1. Characteristics, structure and resources of the sector
    1. Summary
    2. History and general overview
    3. Human resources
    4. Farming systems distribution and characteristics
    5. Cultured species
    6. Practices/systems of culture
  2. Sector performance
    1. Production
    2. Market and trade
    3. Contribution to the economy
  3. Promotion and management of the sector
    1. The institutional framework
    2. The governing regulations
    3. Applied research, education and training
  1. Trends, issues and development
    1. References
      1. Bibliography
      2. Related links
    Characteristics, structure and resources of the sector
    Summary
    After the transfer of responsibilities from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural development to the Ministry of Fisheries in 2003, the Ministry of Fisheries undertook a joint programme of technical visits to the coastal and inland provinces with Yugoslavian and Israeli experts to assess their potential and to plan various aquaculture activities. It was concluded that all provinces visited posses adequate aquatic conditions for the implementation of aquaculture.

    Aquaculture continues to evolve with the formulation of the Law on Biological Aquatic Resources, under whose scope falls aquaculture, and with the approval of the Legal Framework and Procedures which envisages the National Aquaculture Policy and the Regulation of Aquaculture.

    In turn, during the present year, a roster for the development of sustainable aquaculture in Angola has been devised with the collaboration of Vietnamese specialists; specifically from the Institute of Aquaculture Research in Vietnam.

    The proposal for the First Plan of Aquaculture Development has also been formulated in accordance with Articles 203 and 204 of the Law on Biological Aquatic Resources of June 23, 2004. This proposal takes into consideration the results of a preliminary inventory of local resources and native species that have the greatest potential for the development of Aquaculture from the point of view of their reproductive traits, topography, water quality, sources of water, terrestrial communications and energy.


    At present there are no statistical data on aquaculture production notwithstanding the variety of species amenable for production, such as tilapia, catfish and others, all of which may be cultured with relatively simple techniques that could help increase production.
    History and general overview
    Aquaculture started before the Independence, and was practiced in a rudimentary way at the initiative of the private sector in some State facilities. Its development was interrupted by the difficulties derived from the war of Independence. It is only recently that it is attracting the interest of the private sector. However, available information indicates that it is being implemented with low level technology and without control. Tilapia production is carried out in some farms, but there are no records of harvest volumes nor of relevant results.

    The fact that there are remnants of farming infrastructure in some Provinces confirms that fish farming had been formerly practiced. At the scientific level, some experiments were conducted before the Independence War (inland fish farming in Haumbo, Moxico, Lunda Norte, Kuwnza Sul, Uige, Malange, Kuando Kubango), and experimental sea farming of the Perna perna mussel in Lobito Bay. Research was carried out after Independence by the Marine Research Institute of the Fisheries Ministry on the cultivation of mussel at Playa de Sangano and in the Suto Bay, as well as on reproduction, adaptation and feeding of native species of the white coastal shrimp. In 1977 a biological study of tilapia was carried out in Kilunda Lagoon for the identification of species and population dynamics.
    Human resources
    The Aquaculture Department of the Institute for the development of artisanal fisheries, of the Ministry of Fisheries provides permanent employment for four technicians related to the aquaculture sector.

    At the Luanda Province, the company Angolan Tilapia Farming Ltd, which belongs to the private sector, provides permanent employment to a group of 26 labourers, including the position of the Technical Veterinarian Manager, a Chemistry Engineer and Supervisor (intermediate academic level), and 22 field workers with basic instruction. The Glasop Company, also a private sector enterprise is located in the Bengo Province and provides employment for eight workers: a Technical Manager (South African national) and seven field workers with basic instruction.
    Farming systems distribution and characteristics
    Under this chapter, only private sector fish farming facilities visited to date have been considered, as well as smaller scale rural fish farms whose owners derive supplementary income from this practice and who utilize locally available resources within their own reach, since the State has not yet promoted this activity.

    The Province of Cabinda was visited on June 2005, identifying farms where fish farming is practiced; specifically in the Regions of Safica, Chinfimbo, Bissassanha, Sassazau, Bucomazi, and Lubendo. Overall, fish farming is practiced at the artisanal level through the initiative of a few farmers. Low level technology is employed since farmers lack fundamental training and experience. The large amount of earthen ponds is noteworthy, mostly dug by hand and with significant technical deficiencies.

    Native tilapia species are farmed, mostly caught in the wild along the Chiloango, Teza, and Vemba Rivers.
    Cultured species
    There are several native Angolan fish species well accepted by local markets; however, little is known on their potential for aquaculture. Therefore, it is important that native species be properly identified and selected for their culture so that these be given priority over similar or equivalent exotic species.

    Identification of native species: a study on Lake Kilunda, located in the Municipality of Cacuaco, Province of Luanda, was undertaken in 1997 – 1999. This study allowed the identification of three endemic species: Oreochromis macrochir, Oreochromis macrochir macrochir y Oreochromis angolensis.

    Species introduced into Angola: the following records for the exotic Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exist in Angola: a Company Registration Certificate registered by the Fisheries Provincial Office on 17 December 2002; the importation of fingerlings licenced by the IDF on 22 May 2003 to Aquabel Fishfarming Ltd., a purchase Invoice dated 17 April 2003; and an Animal Transit Bill with destination Rio de Janeiro.

    Priority should be given to menaced species ensuring that fishfarming complies with the recommendations provided by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) and that the marketing of such species be allowed to private or individual fishfarmers. A pre-determined proportion of the farmed production of these species should be stocked in the wild under scientific supervision.

    Regarding the above, the Aquaculture Regulations (Decree N° 39/05 of 6 June 2005) include the following norms (Chapter IV, Section I):
    • Article 24 – Importation and exportation of fish larvae.
    • Article 27 – Genetic manipulation.
    • Atrticle 28 – Cultivation of exotic species.
    Practices/systems of culture
    Extensive Culture
    This is being practiced by some fish farmers either in lakes or lagoons. No control over predators is exercised, nor on water quality; fish feed on natural feeds only. Subsistence fish farmers practice extensive culture since it doesn’t require any major economic inputs. The Government envisages creating a network of technical extension workers to train small fish farmers so that extensive culture may be practiced rationally and thus become sustainable.

    Semi-intensive culture
    This is practiced by the private sector in rectangular earthen ponds. Water exchange is pump-driven. Fish are fed artificial diets as a supplement to natural feeds.

    Intensive culture
    This system is starting to be successfully employed by the private sector. Intensive culture comprises pelleted feeds, high stocking densities, artificial aeration and/or injection of oxygen. In intensive culture systems, larval mortalities are greatly reduced, allowing higher production levels and yields.

    Contribution of the Aquaculture Sector to Food Security and Economic Development
    Through the development of aquaculture, the Angolan population could benefit in its struggle against hunger (particularly in rural and coastal areas), thus improving the quality of life of their inhabitants. With the establishment of large scale industrial enterprises, aquaculture should also contribute to the creation of wealth.

    Use of resources and their relationship with the environment
    Aquaculture development could also create problems such as the impact caused by the introduction of diseased organisms into the aquatic ecosystem, the mingling of exotic and native species which entails the risk of disease transmission, as well as several other adverse effects.

    The adoption of measures to warrant the sustainability, the protection of the environment and the use of healthy and rational practices may lead to the success of aquaculture production. Best aquaculture managerial practices should be undertaken to ensure sustainability through the introduction of the Code of Good Practices, based on the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
    Sector performance
    Production
    Official statistical data on aquaculture production is not available since this activity is being undertaken by small entrepreneurs. At present, the private sector does not render information on production.
    Market and trade
    According to updated data of the Ministry of Commerce, Angola does not export any aquaculture products. The main markets for imported aquaculture products are: the Jumbo Supermarket, Intermarket Hyper-market, Maxi Centre, and the Kangaroo Hyper-market. These are all located in the Province of Luanda:
    • The main species of imported aquaculture products are: tilapia and shrimp.
    • Presentation of imported products: frozen and fillet.
    • Presentation of national products: fresh, live, frozen.
    • Countries of origin: Taiwan Province of China and other non-identified countries (the lack of tags or labels does not always allow the identification of the country of origin of imported products).

    Contribution to the economy
    Due to the incipient development of aquaculture in Angola, this activity has not yet had any economic impact, and thus does not satisfy the main needs of the population. The Government has set as an objective the creation of mechanisms and financial, legislative and fiscal conditions that may contribute to the consolidation of a macro-economic environment in order to stimulate the private sector, thus increasing overall national productivity.

    Thus, the Government will contribute to poverty amelioration by improving the quality of health, education and community services; to food security; and to social assistance which are the main challenges that have to be tackled with priority and attention.

    The specific objectives of the Ministry will be asserted through the execution of specific goals within a certain period of time. In the near and mid-term future, Angolan tilapia fish farming projects will be implemented at the rural and industrial scales. In the long term future, marine farming projects will also be undertaken. The outcome of such projects should serve to accomplish the governmental objectives related to the aquaculture sector.

    An indicator to assess the improvement of living conditions within the communities shall be the generation of employment. Aquaculture will play an important role in the conversion of various artisanal activities into more professional and better trained workers, as well as in the settling down of populations through the creation of new sources of employment. Women may also participate actively in aquaculture by undertaking family, or even industrial projects, thus increasing the overall family income.
    Promotion and management of the sector
    The institutional framework
    The legal framework and procedures for the development of responsible and sustainable aquaculture include:

    National Policy for Aquaculture
    The objective is to create a framework whereby all acting participants may jointly and constructively contribute to the planning and development of aquaculture in Angola. It aims to promote aquaculture in a sustainable manner and to manage, protect and conserve marine and terrestrial ecosystems and to foster aquaculture projects.

    Law of Aquatic Biological Resources (LABR) related to aquaculture
    This Law is a socio-economic project recently promulgated by the National Assembly. Article 202 establishes the responsibilities of the State and the attributions of the Ministry of Fisheries in the field of aquaculture and sets the following objectives:
    • Contribution to food security and to increased marketing of aquatic biological resources.
    • Contribution to the sustainable renovation of aquatic biological resources and the prevention of non-sustainable fisheries.
    • Contribution to the recovery of endangered species and of degraded habitats.
    • Promotion of employment and generation of income, particularly in rural and coastal communities.
    Aquaculture Regulations.
    These regulations were sanctioned by the Council of Ministries and published in the “Republic Diary” under Decree N° 39/05 of 6 June 2005 which approves such Regulations. Their fundamental objective is to control this activity and to manage it within the provisions of the international legislation (Code of Best Practices based on the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries of FAO, etc.)

    Strategy for the Development of Aquaculture.
    This is a strategic sector programme to fight hunger and to alleviate poverty. It comprises two main lines of action: the first is the study and promotion of inland aquaculture and the second one focuses on the cultivation of marine species. The present programme, of strategic interest in the increase of fisheries production will be undertaken in two phases; the second one being dependent on the success of the first. This Plan for the Development of Aquaculture is based on the first phase, which is considered as the first stage of the implementation of the programme and will last 2 years (2005 and 2006).

    Responsibilities of the State in its effort to develop sustainable rural aquaculture.
    • Prioritize aquaculture to warrant food security and the creation of enterprises in rural communities.
    • Promote aquaculture extension with the support of the Government and of NOGs.
    • Promote the participation and full integration of women in the process of the development of the aquaculture sector.
    • Extend aquaculture.
    • Promote the formation of aquaculture associations.
    Economic instrument.
    Aquaculture should be related to the Law on Investment, both for internal and foreign investment. As a viable economic activity, industrial aquaculture should be framed within the current general instruments applicable to other activities, and not be encompassed under special schemes in order to avoid distortions in the application of investment funds.

    Instead, the Government should create special mechanisms for the development of semi-intensive and extensive aquaculture within the policies aimed at poverty amelioration, food security and the role of women. Aquaculture plays an important role in the creation of employment and in the generation of income by women, particularly in rural and sub-urban areas.

    Institutional Working Framework.
    This is administered by the Institute of Development of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture (IPA).

    Specific responsibilities.
    The Institute of Development of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture, (IPA) is a public organisation for State personalised services intended for the promotion and development of marine and inland artisanal fisheries, as well as for the undertaking of specific studies and the extension of aquaculture. The Institute is a legal entity, granted administrative, financial and patrimonial autonomy. It operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Fisheries and is based in Luanda, but has representation offices in each of the provinces of Angola.

    The governing regulations.
    Administrative regulations of aquaculture in Angola: Aquaculture Regulations. These regulations are enforced by the Institute of Development of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture.

    Specific issues of aquaculture.
    • Ordering of aquaculture.
    • Requirements for authorizations and permits.
    • Requirements for aquaculture products and the protection of the environment.
    • Taxation, control, and penalties.
    The governing regulations
    For information on aquaculture legislation, please click on the following link (in Spanish):
    National Aquaculture Legislation Overview - Angola
    Applied research, education and training
    Stimulus to Research: Research is an important issue since when aquaculture sub-sectors face financial difficulties, private sector enterprises should invest resources for research and development. Research efforts for the study of native species should be undertaken.

    Role of the Government and of non-governmental organisations in research
    • Promote applied research, demonstrations, technological development and increase the number of extension technical workers as a means of increasing the social and economic benefits of aquaculture.
    • Promote the participation of the private sector, assuring their access to specifically designated areas for aquaculture through the required supporting services and the access to financing.
    • Ensure that Angola will benefit effectively of international bilateral or multilateral cooperation in the field of aquaculture; particularly regarding financial and technical assistance, scientific research, transfer of technology, education and training, as well as the dissemination of information.
    Competences of the Ministry of Fisheries
    • Determine taxation for the execution of aquaculture activities.
    • Establish regulations for the granting of financial incentives for aquaculture applied research.
    • Establish regulations for the promotion of commercial and subsistence aquaculture.
    • Warrant aquaculture applied research and undertake studies on the preliminary assessment of the effects of aquaculture on the diversity and integrity of ecosystems.
    Competences of the National Department of Aquaculture
    • The National Department of Aquaculture is responsible for the organisation, management and control of all actions related to the production of marine aquatic organisms of economic importance.
    Role of the Private Sector in Research
    • Develop and support technological research for the increase of aquaculture production.

    Training in aquaculture
    • There are neither universities nor technical schools that provide training or education in Aquaculture in Angola.
    Main research studies undertaken by state institutions.
    N. INSTITUTION YEAR RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN
    1 Mission of Bio-oceanological Studies of Angolan Fisheries (MEBPA) 1970/72 Experimental research on the mussel Perna perna, Bahía de Lobito
    Experimental cultivation of oysters, Playa Santiago
    2 Institute of Marine Research (IIM) 1990/91 Experimental cultivation of the mussel Perna perna, Bahía de Lobito, Playa de Sangano and in the Bay of Suto.
    1991 On-growth and adaptation of the coastal Angolan shrimp under captivity Penaeus kerathurus and Penaeus duorarum
    1991 Bio-ecological study of two species of lobsters Panulirus regius and Scyllarides herklotsii.
    1999 Systematic study of the tilapia Oreochromis angolensis and Oreochromis macrochir, commonly know as cacusso
    Studies on the characterisation of the Kilunda Lagoon
    3 Institute of Development of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture (IPA) 2004-5 Assessment studies of aquaculture practices in Angola.
    Classification of aquaculture data practiced in Angola.
    Trends, issues and development
    The private sector (Angolan Tilapia Fishfarm, Ltd.) has taken approximately three years to develop, period that includes the experimental and adaptation phases. Its facilities are located close to poor communities, providing employment to their inhabitants. At present it is operating successfully yielding a monthly production of 40 tons (4 tons per pond), projecting a 150 percent increase for next year expected to reach 100 tons/month. Tilapia is marketed fresh and frozen, mostly in internal markets (super markets, fish shops, private enterprises, popular markets and at the farm gate. The future cultivation of Clarias gariepinus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii is envisaged.
    References
    Bibliography
    Gabinete de Estudios Planeamiento y Estadística. 2001 . Relatório de Actividades.
    Delgado F. y Klepsvik J. 2003 . Opciones para el Desarrollo de la Acuicultura en Angola, Luanda.
    Departamento de Acuicultura, Instituto de Investigación Marina, Ministerio de Pesca. 2003 . Relatório Preliminar de Piscicultura Continental.
    Departamento de Acuicultura, Instituto de Investigación Marina, Ministerio de Pesca. 2003 . Relatório Preliminar de Maricultura.
    Ministerio de Pesca. 2003 . Plan Director del Sector de la Acuicultura.
    Ministerio de Pesca. 2004 . Política Nacional de la Acuicultura.
    Ministerio de Pesca. 2004 . Plan Estratégico para el Desarrollo de la Acuicultura.
    Ministerio de Pesca. 2004 . Ley de los Recursos Biológicos Acuáticos (LRBA).
    Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, Relatório do Desarrollo Humano. 2004 . Libertad cultural en el mundo Diversificado.
    Instituto de Desarrollo de la Pesca Artesanal, Ministerio de Pesca. 2005 . Relatório Preliminar de Piscicultura Continental.
    Ministerio de Pesca, Relamentación de la acuicultura. 2005 . Decreto 39/05 del 6 de Junio de 2005.
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