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  1. Characteristics, structure and resources of the sector
    1. Summary
    2. History and general overview
    3. Human resources
    4. Farming systems distribution and characteristics
    5. Cultured species
    6. Practices/systems of culture
  2. Sector performance
    1. Production
    2. Market and trade
    3. Contribution to the economy
  3. Promotion and management of the sector
    1. The institutional framework
    2. The governing regulations
    3. Applied research, education and training
  1. Trends, issues and development
    1. References
      1. Bibliography
      2. Related links
    Characteristics, structure and resources of the sector
    Summary
    Aquaculture in Guyana is a relatively new concept, however, people on the Corentyne Coast have practiced a form of fisheries enhancement that is similar to aquaculture for over 100 years. Several attempts have been made over the years to develop freshwater and brackishwater aquaculture especially since local consumer demand for freshwater fish is high; this is reflected in the per capita consumption of fish in Guyana (58.7 kg per year in 1999). Recent declines in the marine capture fisheries as well as marketing difficulties with traditional crops have resulted in a recent renewal in interest in aquaculture.
    Aquaculture activities in Guyana can be divided into freshwater and brackishwater, almost all of which are practiced on the coastal plains.

    The species farmed using semi-intensive pond rearing practices are the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Jamaican red tilapia, giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), armoured catfish or atipa (Hoplosternum littorale) and the salmon shrimp (Mesopenaeus tropicalis).

    Aquaculture products are currently not exported, the main markets being local domestic markets situated along the coast of the country. Farmers usually sell directly to consumers and no labelling is required on aquaculture produce. Aquaculture is still in its developmental stages and due to its almost negligible contribution to the economy it is not recorded separately.

    Aquaculture management falls under the responsibility of the Research and Development Unit of the Department of Fisheries, one of several departments of the Ministry of Fisheries, Crops and Livestock. There are no aquaculture private sector associations, but there is an aquaculture farmer’s representative on the Fisheries Advisory Committee. Currently, there is no legislation in force to manage the aquaculture sector specifically, but an Aquaculture Bill is expected to be introduced soon. Research priorities are set by the Ministry of Fisheries, Crops and Livestock and take place mainly at the Mon Repos Freshwater Aquaculture Demonstration Farm and Training Centre. The government's policy towards aquaculture focuses mainly on private sector driven growth with the government acting as a facilitator. Aquaculture development is seen as promoting agriculture diversification, improving food security, increasing the availability of high value protein food and improving environmental benefits.
    History and general overview
    The first reliable accounts of attempts at aquaculture in Guyana can be traced back to the early East Indian inhabitants of the Corentyne Coast near the Berbice River estuary. For over 100 years these people, followed by their present day descendants, have been practicing a system of fishery enhancement similar to aquaculture. This practice involves the legal or illegal opening of the sea defences and taking advantage of tidal inflows at high tides when juveniles, larvae, eggs, etc. are trapped in coastal polders and in some cases specially constructed enclosures near the foreshore where they are allowed to grow and mature to marketable size. Many marine species are contained in this way, some of the targeted species include salmon shrimp (Mesopenaeus tropicalis), common snook (Centropomus undecimalis), tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and mullet (Mugil spp.).

    Freshwater aquaculture began first in the late 1940s with the introduction of Mozambique tilapia. It was initially thought that fish culture could be undertaken through integration with agriculture such as fish produced in irrigated rice fields, or flooded sugar cane fields. In addition, the hundreds of miles of irrigation canals offered a ready possibility for undertaking freshwater aquaculture. However, none of these ideas were carried forward at the time, primarily because the government placed more emphasis on the development of marine capture fisheries.

    Renewed interest in freshwater aquaculture occurred in the 1970s with the establishment of three facilities by the Department of Fisheries and a joint International Development Research Centre (IDRC)/ Guyana Sugar Corporation (GUYSUCO) venture. The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was introduced and attempts were made at the culture of alternative indigenous species such as the armoured catfish or atipa (Hoplosternum littorale). However, due to a lack of management capabilities and the human resources required to continue operations the installations, both in the government and private sector fell into disrepair and were eventually abandoned.

    A draft Action Plan for Aquaculture Development, prepared with the support of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in 1994 recommended the establishment of a freshwater fish farming station. Furthermore, in October 1997, an FAO/SLAC TCDC aquaculture specialist visited Guyana and, in collaboration with the Fisheries Department, outlined proposals for aquaculture development in the country, one of which included the establishment of a freshwater fish farming station.

    A preliminary stock assessment, conducted by the Guyana-Brazil Western Central Atlantic Fisheries Commission WECAFC ad-hoc Working Group in May 1998, indicated that the penaeid shrimp resources had probably reached their maximum sustainable yield and that a number of commercial finfish species thought to be under-exploited were probably being over-exploited.

    With the continuing decline in shrimp landings and an increased effort in the finfish fishery, the Government has been promoting aquaculture as an activity that could attract investors, generate employment and improve incomes and foreign exchange earnings through exports. In this regard, as well as in increased food production and higher nutritional levels for the population as a whole, the government sees aquaculture as playing a critical role. It also envisages improving the living standards of the rural farmers in Guyana.

    Farmers currently operating in sugar and rice are interested in diversifying their operations and dedicating a portion of their land to the culture of freshwater fish and shrimp for sale both in the local markets and for export. The local demand for freshwater fish is high with a tradition of consuming freshwater fish in Guyana, which is reflected in a per capita fish consumption of 58.7 kg per year in 1999, amongst the highest levels in the world. On the Coastal Plain, where marine fish are easily accessible, there is a preference for freshwater fish species, such as Tilapia and Hoplosternum littorale . In the inland areas, due to the lack of access to marine fish, freshwater fish play an important part in the diet of the population.
    Since 1997, the Government has embarked on an aquaculture expansion drive, the acreage under aquaculture has expanded, as well as the number of species being farmed. On 13 July 2001, Phase 1 of the Mon Repos Freshwater Aquaculture Demonstration Farm and Training Centre was commissioned. This facility was constructed as a result of a partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO-TCP 8922), the Government of Guyana and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).

    The government's policy is to facilitate the development of the aquaculture industry by the private sector, and according to the Private Sector Commission of Guyana, US$ 1.2 million was invested in aquaculture in 2002.
    Human resources
    It is estimated that about 100 persons are currently involved mostly in brackishwater aquaculture production in a part-time capacity supplemented by other activities including rice and cattle farming, chicken and cash crop farming. The vast majority, over 80 percent, are literate and have a primary education while a small number possess a secondary education as well, however, no specific data exist in this area. Also with regard to gender distribution no data exist, however, from the author's personal observation, it may be noted that the involvement in freshwater aquaculture is overwhelmingly male, while in brackishwater aquaculture, approximately 40 percent of the persons involved are female.

    Approximately 20 percent of those involved in aquaculture have received basic training from the Mon Repos Freshwater Aquaculture Demonstration Farm and Training Centre while the remainder have received no formal training, many of those involved in brackishwater aquaculture however, have a limited amount of traditional knowledge at their disposal.
    Farming systems distribution and characteristics
    Guyana is divided into 10 administrative Regions, and four ecological zones. All aquaculture activities are practiced on the Low Coastal Plain and pond culture of tilapia and giant river prawn is the main farming system while rice-fish farming using tilapia has been introduced on an experimental basis. The aquaculture systems generally use freshwater supplied from a series of water trapping structures referred to locally as conservancies. These conservancies (Boaserie Conservancy, East Demerara Conservancy and Canje Creek) release water into a system of irrigation canals draining ultimately into the Atlantic Ocean. Irrigated farming systems include mainly rice and sugar cane cultivation.

    The freshwater culture of tilapia uses rice bran, wheat bran, chicken starter and tilapia grower feeds, some of which are locally produced and some imported. Fertilisers used are triple super phosphate and cow manure at rates of 56 kg/ha and 560 kg/ha, respectively.

    There is experimental pond rearing of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in different regions, the feed used being an improved chicken starter (35 percent protein) diet. Fertilisers used are triple super phosphate (56 kg/ha) and cow manure (560 kg/ha), in addition limited liming of the ponds is practiced, using powdered limestone.

    Rice-fish farming using the red strain of tilapia is practised on an experimental basis in Region 6, Berbice.


    guyana_MapCorentyneWest Coast BerbiceMahaicaEast Bank DemeraraEast Bank EssequiboEssequibo CoastPomeroon River
    fish_icon Click on the map's icons to get more detailed information on the main aquaculture production sites

    Fig. 1. Distribution and characteristics of the main aquaculture production sites by administrative units (National data, 2002)

    Cultured species
    • Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus): this species was introduced to Guyana in 1958 from Malaysia. It is of minimal importance currently due to crossbreeding with the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and no pure-bred strains exist today in Guyana. No further importation has been made since its initial introduction.

    • Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): this species was first introduced to Guyana in the 1970s from Cuba. The anticipated benefits of the initial introductions were hampered by the unplanned crossbreeding which occurred with Oreochromis mossambicus (GUYSUCO, undated). A more recent introduction was made in 1999 from stock purchased in Florida, USA. This species is being evaluated in trials at the Mon Repos station as well as by a few farmers.

    • Jamaican red tilapia (hybrid): the first documented introduction into Guyana of this species was in 1999, however, this species was observed on several farms in 1998, possibly imported from Suriname. A second introduction was made in 2001, from stock purchased in Florida, USA, but originating in Jamaica.

    • Giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): this species was first introduced to Guyana in the 1970s; a second wave of introductions was made between 2000–2003. Until a viable hatchery is set up, seed stock will have to be continuously imported for on-growing locally.

    • Armoured catfish or atipa (Hoplosternum littorale): this species is endemic to Guyana. It is an economically important species which fetches a high price on the local market. Limited research was carried out with this species in the 1970s and it is presently the object of renewed interest.

    • Salmon shrimp (Mesopenaeus tropicalis): this species is endemic to Guyana. It is the main species farmed in brackishwater operations and fetches a very high market price locally.
    Practices/systems of culture
    Freshwater farming systems

    Freshwater aquaculture is generally practiced using semi-intensive methods. There is great potential for expansion in this area, the key may well be identifying a species that provides enough income to make aquaculture competitive in comparison with other traditional activities.
    • Tilapia
      Tilapia culture is currently only practiced in earthen ponds, ranging in size from small backyard ponds (ca. 0.004 ha or 40 m2) to larger ponds constructed specifically for commercial use (ca. 0.2 ha or 2 000 m2). Most of the rearing is mixed-sex culture, although some farmers have begun to manually separate tilapia for all-male mono sex culture.

      The recommended stocking density is ca. 5 700/ha but many farmers exceed this, either deliberately or unavoidably due to the mixed sex nature of the species.

      Feeds used in tilapia culture include rice bran, wheat bran and chicken starter, with a few farmers using imported tilapia grower feed (floating pellet).

      Fertilisers used are triple super phosphate (56 kg/ha) and cow manure (560 kg/ha).

      Fish suitable for the local market (200 g) are attained in approximately four months by using improved feeds such as chicken starter or tilapia grower diets, however, growing times may increase to six months or more if inferior quality feed is used. Yields are low, and vary widely, from 500 kg/ha to 1 500 kg/ha.

    • Giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)
      Giant river prawn culture is still in its trial phase, with all farms currently being dependent on post-larvae imported from the United States of America. A local hatchery is in place, but has yet to produce post-larvae on a commercial basis.
      All freshwater prawn culture is practiced in earthen ponds, ranging in size from small ponds (0.008 ha or 80 m2) to larger ponds constructed specifically for commercial use (0.8 ha), the stocking density used is five post-larvae per square meter.
      Feeds for giant river prawn are locally produced using improved chicken starter and tilapia grower sinking pellet feeds.

      Fertilisers used are triple super phosphate (56 kg/ha) and cow manure (560 kg/ha); limited liming is also carried out, at a rate of 200 kg/ha to raise pH.

      Prawns suitable for the local market (ca. 50 g) have been attained in approximately six months with average yields of 400 kg/ha having been obtained.

    • Armoured catfish or atipa (Hoplosternum littorale)
      All atipa culture is practiced in earthen ponds, ranging in size from small backyard ponds (ca. 0.004 ha or 40 m2) to larger ponds constructed specifically for commercial use (0.12 ha or 1 200 m2). All of the production is from mixed-sex stocked fish.

      The recommended stocking density is approximately 11 300 per ha, although many farmers exceed this, either deliberately, or unavoidably due to a lack of proper stocking procedures.

      Rice bran is fed widely in the culture of atipa and cow manure is used heavily with rates as high as 1 120 kg/ha. Fish suitable for the local market (ca. 100 g) are attained in approximately five months; yields are low and vary widely from 0.2 to 1.5 tonnes/ha.
    Brackishwater system

    Brackishwater farming practices have more in common with fishery enhancement than aquaculture. Practices involve the legal or illegal opening of the sea defences and by taking advantage of tidal inflows during high tides, juveniles, larvae, eggs, etc. are trapped in coastal polders and in some cases specially constructed enclosures near the foreshore where they are allowed to mature to marketable size. These impounded waters contain many species; some of those targeted include salmon shrimp (Mesopaeneus tropicalis), common snook (Centropomus undecimalis), tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and mullet (Mugil spp.).

    These brackishwater farms operate as extensive polyculture systems, yields fluctuate widely from year to year, with high rainfall being the key to a good yield by reducing the excessive salinity resulting from evaporation of the brackishwater. It should be noted that stocking densities are not known, there is limited pond management with no feeding, but with fertilization because cows are penned on these sites and their wastes remain to fertilize incoming waters. However, basic impoundment construction, predator exclusion, water management and harvesting techniques are employed. Even with limited management several crops, harvested every 8–9 weeks, are possible throughout the year.

    The tilapias which occur in these systems are the descendants of stock originally introduced into these impoundments and ponds at various times over the decades, beginning back in the 1950s. Nowadays it is general practice to capture the established fish communities rather than stocking additional tilapias into these culture systems.

    Yields of shrimp range from 0.5 to 1.9 tonnes per hectare, while yields of tilapia range from 0.1 to 0.9 tonnes per hectare.
    Sector performance
    Production
    The graph below shows total aquaculture production in Guyana according to FAO statistics:
     

    Reported aquaculture production in Guyana (from 1950)
    (FAO Fishery Statistic)

    (Source: FAO Fishery Statistics, Aquaculture production)

    Market and trade
    Given that total annual aquaculture production is comparatively small at 600 tonnes, and local demand for aquaculture products is high, there has been no significant export of aquaculture products to date. The main centres for consumption of aquaculture produce are the local market towns, such as Anna Regina, Parika, Georgetown, New Amsterdam, Rose Hall and Port Morant.

    Supply chain and distribution channels
    The majority of aquaculture products are sold at the local markets by the farmers themselves. Occasionally, middle-men purchase product from the farm gate which they then sell on at the local markets.

    Labelling and certification
    Currently there are no labelling or certification requirements specifically for aquaculture produce, however, all fishery products designated for export must be inspected by the Veterinary Public Health Unit of the Ministry of Health.

    The Veterinary Public Health Unit also carries out microbiological tests on fishery products to ensure the quality of the product.
    Contribution to the economy
    Aquaculture is still in the developmental stage. Data are not recorded separately for aquaculture but its contribution to the economy at present is considered negligible. While there is great potential for aquaculture to impact positively on the economy in terms of social and economic development, income generation and provision of employment, these effects will only be observed when the aquaculture industry has had a chance to develop further.
    Promotion and management of the sector
    The institutional framework
    Aquaculture development in Guyana is the responsibility of the Research and Development Unit of the Department of Fisheries under the Ministry of Fisheries, Crops and Livestock. The Fisheries Department is structured under four sub-programmes namely: (i) programme administration, (ii) legal and inspectorate, (iii) research and development and (iv) extension.Presently, there are several staff working with aquaculture. A senior fisheries officer based at the Mon Repos Freshwater Aquaculture Demonstration Farm and Training Centre is responsible for the facility. This officer supervises a limnologist/hydro chemist, who is also based at the Mon Repos centre. Other staff directly involved in aquaculture are a fisheries field assistant and four fish station attendants.

    Currently, there are no private sector aquaculture associations, however, there is an aquaculture farmer’s representative on the Fisheries Advisory Committee. The Fisheries Advisory Committee is a group of persons, from the fishing industry, selected by the Minister, to provide private sector input to the fisheries decision making process.
    The governing regulations
    The Fisheries Act (1956, as amended in 1977) regulates fishing in the waters of Guyana. The Act does not contain any substantive provisions relating to aquaculture but does empower the Minister of Fisheries, Crops and Livestock to make regulations on ‘the stocking of any water with fish and the establishment and control of fish hatcheries’ (section 33(1)), however, the minister has never used this power to this date.

    Recently, a new draft Aquaculture Act  has been prepared, which is scheduled to be presented soon to the National Assembly for passage into law. The proposed Act is comprehensive, provides a definition of aquaculture, regulates the licence procedure to engage in and set up aquaculture facilities and contains substantive provisions on enforcement, offences and penalties. The licence will be issued by the Chief Fisheries Officer who may impose conditions relating to:
    • The area or areas where aquaculture may be undertaken.
    • The structure, equipment and maintenance practices that may be used for aquaculture.
    • The aquatic species, including quantities which may be introduced to a particular aquaculture facility.
    • The composition or quantity of feed which may be used.
    • The control of, or prohibition on, the use of any pharmaceutical preparation, drug or antibiotic.
    • The notification of diseases.
    • The disposal of dead fish, material or waste resulting from aquaculture, including the requirement of consent or notification in relation thereto.
    • The movement of aquatic species.
    • The monitoring and control of water quality.
    • Insurance of aquaculture facilities.
    • The maintenance of records of aquaculture activities and their content.
    • The disclosure of information concerning aquaculture activities.
    • The period or periods within which conditions must be fulfilled.
    • Such other conditions as the Chief Fisheries may deem appropriate.
    Many of the issues to be addressed in the aquaculture licence are currently not or insufficiently regulated (see below). The proposed Act requires an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the provisions of the Environmental Protection Act. In addition, no licence will be issued unless the applicant has obtained the approvals as may be required under the law relating to land and water use. The Chief Fisheries Officer may refuse to grant or renew the licence - inter alia - if the aquaculture activity may lead to the spread of disease among aquatic species. The licence may be cancelled - inter alia - if there has been an outbreak of disease or such outbreak is imminent.

    For more information on aquaculture legislation in Guyana please click on the following link:
    National Aquaculture Legislation Overview - Guyana
    Applied research, education and training
    Research priorities are set by the Ministry of Fisheries, Crops and Livestock. Government-led research takes place mainly at the Mon Repos Freshwater Aquaculture Demonstration Farm and Training Centre, which is the sole facility currently practicing aquaculture research.

    The Mon Repos facility has been conducting research on several feeds, both local and imported, with red tilapia, Nile tilapia and atipa (Hoplosternum littorale). Research on determining the optimum stocking rate for Colossoma has also commenced.

    Successful research has been carried out in the area of reproduction of H. littorale , and the rearing of the fry to fingerling stage.

    Selected farmers also participate in research on behalf of the government, this is made possible by a collaborative effort between the Department of Fisheries and the Poor Rural Communities Support Services Project, an externally funded local project with a mandate to facilitate agriculture development in the Pomeroon-Supenaam and the Essequibo Islands-West Demerara regions. The selected farmers are provided with some inputs of juveniles, as well as technical support, from the Department of Fisheries and the Poor Rural Communities Support Services Project, in return they provide the remainder of the inputs, as well as the land. The data generated is then shared with the government, and consequently, with other farmers. Data from this on-farm participatory research is verified by comparing it with data obtained from parallel trials at the Mon Repos Freshwater Aquaculture Demonstration Farm and Training Centre and by actual data recorded by staff from the Fisheries Department when carrying out on farm visits. Information gained and lessons learned are passed onto farmers through holding training courses and by the production of simple pamphlets for distribution to farmers.

    At present (2004/5), Project TCP/RLA/3003 (D) entitled “Introduction of aquaculture and other integrated production management practices to rice farmers” with the immediate objectives to (i) build capacity of rice extension staff to carry out IPM and aquaculture extension work, (ii) develop IPM strategies appropriate for small farmers through participatory Farmer Field School (FFS) training and action research; and (iii) integrate aquaculture into small rice-based farming systems to diversify production for increased income and improved nutrition. The project has been designed to demonstrate the aquaculture potential of tilapias in rice-based farming systems through on-farm demonstration.

    At present there are no university based aquaculture related courses and there is only one technical institution, the Guyana School of Agriculture, which offers a single fish farming course as part of its Diploma in Agriculture syllabus.
    Trends, issues and development
    As mentioned, aquaculture in Guyana is still in its developmental stage, recently however, there have been several developments which have impacted aquaculture expansion in Guyana, namely:
    • New Fisheries Act: the Government of Guyana has recently prepared a new Draft Fisheries Act, a part of which has already been presented to Parliament early in 2003. The additional part, containing the Draft Aquaculture Bill, will be presented in Parliament in the near future.
    • Mon Repos Aquaculture Station: on 13 June 2001, the Mon Repos Freshwater Aquaculture Demonstration Farm and Training Centre was officially opened. This facility's main functions are to conduct basic adaptive research, provide training to farmers and to supply seed stock for the emerging aquaculture sector.
    • Introduction of suitable species: in 1999, the Jamaican red tilapia was officially introduced into Guyana as a viable species for commercial rearing, also, at this time, there was a re-introduction of the Nile tilapia and the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) which were introduced for experimental rearing which proved successful. Freshwater cachama (Colossoma macropomum) was also introduced in 2002. All of these introductions were done by the private sector.
    The recent emphasis being placed on aquaculture has been driven mainly by the following factors:
    • Decline in the marine fishery: preliminary stock assessments have indicated that the country’s penaeid shrimp resources have probably reached their maximum sustainable yield and that a number of commercial finfish species, initially thought to be under-exploited, are probably in fact being over-exploited. It has been observed that shrimp landings have continued to decline while effort in the finfish fishery has increased. Fish is very important locally with a per capita fish consumption in 1999 of approximately 58.7 kg, one of the highest in the world. This translates into a significant contribution of fish to the total animal protein intake (46 percent) and to the total protein intake (23 percent) of the population of Guyana. Aquaculture is seen as a way to increase production of fish for local consumption and reduce pressure on the declining marine resources.
    • Need for diversification: the rice industry is an important contributor to employment and a source of income for the rural poor, however, rice production and exports have been decreasing since 1997 due primarily to the vagaries of the world market and low prices. Consequently, there is an interest in diversifying away from reliance on rice cultivation to more profitable crops, aquaculture has been proposed as an economically feasible way to diversify from rice and produce another crop that is marketable and with an adequate rate of return on investment. At the same time, much of the low-land rice farming practiced in Guyana is suitable for the integration of aquaculture and/or integrated rice-fish farming. This technology increases the output per unit of land and water and is being tested for its technical applicability and profitability under Guyanese conditions. The various by-products of the rice crop, such as rice bran, are available at low cost (US$ 0.07 per kg) and provide a source of materials for the formulation of fish feed. In this way, aquaculture can benefit from other existing sectors.
    • Marine fishery sector: the marine fishery sector produces an unspecified amount of by-catch, especially from the whitebelly prawn (Nematopalaemon schmitti) fishery. This by-catch, which is relatively cheap at US$ 0.24 per kg, could be utilised in the compounding of feed for aquaculture. Protein meal, made from processed fish waste, is presently being used in poultry feeds but could also be used in aquaculture feeds.
    References
    Bibliography
    FAO . 2005 . Aquaculture production, 2004. Year book of Fishery Statistics - Vol.96/2. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
    Chakalall, B. 1991 . Aquaculture in Guyana - A Preliminary Assessment. FAO Programming and Formulation Mission to Guyana. TCP/GUY/9151. (Unpublished).
    Chakalall, B. & Gumy, A. Programme for the Organisational and Operational Strengthening of the Department of Fisheries of Guyana. FAO Mission report for the Government of Guyana (Draft). Georgetown, Guyana, 23 April - 3 May 2002. (Unpublished).
    Chakalall, B. , Nandeesha, M.C. & Geer, T. Introducing Aquaculture into Farming Systems in Guyana. FAO Mission to Guyana, 21 October - 7 November 2002. (Unpublished).
    Draft Aquaculture Bill. Government of Guyana.
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    Fisheries Department. 2002 . Aquaculture - National Consultation on Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture. Georgetown, Guyana, 16-17 May 2002.
    Fisheries Department. 2002 . Annual Report, 2001.
    Guyana Rice Development Board. National Report on Rice production – prepared for the Twentieth Session of the International Rice Commission, – 26 July 2002. (Unpublished).
    Guyana Sugar Corporation (GUYSUCO) Limited (undated). Culture of Tilapias. (Unpublished).
    Annual Report, 2001. Guyana Rice Development Board.
    Abu-Adiya, N. 1997 . Overview of Aquaculture in Guyana and Proposals for Development. FAO/Department of Fisheries, Guyana.
    National Development Strategy for Guyana, Chapter 13 – Fisheries Policy, 1997–2002. Ministry of Finance, Government of Guyana.
    National Fisheries Management and Development Plan of Guyana, March 1995. Prepared by GTA Consultants Inc./Agrodev Canada Inc. in association with the Guyana Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) Project 440/16650. (Draft).
    Onverwagt Brackish Water Fish Culture Station, British Guyana. Department of Agriculture.1960 .
    Plan for Managing the Marine Resources of Guyana. Fisheries Department , 1996-11 .
    Report on the Design and Construction of a Freshwater Aquaculture Demonstration Farm and Training Centre. FAO Project TCP/GUY/8922, Jan 2000 - Jan 2002. (Unpublished).
    FAO . 2005 . Aquaculture production, 2003. Yearbook of Fishery Statistics - Vol.96/2. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
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