 2001; 53Shiau and Lung, 1993; 54Chen and Chang, 1994 ; 55Guillaume, 2001; 
56Shiau and Chen, 2000; 57Lee and Shiau, 2004; 58Meyers and Latscha, 1997; 59Shiau and Yu, 1998; 60Paibulkichakul et al., 1998; 
61Smith, Tabrett, and Barclay, 2001; 62Hunter and Chamberlain, 2006; 63Shiau and Liu, 1994; 64Smith, Tabrett and Glencross, 2007;
aAt 40 % feed protein level; b44 % in brackish (16 ppt) water and 40 % in seawater (32 ppt); cAt 35 % protein in diet;
dPostlarvae 0.7–1.0 cm, juvenile 3.0–6.0 cm and adult >6 cm (FAO, 2007b); eAt 36 % feed protein level; fAt calcium levels of 2%; gIn the absence of Ca;
hTotal phosphous; iAvailable phosphorus; jLitopenaeus vannamei, basal zinc in diet 18 mg/kg; kLevel for "nonspecific immune response";
lOceanic seawater has high levels and plant ingredients contain element, so shrimp may not require a supplemental dietary source; 
mAscorbyl polyphosphate, stable form of vitamin C (polyphosphorylated L–ascorbic acid); nLevel to achieve maximum tissue concentration; 
oNot the water-soluble form of vitamin K (phylloquinone and menaquinones are fat soluble); pIf menadione, the water-soluble form of vitamin K is used;
qIncluded in diets, but not researched; r38 % protein; sThe balance of cholesterol is provided by the raw materials. 
tSuggested amino acid levels for juvenile growout with a feed crude protein (CP) level of 38%.
uPenaeus monodon of initial weight of 1.5 grams fed an artificial diet for 42 days.