Aquaculture continues to evolve with the formulation of the Law on Biological Aquatic Resources, under whose scope falls aquaculture, and with the approval of the Legal Framework and Procedures which envisages the National Aquaculture Policy and the Regulation of Aquaculture.
In turn, during the present year, a roster for the development of sustainable aquaculture in Angola has been devised with the collaboration of Vietnamese specialists; specifically from the Institute of Aquaculture Research in Vietnam.
The proposal for the First Plan of Aquaculture Development has also been formulated in accordance with Articles 203 and 204 of the Law on Biological Aquatic Resources of June 23, 2004. This proposal takes into consideration the results of a preliminary inventory of local resources and native species that have the greatest potential for the development of Aquaculture from the point of view of their reproductive traits, topography, water quality, sources of water, terrestrial communications and energy.
At present there are no statistical data on aquaculture production notwithstanding the variety of species amenable for production, such as tilapia, catfish and others, all of which may be cultured with relatively simple techniques that could help increase production.
The fact that there are remnants of farming infrastructure in some Provinces confirms that fish farming had been formerly practiced. At the scientific level, some experiments were conducted before the Independence War (inland fish farming in Haumbo, Moxico, Lunda Norte, Kuwnza Sul, Uige, Malange, Kuando Kubango), and experimental sea farming of the Perna perna mussel in Lobito Bay. Research was carried out after Independence by the Marine Research Institute of the Fisheries Ministry on the cultivation of mussel at Playa de Sangano and in the Suto Bay, as well as on reproduction, adaptation and feeding of native species of the white coastal shrimp. In 1977 a biological study of tilapia was carried out in Kilunda Lagoon for the identification of species and population dynamics.
At the Luanda Province, the company Angolan Tilapia Farming Ltd, which belongs to the private sector, provides permanent employment to a group of 26 labourers, including the position of the Technical Veterinarian Manager, a Chemistry Engineer and Supervisor (intermediate academic level), and 22 field workers with basic instruction. The Glasop Company, also a private sector enterprise is located in the Bengo Province and provides employment for eight workers: a Technical Manager (South African national) and seven field workers with basic instruction.
The Province of Cabinda was visited on June 2005, identifying farms where fish farming is practiced; specifically in the Regions of Safica, Chinfimbo, Bissassanha, Sassazau, Bucomazi, and Lubendo. Overall, fish farming is practiced at the artisanal level through the initiative of a few farmers. Low level technology is employed since farmers lack fundamental training and experience. The large amount of earthen ponds is noteworthy, mostly dug by hand and with significant technical deficiencies.
Native tilapia species are farmed, mostly caught in the wild along the Chiloango, Teza, and Vemba Rivers.
Identification of native species: a study on Lake Kilunda, located in the Municipality of Cacuaco, Province of Luanda, was undertaken in 1997 – 1999. This study allowed the identification of three endemic species: Oreochromis macrochir, Oreochromis macrochir macrochir y Oreochromis angolensis.
Species introduced into Angola: the following records for the exotic Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exist in Angola: a Company Registration Certificate registered by the Fisheries Provincial Office on 17 December 2002; the importation of fingerlings licenced by the IDF on 22 May 2003 to Aquabel Fishfarming Ltd., a purchase Invoice dated 17 April 2003; and an Animal Transit Bill with destination Rio de Janeiro.
Priority should be given to menaced species ensuring that fishfarming complies with the recommendations provided by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) and that the marketing of such species be allowed to private or individual fishfarmers. A pre-determined proportion of the farmed production of these species should be stocked in the wild under scientific supervision.
Regarding the above, the Aquaculture Regulations (Decree N° 39/05 of 6 June 2005) include the following norms (Chapter IV, Section I):
This is being practiced by some fish farmers either in lakes or lagoons. No control over predators is exercised, nor on water quality; fish feed on natural feeds only. Subsistence fish farmers practice extensive culture since it doesn’t require any major economic inputs. The Government envisages creating a network of technical extension workers to train small fish farmers so that extensive culture may be practiced rationally and thus become sustainable.
This is practiced by the private sector in rectangular earthen ponds. Water exchange is pump-driven. Fish are fed artificial diets as a supplement to natural feeds.
This system is starting to be successfully employed by the private sector. Intensive culture comprises pelleted feeds, high stocking densities, artificial aeration and/or injection of oxygen. In intensive culture systems, larval mortalities are greatly reduced, allowing higher production levels and yields.
Contribution of the Aquaculture Sector to Food Security and Economic Development
Through the development of aquaculture, the Angolan population could benefit in its struggle against hunger (particularly in rural and coastal areas), thus improving the quality of life of their inhabitants. With the establishment of large scale industrial enterprises, aquaculture should also contribute to the creation of wealth.
Use of resources and their relationship with the environment
Aquaculture development could also create problems such as the impact caused by the introduction of diseased organisms into the aquatic ecosystem, the mingling of exotic and native species which entails the risk of disease transmission, as well as several other adverse effects.
The adoption of measures to warrant the sustainability, the protection of the environment and the use of healthy and rational practices may lead to the success of aquaculture production. Best aquaculture managerial practices should be undertaken to ensure sustainability through the introduction of the Code of Good Practices, based on the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
Thus, the Government will contribute to poverty amelioration by improving the quality of health, education and community services; to food security; and to social assistance which are the main challenges that have to be tackled with priority and attention.
The specific objectives of the Ministry will be asserted through the execution of specific goals within a certain period of time. In the near and mid-term future, Angolan tilapia fish farming projects will be implemented at the rural and industrial scales. In the long term future, marine farming projects will also be undertaken. The outcome of such projects should serve to accomplish the governmental objectives related to the aquaculture sector.
An indicator to assess the improvement of living conditions within the communities shall be the generation of employment. Aquaculture will play an important role in the conversion of various artisanal activities into more professional and better trained workers, as well as in the settling down of populations through the creation of new sources of employment. Women may also participate actively in aquaculture by undertaking family, or even industrial projects, thus increasing the overall family income.
National Policy for Aquaculture
The objective is to create a framework whereby all acting participants may jointly and constructively contribute to the planning and development of aquaculture in Angola. It aims to promote aquaculture in a sustainable manner and to manage, protect and conserve marine and terrestrial ecosystems and to foster aquaculture projects.
Law of Aquatic Biological Resources (LABR) related to aquaculture
This Law is a socio-economic project recently promulgated by the National Assembly. Article 202 establishes the responsibilities of the State and the attributions of the Ministry of Fisheries in the field of aquaculture and sets the following objectives:
These regulations were sanctioned by the Council of Ministries and published in the “Republic Diary” under Decree N° 39/05 of 6 June 2005 which approves such Regulations. Their fundamental objective is to control this activity and to manage it within the provisions of the international legislation (Code of Best Practices based on the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries of FAO, etc.)
Strategy for the Development of Aquaculture.
This is a strategic sector programme to fight hunger and to alleviate poverty. It comprises two main lines of action: the first is the study and promotion of inland aquaculture and the second one focuses on the cultivation of marine species. The present programme, of strategic interest in the increase of fisheries production will be undertaken in two phases; the second one being dependent on the success of the first. This Plan for the Development of Aquaculture is based on the first phase, which is considered as the first stage of the implementation of the programme and will last 2 years (2005 and 2006).
Responsibilities of the State in its effort to develop sustainable rural aquaculture.
Aquaculture should be related to the Law on Investment, both for internal and foreign investment. As a viable economic activity, industrial aquaculture should be framed within the current general instruments applicable to other activities, and not be encompassed under special schemes in order to avoid distortions in the application of investment funds.
Instead, the Government should create special mechanisms for the development of semi-intensive and extensive aquaculture within the policies aimed at poverty amelioration, food security and the role of women. Aquaculture plays an important role in the creation of employment and in the generation of income by women, particularly in rural and sub-urban areas.
Institutional Working Framework.
This is administered by the Institute of Development of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture (IPA).
The Institute of Development of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture, (IPA) is a public organisation for State personalised services intended for the promotion and development of marine and inland artisanal fisheries, as well as for the undertaking of specific studies and the extension of aquaculture. The Institute is a legal entity, granted administrative, financial and patrimonial autonomy. It operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Fisheries and is based in Luanda, but has representation offices in each of the provinces of Angola.
The governing regulations.
Administrative regulations of aquaculture in Angola: Aquaculture Regulations. These regulations are enforced by the Institute of Development of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture.
Specific issues of aquaculture.
Role of the Government and of non-governmental organisations in research
Training in aquaculture
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