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  1. Characteristics, structure and resources of the sector
    1. Summary
    2. History and general overview
    3. Human resources
    4. Farming systems distribution and characteristics
    5. Cultured species
    6. Practices/systems of culture
  2. Sector performance
    1. Production
    2. Market and trade
    3. Contribution to the economy
  3. Promotion and management of the sector
    1. The institutional framework
    2. The governing regulations
    3. Applied research, education and training
  1. Trends, issues and development
    1. References
      1. Bibliography
      2. Related links
    Characteristics, structure and resources of the sector
    Summary
    The beginning of modern marine aquaculture in Spain can be traced back to 1973 with the establishment of two private enterprises: Finisterre Mar and Tinamenor, S.A., which began cultivating molluscs. Productive industrial activity thrived only during the past twenty years.

    The great development of inland aquaculture, which is still expanding, has been based on trout production due to the high quality of the country’s aquatic resources. Cultivation of other continental species has developed at a much smaller scale, located geographically according to environmental conditions and the regions’ particular consumption habits. As for marine aquaculture, the production of sea fish has experienced an important growth during the past few years. This growth is due mainly to the seabass and the seabream. Regarding molluscs, shellfish farming has been a longstanding tradition.

    Spanish aquatic production reached over 313 286 tones in 2003, of which approximately 279 895 corresponded to the cultivation of marine species (89.3 percent of the production total) and the rest to inland aquaculture (33 391.4 tonnes; 10.4 percent of the total production).

    Approximately 70 percent of the Spanish mussel production is destined for internal consumption, and the resulting 30 percent is exported, mainly to Italy and France. Eighty percent of marine fish is destined to the national market, while 45 percent of fingerlings produced in Spain are exported to European markets. In the period 1998–2002, seabream imports grew 9.4 times, going from 1 175 tonnes in 1998 to 11 058 tonnes in 2002. Imports originated mainly from two countries: Greece and Morocco, which exported to Spain 9 072 and 983 tonnes each in 2002.

    In general terms, the increase of aquaculture production requires the improvement of current production systems and the expansion of the activity into new areas. Despite this, however, the Spanish market fully participates in the white fish supply crisis of the Community market, as shown in the last study on white fish supply in the European Union, carried out by the EU Fishing Industries Association.

    Presently, diverse initiatives to promote quality standardization systems in the aquaculture sector are being developed. Such is the case on labelling, environmental certification, protected origin denominations, indications on geographic protections, and brands.
    History and general overview
    Spain has almost 8 000 km of coast, with varied topography and climate, which give it the physical-chemical and environmental characteristics necessary for the development of marine aquaculture. It also has numerous fluvial resources, lakes and reservoirs, which provide ideal conditions for developing inland aquaculture also.

    The first written reference on inland fish production in Spain dates back to 1129, when through an initiative by bishop Gelmírez, a fish farm was built in Galicia. However, industrial fish farming aquaculture began to develop in 1961. In 1964 an annual production of 25 000 kg of trout was reached, and it has continued to increase since then (35 284 tonnes in 2001).

    The beginning of modern marine aquaculture in Spain can be traced back to 1973 with the establishment of two private enterprises: Finisterre Mar and Tinamenor, S.A., which began cultivating molluscs. All those companies that sprung until the end of the 1980s had a clear R&D character, since productive industrial activity thrived only during the past twenty years.

    At the beginning of the 1980s, the profile of Spanish aquaculture was that of a sector centred on small family-run traditional businesses. Three types of crops characterised the activity:
    • The cultivation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), whose take off happened during the 1960s.
    • The cultivation of Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in Galician rivers, whose beginnings were in the 1940s but its development took place from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s.
    • Aquaculture in the estuaries of Cádiz, which began in the early 1940s when the local salt industry entered a crisis and whose development, very slow at first, did not reach its definite consolidation until the late 1960s.

    The great development of inland aquaculture, which is still expanding, has been based on trout production due to the high quality of the country’s aquatic resources. Cultivation of other continental species has developed at a much smaller scale, located geographically according to environmental conditions and the regions’ particular consumption habits.

    As for marine aquaculture, the production of sea fish has experienced an important growth during the past few years. This growth is due mainly to the seabass and the seabream. Regarding molluscs, shellfish farming has been a longstanding tradition.

    Spanish aquatic production reached over 313 286 tones in 2003, of which approximately 279 895 corresponded to the cultivation of marine species (89.3 percent of the production total) and the rest to inland aquaculture (33 391.4 tonnes; 10.4 percent of the total production).
    Human resources
    Despite the demand for graduated professionals to occupy different posts in aquaculture businesses, there are no university degrees in Aquaculture in Spain. One of the reasons is that aquaculture is still not officially recognised as a knowledge discipline within academic and university cycles. Those individuals who have acquired the necessary or required knowledge to fulfil those posts, are generally graduates in Biological Sciences, Veterinary or Engineering, who have studied general courses on zoology or animal production. Degrees on Marine Sciences have been created in the last years, and some courses on aquaculture are taught as part of their curricula. However, many universities offer specialisation, graduate, or masters degree courses related to aquaculture.

    At present, several Professional Training (P.T.) career programmes include aquaculture studies. Such regulated training studies are included in the “Professional Maritime-Fishing Family” and two training cycles are taught, each lasting two years:
    • Operations Technician in Aquatic Cultivation (OTAC).
    • Aquatic Production Technician (APT).

    Furthermore, within non-regulated training, there are continuing, sectorial and occupational training courses. Some of them are organised and taught by the government Administration and others by different entities (unions, trade associations, producers’ organisations, etc.).

    The size of the aquatic businesses’ work force is directly related to the number of productive facilities of each enterprise. A study carried out for the General Ministry of Maritime Fishing in 2001 concluded that while businesses with only one facility have an average of 13.2 workers, those with more facilities have an average of 59 workers.
    Farming systems distribution and characteristics
    In general, most communities limit their production to the cultivation of a few species. On the contrary, Andalucía, Galicia and Cataluña have greatly diversified their production.

    In the Cantabric and in Galicia, the cultivation of cold-water species has been developed, mainly molluscs, turbot and salmon. It is in the Galician estuaries where the cultivation of molluscs, particularly raft-culture mussels has flourished; thus Spain becoming the second largest producer in the world, after China. In the same littoral, oyster culture, dependent on imported seed, is also practiced in rafts as is the cultivation of clams though on bottom plots so-called clam culture parks. Cultivation of turbot, which began in the 1980s, takes place on land installations due to its flat fish characteristics; the use of oceanic sea water allows for the advantages of the open sea.

    The warmer water regions, the Mediterranean and the South-Atlantic, have in common the development of seabas and seabream production, generally in floating cages systems.

    Thus, in the South-Atlantic region, productions have been initially carried out in a semi-extensive way, due to the existence of wide areas of abandoned salt pans, which have been turned into cultivation ponds, but the trend is towards more controlled and intensive production systems, foreseeing an increase in floating cages with more resistant structures and located in more open water places.

    The Canary and Baleares regions have generated similar developments with floating cages. The Canaries have oceanic conditions ideal for growing seabass and seabream, although it also produces red tuna at a smaller scale.
    Cultured species
    At present, marine fish species cultivated at a commercial level include: gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata ), turbot (Psetta maxima ), European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax ), European eel (Anguilla anguilla ), blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo), meagre (Argyrosomus regius ), common sole (Solea vulgaris) and tilapia. Other species that are on an advanced research stage are the red seabream or snapper, the common seabream (Pagrus pagrus ) or red mullet (Mullus spp.), and the octopus (Octopus vulgaris).

    Mussel harvests constituted 79 percent of the 2003 total aquaculture production, and 89 percent of marine production; however, in terms of value, mussels are not the most important species. Thus, in 2003, it only contributed 33 percent of the total production value, and 40 percent of the marine production value. The most important species cultivated in Spain, in terms of their economic value, are: tunids, turbot, clams (Ruditapes philippinarum and Ruditapes decussatus ), European seabass, gilthead seabream and common sole.

    As for inland and brackish water fish, the most important species is rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ), constituting 11 percent of the total aquaculture production and 99 percent of inland aquaculture production, although the eel, tench (Tinca tinca) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio ) attain significant productions.


    Genetic improvement
    Perhaps with the exception of trout, and only a few enterprises, plans for the genetic improvement of the cultured species, are only a declaration of intentions. However, Spanish aquaculture needs permanent research aimed at the genetic improvement of cultured species.

    Sexual maturity
    In trout culture, most production is centred on small commercial sized fish that have not yet reached sexual maturity, thus growth until harvest is not affected by sexual maturation. In the case of mussels, toxins present in water can slow down their harvesting and in the meanwhile mussels may reach sexual maturation, which causes a decrease in the quality of the meat. The solution to this problem is especially complicated because the culture is based on naturally settling spats collected at sea from wild populations, thus becoming an outstanding research challenge. In the case of seabream and sebass, especially when sizes larger than today’s are sought, maturity creates important economic effects since it greatly prolongs production cycles. In turbot farms, this problem has serious economic consequences, since commercial sizes imply having to maintain culture organisms beyond the sexual maturation stage, extending the production cycle over six months.
    Practices/systems of culture
    The most important cultivation structures are:
    • Ponds: raceways, cylindrical ponds, and square ponds.
    • Floating structures: fixed rafts, longlines, floating cages and pens.
    • Bottom culture: parks and bags
    • Estuaries and river outlets.

    Semi-intensive farming is carried out in estuaries and in abandoned salt pans, while intensive farming is realised in concrete or plastic tanks.
    Sector performance
    Production
    The graph below shows total aquaculture production in Spain according to FAO statistics:
     

    Reported aquaculture production in Spain (from 1950)
    (FAO Fishery Statistic)

    Market and trade
    Today, aquacultural products enjoy a certain presence in fish markets, as a consequence of production volumes. However, its commercialisation presents a series of problems that prevents their definite positioning in the market. Although this problem can be taken generically, it is more serious for some products than for others.

    Approximately 70 percent of the Spanish mussel production is destined for internal consumption, and the resulting 30 percent is exported, mainly to Italy and France. Eighty percent of marine fish is destined to the national market, while 45 percent of fingerlings produced in Spain are exported to European markets.

    In the period 1998–2002, seabream imports grew 9.4 times, going from 1 175 tonnes in 1998 to 11 058 tonnes in 2002. Imports originated mainly from two countries: Greece and Morocco, which exported to Spain 9 072 and 983 tonnes each in 2002. Greek imports represented 82 percent of total seabream imports in 2002, which is equivalent to 45 percent of this species’ apparent consumption. In 1998, seabream exports amounted to 1 294 tonnes, increasing 2.5 times until they reached 2 980 tonnes in 2002, with a value of 14.3 million Euros. The main destinations for these exports are Community countries. Portugal absorbed 70 percent of the exports in 2002, followed by France and Italy.

    Of the total seabass imports, which reached 9 466 tonnes in 2002, 8 364 tonnes came from Greece. Greece is the main supplier of our market, followed by France (425 tonnes), Turkey (249 tonnes) and Morocco (241 tonnes). Other countries, such as Portugal and Italy, occupied lower positions, with 78 and 62 tonnes respectively. Seabass exports have doubled in the period 1998–2000, going from 405 tonnes in 1988 to 958 tonnes in 2002. Their main markets are Portugal and France with 707 and 159 tonnes in 2002.

    With regards to the seabream, the prices supplied by Producer Organisations indicate a fall of 33.8 percent during the period 1998–2002. In 2002, the average price for seabream imports was 3.75 €/kg. During the period 1998–2002, the average price for seabream imports fell 40 percent. In 2002, the export price was located at 4.79 €/kg. During the studied period, the export price for Spanish seabream decreased 14 percent. The average price for seabass imports in 2002 was 5.77 €/kg, heavily influenced by the price of Greek imports, 88 percent of the total, which entered our market at 4.69 €/kg. In 2002, the price of seabass exports was 5.07 €/kg.

    The average price for seabream and seabass at the MERCAMADRID in 2004 was 5.77 €/kg and 8.09 €/kg, respectively.

    The evolution experienced by trout market prices has suffered ups and downs, due to the constant oscillations in production.

    The price of turbot has decreased every year, starting from 9.02 €/kg in 1989, it reached 6.61 €/kg in 1992. However, it clearly began to recuperate since 1997.

    From the beginning, the prices of cultivated eel have adapted to the prices of capture fisheries eel. At present, the latter is becoming scarcer, and farmed eel is leading the price fixation in the market price. In 1988 the reference price was 6.00 €/kg and today it is approximately 11.00 €/kg.

    The Fund for the Regulation and Market Organisation of Fishery and Aquaculture Products (FROM), is an autonomous organism, created by Law 33/1980, of 21 June and is subscribed to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

    Through the approval of Royal Decree 950/1997, this organism focuses its activities in the design and development of actions aimed at promoting the consumption of fish products, orientating the market in relation to amounts, prices and qualities, and aiding the sector’s associations, cooperatives and businesses in their technical or financial needs.
    Contribution to the economy
    During the period 1994–1999, aquaculture meant the fourth block of activity in relation to the scope of the funding received from the Financial Instrument for the Support of Fisheries (Instrumento Financiero de Orientación de Pesca, IFOP), and investments are continually growing. Aquaculture is being perceived as a means to maintain and increase fish consumption as well as of satisfying future protein demands, and of becoming a source of employment. Subsidised projects centred on building, modernising and expanding aquaculture, and have substantially spurred the sector’s development pace.

    In general terms, the increase of aquaculture production requires the improvement of current production systems and the expansion of the activity into new areas. Despite this, however, the Spanish market fully participates in the white fish supply crisis of the Community market, as shown in the last study on white fish supply in the European Union, carried out by the EU Fishing Industries Association.

    The apparent consumption of flounder, trout, seabass, and seabream (all of them species farmed at important production volumes), increased in the period 1998–2002. The most important increases have been for seabass, whose apparent consumption increased by a factor of three, and seabream, whose consumption increased four times. Monkfish (angler), cod, Pollack, megrim, blue whiting, hake, and ling have decreased their apparent consumption in the same period. Salmon consumption had a rising trend during the 1990s, experiencing an increase of over ten percent in some years.
    Promotion and management of the sector
    The institutional framework
    The normative framework regulating the Spanish fishing sector is based on the Constitution, which, in its Article 148.1.11, reserves fishing in inland waters, shellfish farming and aquaculture, hunting and river fishing to the exclusive competence of the Autonomous Communities. In other words, the State General Administration has no competence whatsoever for the management of the aquaculture sector. Pre-existing norms, both for marine and continental aquaculture, serve as complementary norms to the Autonomous Communities since the State General Administration cannot issue new rules on the subject. Therefore, the functions left to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food are for co-ordinating and representation at International Organisms gathered in the Royal Decree establishing the Ministry’s organic structure, and in which the General Secretariat for Maritime Fisheries is defined as a co-operation organism with the Autonomous Communities with regard to aquaculture.



    The General Secretariat for Maritime Fisheries (SGPM) is also responsible for the implementation of the community regulations within the PPC and for the regulations derived from Spain’s presence in multilateral organisms, as well as the determination of criteria that allow for the establishment of the Spanish position within the European Union. Co-operation between the General Secretariat for Maritime Fisheries and the Autonomous Communities is carried out through a Sector Conference. However, a National Advisory Board for Marine Aquaculture (JACUMAR; Law 23/82 of Marine Aquaculture) was created, as well as the National Advisory Board for Continental Aquaculture (JACUCON).


    THE ORGANISATIONAL FRAMEWORK OF THE AQUACULTURE SECTOR:

    Organisational framework of the mussel sector.
    The current structure of Galician mussel producers, Spain’s major Autonomous Community producer, is composed by three associations, representing 97 percent of producers: OPMEGA, "Federacion de Asociaciones de Mejilloneros de Arosa y Norte", and "Asociación Gallega de Mejilloneros". On the other hand, it is worth mentioning the existence of two other Associations encompassing Catalunya’s and Valencia’s mussel producers, with a minimal representation within the national production: "Asociación de productores del Golfo de Sant Jordi" and "Union Mejillonera del Puerto de Valencia".


    Organisational framework of the inland aquaculture sector.
    The organisational framework of the inland aquaculture sector is formed by two producers’ organisations, gathering most of the sector’s enterprises according to their activity and their territory: the Organización de Productores Piscicultores (OPP-22) and the Organización de Productores de Acuicultura Continental (OPAC). Some enterprises are not associated to either of the two.

    Organisational framework of the marine aquaculture sector.
    The organisational structure of the marine aquaculture sector is made up by a single national association, the Asociación Empresarial de Productores de Cultivos Marinos (APROMAR) and several autonomous associations. APROMAR also integrates individual entrepreneurs and associations such as ASEMA, ACEAC, and AROGA. On the other hand, there are some businesses not associated to any organisation, and that operate independently.

    Organisational framework of the oyster farming sector.
    The organisational structure of the oyster farming sector is formed by two national producers’ association: the Organización de Productores Ostrícolas de Galicia (OPOGA), representing 80 percent of oyster producers, and ONPROA (Organización Nacional de Productores de Ostra y Almeja).
    The governing regulations
    Marine aquaculture is regulated at the national and autonomous levels. At the national level, the relevant norms are the Law on Marine Aquaculture (Law 23/84, of 25 June) and the Law of the Coasts (Law 22/88, of 28 June).

    Two possibilities exist at the Autonomous Community level:
    • The Autonomous Community disposes of its own legislation, in which case is the applicable one.
    • The Autonomous Community does not have its own legislation, in which case the national legislation is applicable.

    Inland aquaculture at the national level is legislated through the Law on Riverine Fisheries and the Law of Waters. The same possibilities as for marine aquaculture exist for inland aquaculture at the Autonomous Community level.

    For more information on aquaculture legislation in Spain please click on the following link:
    National Aquaculture Legislation Overview - Spain (in Spanish).
    Applied research, education and training
    In Spain, state, autonomous community and entrepreneur entities are responsible for the financing of research and development activities related to aquaculture. The different financial entities are:
    • Science and Technology Inter-ministry Commission (CICYT).
    • Industrial Technological Development Centre (CDTI).
    • Autonomous Communities Councils.
    • General Secretaria for Maritime Fisheries (SGPM).

    The SGPM and the National Advisory Board for Marine Aquaculture (JACUMAR) are in charge of financing research projects that, within the framework of the Marine Aquaculture Plan, the Autonomous Communities propose to be carried out in the research centres or universities in their jurisdictional environment. Financing for the approved projects comes from SGPM funds and are transferred to the Autonomous Communities.

    The National Food and Agriculture Research and Technology Institute (INIA), which depends from the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAPA) is located in Madrid. It conducts aquaculture-related research, mainly on pathology, within the Research Centre on Animal Health (CISA). Furthermore, the Spanish Aquaculture Observatory (OESA) was created in 2002, with the general objective of constituting a meeting platform for the permanent analysis and follow up of the development of aquaculture in the country. It delves with both, Research and Development I+D+I activities as well as with those activities carried out by the different public administrations and the private enterprises. It intends to promote excellence scientific research and technological development aimed at increasing overall industrial competitiveness both nationally and internationally. OESA’s mission is to facilitate the inter-related activities that intervene in the aquaculture sector and to allow the dynamic exchange of information amongst researchers, central and autonomous administrations, public and private organisms, and enterprises. As a means of diffusion and integration of information the website http://www.observatorio-acuicultura.org/was created.

    Evaluation of Research Teams

    According to data gathered in OESA’s database until 1 May 2003, the number of registered scientists and technologists working in aquaculture reached a total of 499 persons, of which 30 percent are women (150) and the remaining 70 percent are men (349). The composition of this sector is characterised by a majority of men, especially at the entrepreneurial level (79 percent men), followed by university centres (71 percent), and thirdly, with a significant reduction of male participation, are the public research and development centres (62 percent).

    The registered scientists and technicians are distributed in university departments (42 percent), research and development centres (33 percent), and the sector’s enterprises (25 percent).

    Of the aggregated total of scientists and technologists working in universities, research centres and businesses, seabass and seabream are the priority species in their work, followed by turbot, trout, flounder and eel, in any order of importance.
    Taking into consideration the public research centres and universities, the main subject area of research is the cultivation stages of culture organisms, with a total of 65 researchers, or 17 percent of a total of 374. It is followed by a group of areas with a similar number of scientists and technologists, such as culture technologies (13 percent), reproduction (12 percent), nutrition (12 percent) and pathology (11 percent). The next important group is made up by physiology and bio-chemistry, with 9 percent of researchers each. Other subject areas do not have any significant number of scientists. Universities focus their research on nutrition, culture technology and pathology; whilst research centres are focused on cultivation stages, reproduction and culture technology.

    After the approval of the National Plan for Scientific Research, Development and Technological Innovation 2000–2003, carried out in a meeting of the Council of Ministers on 12 November 1999, some changes have occurred which have affected aquaculture. These changes contemplate a strategic action within the national food sector area called “New Species and Technology in Aquaculture”.
    Trends, issues and development
    As has been noted, due to its fishing tradition, Spain has very high fish consumption levels, estimated in recent statistics at 38 kg per capita per year. This figure, almost three times above the average European consumption, makes our country a great fish consumer. On the other hand, and due to the different seas surrounding Spain, the market appreciates a great variety of species which command very high prices.

    It is interesting to briefly describe, despite the risk of oversimplification, the history of the entry of cultured fish into the Spanish market. The most ancient case is that of mussels, whose current production of nearly 250 000 tonnes/year is due to a great extent to the existence of a conserving industry capable of processing and commercialising the product.

    In the case of trout, a highly appreciated species which rivals with hake in its quality, aquaculture installations were initially widely distributed throughout the country, and thus its entrance to the market was slow. Therefore, the price did not change substantially until the level of production of 4 000 tonnes /year was reached. It is also true that at the beginning of trout cultivation, feeds used were not very developed, thus affecting the quality of the final product. At present this has been completely overcome and a consistent magnificent quality product is commercialised. However, such initial bad reputation still affects other aquaculture producers. Today, the industry has developed new market presentations (fillet, brochetas, etc.), and is successfully commercialising frozen trout into Europe.

    Turbot, also called “sea pheasant”, had a traumatic entrance into the market, except at the beginning where producers remained united. Important mistakes in commercialisation were made whose lessons ought to be taken into consideration in the future. Small productions affected the market price, and nearly ruined the sector when it had barely begun producing. There was no consumption tradition for the species, and the effort of promoting and penetration into the Spanish market made by the producing sector was used by the Dutch and Danes for their fished turbot exports. However, today it is a species known throughout Europe and its fisheries are almost depleted. Such a vast market constitutes a real opportunity for Galician production, since it has unique oceanographic conditions for the cultivation of turbot.

    At the beginning of the cultivation of seabass and seabream, due to the fact that Italy appreciated small sizes and had an infinite market, Spanish production was exported almost in their entirety. In Spain, the consumption of seabream was traditional only in the South and in the Mediterranean coast, and that fished in Galicia was fully exported to Italy. In Spain, seabass was appreciated in larger sizes, and for the smaller sizes, Italian prices were substantially higher. However, some Spanish enterprises undertook the task of introducing these species into Spain, to which the national market has reacted positively and is becoming an important market.

    Despite the fact that consumption habits may evolve substantially throughout the years (salmon, fresh cod fillet, and Chilean hake are some examples), when new presentations or the introduction of new species or products are envisaged, it must be borne in mind that it entails very significant costs. Relating this to aquaculture, care should be taken when considering novelty products, since their introduction will not be easy, as was the case of fresh trout fillets and at present, the new mussel packaging presentations.


    Improvements in the quality of products

    In general, aquaculture enterprises perceive the process of implementing quality managing systems as a means of positioning and assuring their status within the market.

    The AENOR Enterprise was established in March 2003; the Processes and Products of Aquaculture (AEN/CTN 173) to undertake standarizing activities in the aquaculture sector. The creation of an Aquaculture Standardizing Technical Committee (CTN), undoubtedly contributes to the consolidation of the aquaculture sector in Spain since its ultimate objective is to achieve standardization of the production of every Spanish aquaculture species.

    The General Secretariat for Maritime Fisheries developed during 2001 training modules on systems for environment management, which are aimed for managers and technicians involved in aquaculture enterprises.

    During the meeting held by the Advisory Board on Marine Aquaculture (JACUMAR) on 2 December 2002, a proposal was made to substitute one of the two awards annually granted to research since 1999, by the Prize to the Implementation of Systems for Environmental Management. This prize is meant to be granted to aquaculture enterprises located within Spanish territory, as a means to promote the implementation of internationally recognised systems on environmental management. During the year 2003, the IV Award on Aquaculture Research and the I Award on Environmental Management Systems were granted. The winner of the first JACUMAR Award on Implementation of Environmental Management Systems was the company Tinamenor, S.A.

    Presently, diverse initiatives to promote quality standardization systems in the aquaculture sector are being developed. Such is the case on labelling, environmental certification, protected origin denominations, indications on geographic protections, and brands.

    Some of the Autonomous Communities are also working on these issues, as is the case of Andalucía, which is preparing the regulations to rule conditions the denomination “Seabream Farmed in the South (“Dorada de Crianza del Sur”) which is cultured under extensive systems in environmentally-friendly conditions susceptible of recognition as an ecological product. These regulations will allow enterprises to obtain the following distinctions:
    • “Natural Park”: registered trademark given by the Department of the Environment to products and services from these protected areas.
    • “Certified Quality”: registered trademark by the Agriculture and Fisheries Council for quality products produced in the Autonomous Community of Andalucía.
    References
    Bibliography
    Beaz Paleo, J.D. 2007. Ingeniería de la Acuicultura Marina Observatorio espagñol de acuicultuta - Consejo Superior de Investigacoines Científicas - Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación.
    Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. 1999. Evaluación de las actividades de investigación y desarrollo tecnológico en acuicultura en el período 1982/1997. ISBN 84-491-431-9
    Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. 2001. Libro Blanco de la Acuicultura en España. Tomos I y II. ISBN 84-491-0487-4 y ISBN 84-491-0488-2
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