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Part I Overview and main indicators

  1. Country brief
  2. General geographic and economic indicators
  3. FAO Fisheries statistics

Part II Narrative (2011)

  1. Production sector
    • Marine sub-sector
      • Landing sites
      • Fishing practices/systems
      • Main resources
      • Management applied to main fisheries
      • Fishing communities
    • Inland sub-sector
    • Aquaculture sub-sector - NASO
  2. Post-harvest sector
    • Fish utilization
    • Fish markets
  3. Socio-economic contribution of the fishery sector
    • Trade
    • Food security
    • Employment
    • Rural development
  4. Trends, issues and development
    • Constraints and opportunities
    • Government and non-government sector policies and development strategies
    • Research, education and training
      • Research
    • Foreign aid
  5. Institutional framework
  6. Legal framework

Additional information

  1. FAO Thematic data bases
  2. Publications
  3. Meetings & News archive

Part I Overview and main indicators

Part I of the Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profile is compiled using the most up-to-date information available from the FAO Country briefs and Statistics programmes at the time of publication. The Country Brief and the FAO Fisheries Statistics provided in Part I may, however, have been prepared at different times, which would explain any inconsistencies.

Country brief

Prepared: April 2014

In 2012, fisheries represented about 1.7 percent of the GDP of Angola, where it remains a very important sector to the national economy after oil and mining.

Production was estimated at about 277 000 tonnes in 2012, of which small pelagics, which are very important for domestic food supply, represented about half. The industrial and semi-industrial sectors were responsible for 57 percent of the total marine catches in 2009, with the remainder from artisanal fisheries, which have increased significantly in recent years. Most of the catches are taken from the southern coastal provinces Namibe and Benguela which benefit from the Benguela current. Inland water catches are estimated at about 10 000 tonnes per year.

Aquaculture production is modest in Angola with an estimated 450 tonnes of production of mostly Nile tilapia in 2012. In addition to small-scale communal ponds with extensive culture of both tilapia and local catfish species, mostly for local consumption, medium to large-scale commercial aquaculture has emerged since 2003 with investment and assistance from Brazil and China. Expansion in aquaculture is still facing difficulties such as lack of feed production capacity.

Around 100 000 persons derive, directly or indirectly, a living from fisheries or aquaculture, but this is probably an underestimation. Fisheries, especially small-scale/artisanal fisheries, are the main or sole means of livelihoods and food supply for a large part of the population in coastal areas.

Per caput consumption of fish was 14.7 kg in 2010 (about 25 percent of total animal protein intake). Ninety percent of the Angolan fish production is sold in the domestic market. Most of the consumption concerns small pelagic fish. More than 85 percent of the landings are consumed or utilized in fresh or frozen form and the rest is processed as salt-dried fish. Some landings are also processed into fish meal and in very minor volumes into canned fish. Angola relies on imports of fish and fish products to supplement domestic production. In 2011, imports of fish and fishery products were estimated at about USD 180 million and exports at USD 12 million.

The responsibility for fisheries management lies with the Ministry of Fisheries (Ministério das Pescas).

Most fish stocks in Angola are currently estimated to be fully or overexploited, the most notable exception being the sardinella stocks which are considered to be slightly underexploited. The stock of Cunene horse mackerel, the main food fish for Angolans, is currently estimated to be severely overexploited. In response, the Government of Angola has imposed very strict management rules, and the local supply of horse mackerel was strongly reduced. The Government has since authorized the import of large amounts of horse mackerel at low tariffs to reduce the pressure on stocks and increase supply on the domestic market.

The Government of Angola has explicitly declared that the priority for the country is the development of sustainable marine artisanal fisheries and aquaculture in inland water bodies.

The Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) system of Angola has recently been reinforced with the installation and entry into duty of a dedicated Vessel Monitoring System (VMS).

Since December 1990, Angola is a Party to the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and to the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement. Since March 2006, the country is a Party to the 1993 FAO Compliance Agreement.
 
General geographic and economic indicators

Table 1 - Angola -General geographic and economic indicators

Water area: 330 000 km2
Shelf area: 51 000 km2
Length of continental coastline: 1 650 Km
Population (2013): 19.2 million
GDP at purchaser’s value (2012): 114.2 billion (USD)
GDP per head (2012): 5 482 USD
Agriculture GDP (2012): 10 %
Fisheries GDP (2012): 1.7 %
*Value converted by FAO as per UN currency exchange rate
**Per capita calculated by FAO and converted as per UN currency exchange rate

Key statistics

Source
Country area1 246 700km2FAOSTAT. Official data, 2013
Land area1 246 700km2FAOSTAT. Official data, 2013
Inland water area0km2Computed. Calculated, 2013
Population - Est. & Proj.23.593millionsFAOSTAT. Official data, 2018
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) area497 800km2VLIZ
GDP (current US$)124 209millionsWorld Bank. 2017
GDP per capita (current US$)4 170US$World Bank. 2017
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added8.16% of GDPWorld Bank. 2001

Source: FAO Country Profile

FAO Fisheries statisticsThe tables and graphs in this section are based on statistics prepared by the FAO Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit and disseminated in 2014.

Table 2 – Angola – FAO fisheries statistics

      1980 1990 2000 2010 2011 2012
PRODUCTION (thousand tonnes) 85.1 133.1 239.4 280.3 273.4 277.5
    Inland 7.5 8.0 7.0 10.3 10.4 10.5
    Marine 77.6 125.1 232.4 270.0 263.0 267.0
  Aquaculture 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.5
    Inland 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.5
    Marine 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
  Capture 85.1 133.1 239.4 280.0 273.0 277.0
    Inland 7.5 8.0 7.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
    Marine 77.6 125.1 232.4 270.0 263.0 267.0
                 
TRADE (USD million)            
  Import 0.0 53.4 16.3 119.2 180.0 252.0
  Export 0.0 3.5 10.8 16.7 12.4 12.0
                 
EMPLOYMENT (thousands) 16.3 22.0 39.4 95.6 99.1 101.8
  Aquaculture     0.3 0.8 0.8 0.8
  Capture 16.3 22.0 39.2 94.8 98.3 101.0
    Inland   7.0 10.1 18.0 18.5 19.5
    Marine 16.3 15.0 29.1 76.8 79.8 81.5
                 
FLEET(thousands boats) ... ... 6.2 7.8
                 
APPARENT FOOD CONSUMPTION            
  Fish food supply (thousand tonnes in live weight equivalent) 65.1 200.6 167.9 287.4    
  Per Capita Supply (kilograms) 8.5 19.4 12.1 14.7    
  Fish Proteins (grams per capita per day) 3.5 6.0 3.5 3.8    
  Fish/Animal Proteins (%) 25.6 38.8 29.3 24.5    
 

Fish/Total Proteins (%)UAE (David Currie, FAO, volunteered)

7.6 15.6 8.9 7.2    

Source: FAO Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics

1) Excluding aquatic plants

2) Due to roundings total may not sum up





Figure 1 — Angola — Total fishery production
Figure 1 — Angola — Total fishery production




Figure 2 — Angola — Composition of marine capture production — 2012
Figure 2 — Angola — Composition of marine capture production — 2012




Figure 3 — Angola — Production of aquatic plants
Figure 3 — Angola — Production of aquatic plants




Figure 4 — Angola — Capture production
Figure 4 — Angola — Capture production




Figure 5 — Angola — Major species groups in capture production
Figure 5 — Angola — Major species groups in capture production




Figure 6 — Angola — Aquaculture production
Figure 6 — Angola — Aquaculture production




Figure 7 — Angola —Major species groups in aquaculture production
Figure 7 — Angola —Major species groups in aquaculture production




Figure 8 — Angola — Import and export value of fish and fishery products
Figure 8 — Angola — Import and export value of fish and fishery products




Figure 9 — Angola – Major species groups in import
Figure 9 — Angola – Major species groups in import




Figure 10 — Angola – Major species groups in export
Figure 10 — Angola – Major species groups in export




Figure 11 — Angola — Per capita supply of fish and fishery products
Figure 11 — Angola — Per capita supply of fish and fishery products




Figure 12 — Angola — Composition of total fish food supply — 2010
Figure 12 — Angola — Composition of total fish food supply — 2010


Updated 2011Part II Narrative

Part II of the Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profile provides supplementary information that is based on national and other sources and that is valid at the time of compilation (see update year above). References to these sources are provided as far as possible.

Production sectorThe fishing sector is third in importance in the country after the oil and diamond industries. Angola has rich fishing grounds in the Benguela Current System and in the Guinea Current System, each of which has a diversity of fish species. The main marine resources are demersal finfish, (Dentex macrophthalmus, Dentex angolensis, Epinephelus spp, Merluccius spp, Pseudotolithus typus and P. senegalensis), cephalopods, shrimps, lobsters, crabs and pelagic species (e.g. Sardinella aurita, Sardinella maderensis, Sardinops sagax, Engraulis encrasicolus, Thunnus albacares and Katsuwonus pelamis)Marine sub-sector

Industrial fisheries

Industrial fisheries is carried out mainly by foreign vessels leased to, or in joint venture with, Angolan enterprises. Under the Law on Aquatic Biological Resources (2004) and related regulations, foreign vessels (whole owned) are not allowed to fish in Angolan waters. For this reason leasing and joint venture with Angolan nationals have become the custom. Foreign vessels known to fish in Angolan waters are from China, Japan, South Korea, Nigeria, Russia, Spain and Namibia.

Industrial fisheries including about 150 vessels land pelagic fish (horse mackerel, sardinella, tuna), shrimp, deep sea red crab, lobster and a variety of demersal fish. Purse-seining was and is the most common fishing technique used while mid-water trawls are prohibited since 2004.

Overfishing and changes in hydrological conditions have strongly reduced the fishing potential for industrial fisheries. The resource assessment carried out in 2010 showed that a major portion of small pelagic species, the sardinellas, were underutilized while horse mackerel stocks were overexploited and required immediate intervention in the form of effective resource management measures.

Small scale/artisanal fisheries

There is a large marine artisanal fishing fleet in Angola. In 2010 about 100 000 people earned their living in the fishery sector. Of them about 50 000 were active in the artisanal sector, using about 3000-5500 boats, mainly with engine. According to survey data from the Institute for the Development of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture (IPA), total artisanal catches in 2010 exceeded 102 000 tonnes. Artisanal fishers catch groupers, snappers, seabreams, croakers, spiny lobster and lower-value species. The fishers are organized in groups. A group generally owns one or more boats, nets or sails. Members of the group go fishing together and divide the catch, which is either dried or salted, or sold fresh to urban markets. Artisanal fishing activities are carried out from about 190 landing sites scattered along the coast. Benguela and Luanda provinces have the greatest concentration of artisanal fishing. There is a potential for increased artisanal fisheries and IPA is focusing on developing the sector, particularly in terms of improving quality standards and increasing landings, as well as assisting to improve the standard of living in the artisanal fishing communities.

Starting from 2003 the Government has been implementing several programs in order to empower fishers, including women who sell and/or process fish. A system for providing micro-credit has been established.The government has also built 10 support centers for the artisanal fishers in seven provinces: Cabinda (2), Zaire (1), Bengo (1), Luanda (2), Kwanza Sul (1), Benguela (1) and Namibe (2). Each support center has separate areas for (i) administration; ii) maintentance of vessels and gear; (iii) handling and cooling fish; and, facilities for disembarking. The centres in Benguela and Namibe also have small jetties. These are, however, not fully operational at present.

Major constraints affecting the sector are lack of ports and landing jetties, electricity (except Tombwa center in Namibe province), piped water, telecommunications and financial services. However, the state provides fuel subsidies to artisanal and small-scale fisheries. Fishing rights for artisanal fishing are extended only to Angolan nationals.

There is also an important inland fisheries sector but production or employment data are not currently available.Landing sitesIndustrial and semi-industrial fishing vessels unload fish and take on board supplies at Luanda, Kwanza Sul, Benguela and Namibe. The vessels choose where to land depending on the expected fish price. Generally, about 70 % of the fish catch landed by the industrial fleet is landed in Luanda.

Many marine artisanal fishers do not have a fixed place for disembarking catches. This is due to the fact that fishers, and their communities, follow the fish along the coast, and most artisanal craft can be brought ashore anywhere on the sandy beaches. IPA has selected 65 localities, in seven coastal provinces for data collection, out of the 190 localities recorded as main landing centres.
Fishing practices/systemsIndustrial fisheries in Angola are undertaken as joint ventures. Most of these are between Angolan companies and companies from either Japan or Spain. This sector controls about 70% of the Total Allowable Catches (TAC). The shrimp industry is export-oriented and represents an important source of foreign exchange for the country. 80% of the production in this fishery comes from 25 licensed boats equipped with bottom trawl. The catch is frozen on board soon after capture and exported to Europe. Well-equipped foreign shrimp fleets are very active in Angola’s waters. Another segment of the fleet uses bottom trawl and targets deep-sea fish. The main species targeted by the industrial sector are lobster, crabs, gamba (deep water shrimp), shallow water shrimp, crayfish and squid.

Most fishing for sardinella, pilchard and horse mackerel is undertaken by purse seine.

Most artisanal fishing is carried out by the young. Fishing is conducted every day if the sea is calm but not often on Sundays unless it has not been calm enough to fish on the Saturday. Fishing operations appear to vary from community to community and the number of fishers per boat varies along the coast. Gillnets may be set in the late afternoon and collected the following morning.

IPA has been conducting literacy classes for artisanal fishermen. Starting in 2001, IPA has promoted the use of insulated boxes and ice. Boxes have been provided on credit. The cooling of fish with ice is practised by groups of fishers from fishing communities situated near Cabinda, Luanda, Porto-Amboim, Benguela (Baia-Farta) and Namibe. The ice is provided by private enterprises. The intention is that ice will be provided in the Support Centers for Artisanal Fisheries (reported on above).
Main resourcesMarine fisheries account for more than 70% of the estimated Angolan total fish production. The main marine resources include small pelagic fish (mostly sardinellas and horse mackerels), crustaceans (deepwater shrimp and crabs), demersal marine finfish (mainly sea breams, croakers, groupers, snappers, emperor) and highly migratory tuna and tuna-like species (swordfish, shark yellowfin, big eye and albacore) and cephalopods and molluscs (squid, octopus and bivalves). The main commercial species from inland fisheries are tilapia and catfish.Management applied to main fisheriesThe fisheries policy of Angola provides an overall strategic perspective for the sector and aims to attain the crucial objectives of food security, increase net foreign exchange earnings, and reduce unemployment and achieve poverty alleviation. To achieve these goals, which are in line with the National Program for Poverty Alleviation, the sector should focus its work in the areas indicated below, which have been approved by Presidential Decree Nº. 1/10 of 5 March 2010:
  • Secure responsible fisheries management, sustainable exploitation of the fish resources, protection and conservation of fish resources including, inter alia, setting up dynamic co-management approaches;
  • Promote the development of fishing activities and related operations in waters under Angolan jurisdiction, directed towards domestic consumption and export;
  • Promote institutional capacity and competence in the sector with a view to contributing to raise the standard of living in fishing communities. The government strategy for fisheries management consists of ensuring the preservation of fishery resources while maximizing economic benefits for the country as a result of their use. The above strategies will be complemented by the following activities: – stimulating the participation of the productive sector in the allocation of fishing quotas; – reducing the use of bottom trawls; – establishing management information systems to facilitate monitoring of the resources of the main fisheries in order to provide timely warnings of changes in stocks; – encouraging the application of bio-economic models to the industrial and semi-industrial fisheries; and
  • Improve the fisheries surveillance system in order to allow inspection at sea.
  • The management system of Angolan fisheries comprises fishing effort restrictions as well as catch/landing limits, inter alia by the use of a quota system. The government curtails and restricts fishing activities in both marine and inland waters whenever circumstances so require. Such circumstances may be a need to: preserve the environment; ensure the continued wellbeing of living aquatic resources; improve economic efficiency to achieve efficient exploitation of stocks; or to protect the economic position of certain groups participating in the fishery. The system of fishing quotas is based on a Total Allowable Catch (TAC) established annually for each fishery. The government establishes fishery regulation measures on the basis of biological evidence and economic justification following discussion with interested economic operators. In order to foster private investment in areas considered a priority, the government puts forward possible incentive schemes. Priority is given to the following actions:
  • ice production and cold storage networks in areas where this may contribute to raising the value of artisanal fish products;
  • support for artisanal fleets and for marketing of the artisanal catch;
  • industrial fishing of unused resources or on new fishing grounds;
  • renewal and expansion of the semi-industrial fishing fleet;
  • establishment of fish processing facilities; and
  • promotion of marine shrimp culture;
  • inland fisheries legislation has been developed but has not been approved yet.


Fishing communitiesAlong the coast there are 184 registered artisanal fishing communities, the greatest number in the northern provinces of Zaire (55) and Cabinda (17).

In a considerable number of these communities fishers are organised in cooperatives, associations or pre-cooperatives. The cooperative is a group of fishers with equal rights and equal opportunities. This group is called cooperative if, when formed, it has at least 10 members but no more than 25. The association is a group of cooperatives having common objectives and the pre-cooperative is a group of fishers intending to form a cooperative. Artisanal fisheries are reserved for Angolan citizens. Cooperatives are formed according to the Associations Law nº 14/91 of 11 May1991. The cooperative in principle should have a president, a vice-president, an accountant and advisors. The cooperatives do not always operate effectively. There is practically no information on inland fishing communities.
Inland sub-sectorThe main inland water bodies are: Chiloango (in the Cabinda Province), Congo (Zaire), Cuango (Lunda Sul), Cassai (Lunda Sul), Kwanza (Bié to Luanda), Cunene (Huambo to Namibe), Zambeze (Moxico) and Cubango (Huambo to Kwando Kubango). Kwanza River is entirely located in Angola and is the second river in size after Congo River. In addition to the rivers there are five big lagoons: One each in the provinces of Kwanza Norte, Huambo, Bié, Cunene and Moxico. Inland fish catches are dominated by tilapia, catfish and carps, most of which is caught by artisanal fishers.Aquaculture sub-sectorThe Fisheries Institute (IPA) is in charge of the promotion of aquaculture. Commercial culture of marine species does not exist in Angola. However, with international assistance an attempt is being made to start this activity, probably focusing on shrimp. Artisanal/traditional freshwater aquaculture of North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Nile tilapia is being done in some of the provinces. The Government has built experimental centers for aquaculture in Malanje and in Benguela. The two centers will be producing fingerlings. Some attempts at starting commercial aquaculture of freshwater species have been done, but they have met different types of difficulties, mostly market-related, and were not successful.
Post-harvest sectorFish utilizationTraditional fish processing in Angola involves a number of different methods, often used in combination. Smoking and sun-drying are mostly practised on catches landed by the artisanal fisheries and the resulting products are sold in domestic markets. Salt–drying and sun-drying are practised along the Angola coast due to the shortage of cold storage facilities. Salt–drying is used for squid and fish of all sizes, and also for fish of second-grade quality.

On the industrial fishing vessels fish and shrimp are frozen on board for sale in both the domestic and the export markets. On-shore processing is promoted by providing longer fishing rights to vessel owners who invest in processing units on land. Only a small number of fish processing plants, mostly freezing fish from semi-industrial fish are in operation, especially in the provinces of Benguela and Namibe. Even though in the past a number of canneries were operating in these provinces, at the moment there are no canneries in operation.
Fish markets

Domestic Market

There are more than a hundred landing sites for artisanal fishers along the coast of Angola. In these there is generally a lively trade and small processing units are in operation. The most common processing methods are drying (sun-drying) and salting. However, distribution of fish in the country is limited. A nationwide system for distribution of fish – especially fresh fish – has not yet developed.

Most of the fish harvested by artisanal fishers is consumed in fishing communities or nearby. None of the artisanal catch goes for exports. Fish at landing sites is sold by the fishermen to wholesalers, usually women who buy small quantities and subsequently transport it to local fish markets and sell it fresh. Some also buy fish for processing (drying, salting, smoking). Processed fish is usually packed in bags and transported by pick-up trucks to fish markets in villages, or to larger towns and cities. In inland areas bicycles are also used for transportation.

Most fish markets are found in the more densely populated regions, where competition amongst fish sellers often is fierce and bargaining is common. However, the country depends on fish imports to meet local demand for fish and it is estimated that 90 000 tonnes would be needed to meet that demand. But often imports do not exceed 40 000 tonnes per year, mainly due to the shortage of horse mackerel, the preferred species, in regional and international markets.

International Trade

In Angola, the main marine exports are: high quality shrimp, gamba and crab. Second-grade products tend to be sold locally, although small quantities may also be exported. The international market for Angola’s fish products is wide, and includes Africa (Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Africa, and Namibia), Asia (China and Japan) and Europe (Portugal and Spain). As mentioned above, most of the catch that is destined for exports is caught by the industrial fleet, and is either frozen on board or landed fresh and frozen or processed in land-based processing plants and subsequently exported in freezer containers. High-value shrimps and tuna are the principal exports to the EU (mainly Spain) and Japan. The value of fish exports from Angola to the international markets was USD 13.5 million in 2010.

Traditional/artisanal processed fish (salt-dried and smoked) is exported by artisanal traders to neighboring countries (DRC, Congo and Zambia). There are no statistics on the amount of fish traded in this route, but it is likely to be a relatively important trade destination.
Socio-economic contribution of the fishery sectorFisheries in Angola are important both in terms of food production and as a source of animal protein. Trade

Supply and demand

Angola’s average fish consumption per capita is much higher among coastal communities. Demand for fish is higher than the domestic industry can supply and it is expected that demand for seafood will grow substantially over the next 15 years.

Trade

The fisheries sector of Angola plays an important role in the economy of the country, with a relatively high contribution. In general, Angola’s foreign trade in seafood is characterized by exports of high-value products and imports of low-value fish, especially horse mackerel.
Food securityFish is much appreciated as food by all sectors of the population. It is estimated that about 25% of the animal protein intake of the population is derived from fish and fish products. The demand for fish is relatively high in the coastal area and is expected to grow in parallel with population growth (3.6% annually).

Although the Government has embarked on a programme aiming to eliminate poverty totally, much needs to be done before this is achieved. More than 28% of the Angola population live in rural areas where they generally lack basic facilities (e.g. water, health services) and infrastructures. Poor road network has been singled out as an obstacle to development and as an impediment to movement of goods - including fish - to the needy. Angola imports cheap horse mackerel from Namibia, South Africa and Morocco, for food security purposes. No import duty is levied at horse mackerel, under a special program to ensure fish food supply.
EmploymentMore than 150 000 people are involved in the fishing sector (fishing, gathering, processing and marketing) of which 120 000 find a livelihood in the marine sector and 30 000 in freshwater fisheries. Rural developmentGovernment support for the fisheries sector focuses on developing the most critical of the least developed areas: the processing industry, onshore infrastructure, aquaculture and artisanal fisheries. This is done giving due emphasis to the sector’s primary objectives: poverty alleviation and a contribution to foreign earnings.

Some of the integrated development programs have had significant socio-economic impacts. They have helped secure provision of fisheries inputs through local markets and sustainability of financial services at the artisanal level (micro-credit, revolving funds low–level saving-based approaches, medium-scale loans for trading activities and fishing gear purchase). The same programs have strengthened co-management committees, and helped build water points, schools, clinics and roads.
Trends, issues and developmentConstraints and opportunitiesThe Government has a strong interest in expanding exports of fisheries products, but to date significant growth has not taken place. Generous investment incentives exist to support this process and the Government has introduced legislation allowing the establishment of free zones for export-oriented investments. Angola's preferential access to major markets in the U.S. and the EU should act as a powerful magnet for labour intensive industries such as fish processing. In addition, the formation of a trade bloc with SADC countries will permit Angola to gain access to key regional markets, which should facilitate increased regional trade in fish. Consumers should then have a wider choice of fish products. Also, artisanal fish traders should be able to access markets in SADC countries without having to pay high tariffs, which may lead to increased food security.

Small-scale fisheries and fisheries in general are affected by the following problems:
  • High post-harvest losses;
  • Unhygienic processing methods;
  • Low quality of fish products in local markets;
  • Difficulties in securing sales of high-value fish in the more sophisticated markets;
The problems outlined above are mainly caused by:
  • Poor port facilities for fishing vessels;
  • Lack of ice and cold storage at landing sites and on board of fishing boats;
  • Fishermen’s lack of knowledge about proper fish handling;
  • Limited knowledge of good fish processing practices;
Distribution infrastructures in potential Angolan markets are largely unsatisfactory. Roads between fishing communities and local markets are not always reliable and fishermen do not have access to decentralized distribution centres with cold storage facilities. Aquaculture development is being held back by lack of experience and technology, and high operational costs.
Government and non-government sector policies and development strategiesDevelopment of value-added products such as export of live shrimp and fresh fish (groupers and seabreams) is promoted. Currently most shrimp are exported as frozen product with little value addition.

Increased production from aquaculture is encouraged. Angola is known for its good quality shrimp and crab. The potential for aquaculture development in Angola is considerable considering the environment for investments, the favourable climatic conditions (tropical and sub-tropical climate); the unpolluted environment; a low population pressure and extensive resources. There is, according to one study, a potential of thousands square kilometers of land suitable for coastal aquaculture. Locally available species such as catfish (Clarias gariepinus), tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, etc., are potential species for commercial aquaculture.

The product quality and marketing efficiency of artisanal and small-scale fishers need to be enhanced. The public policies also aim to improve the quality and hygiene within the fishing industry, to reduce post-harvest losses and to make available more fish products for human consumption. The small-scale sector needs support in the form of training, applied research and suitable infrastructures.
Research, education and trainingResearchFishery research is carried out by the National Fisheries Research Institute (INIP) and is concentrated on resources that have economic importance and on those that are underexploited and believed to have significant potential in terms of the economy and for food supply. Priority is accorded to:
  • collecting and processing statistical data on yield and effort, together with sampling activities;
  • periodic assessment of the most important fish stocks;
  • recommendations on management measures necessary for appropriate use of resources.
Foreign aidThe fishery sector in Angola has benefited from foreign aid in a number of ways. Direct investments in the form of development projects, financed under cooperation agreements, have occurred in several areas, such as the rehabilitation of the fishing harbour in Luanda, financed by the EU, ADB, IFAD, SIDA and NORAD, who financed the Artisanal Development Project in the Zaire province. There are other bilateral assistance agencies that have supported development projects.

Development activities focus on:
  • adjusting marine fishing effort to a sustainable bio-economic level through the adoption and implementation of complementary management measures;
  • adjusting the shrimp fishing fleet and restructuring the state companies in the sector;
  • building a favourable environment for the development of a national fishery enterprise sector;
  • improving the fishery management system in order to make it more participative with emphasis on co-management;
  • increasing the value added to the catches through the promotion of the use of land processing facilities;
  • supporting the development of a shrimp artisanal fishery through fishery extension action programmes;
  • promoting improved use of the shrimp by-catch;
  • promoting the development of horse mackerel aquaculture and preserving the environment;
  • promoting the use of new or unexploited marine resources;
  • improving distribution and sales, quality control systems and sanitary inspection;
  • promoting professional training of the marine staff, administration and the processing industry;
  • Establishing necessary incentives for the development of the sector.
Angola is receiving important external aid for the fisheries sector. One recipient is the Benguela Current Commission,which receives aid for the management of marine resources. There were, at the end of 2011, several ongoing projects funded by bilateral agencies (NORAD, Japan, EU) and international organizations (ABD, IFAD and FAO).

This aid, which amounted to approximately USD 15 million in the 1990s, has doubled in the 2000s. The recent IFAD project aiming to develop the artisanal fisheries in the north zone of Angola (Zaire province) channels institutional support for a total of USD 9 million.
Institutional frameworkThe Angolan Ministry of Fisheries was established by Presidential Decree Nº. 1/10 of 5 March 2010. The Ministry has a national directorate for fisheries management (National Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture - DNPA), and a national directorate for fisheries infrastructure (National Directorate of Infrastructure and Fisheries Industry - DNIIP) and three public Fisheries Institutes (Institute for Fisheries Research, Institute for Development of Artisanal Fisheries, and, Institute for the support of fisheries industry) and the Inspection and Surveillance Service.

The Minister receives advice from Consultative, Technical and Coordinating councils.

The Institute for Fisheries Research (created in 1977), the Institute for Artisanal Fisheries Development (created in 1992), the Fisheries School (created in 1990s) and the Fisheries Development Fund (Decree Nº. 45-D/92 of 4 September 1992) are also part of the Ministry as is the Fisheries Inspection and Surveillance Service (Decree Nº. 3/05 of 25 April 2005).

Outside the capital the Ministry is represented by the Provincial Directorates for Fisheries, Delegations and Field Stations.

The following institutions deal mainly with artisanal fisheries: the DNPA by managing marine resources, INIP by conducting research on potential marine resources, DNIIP by providing technical assistance to the fishing industry and the Artisanal Fisheries and National Service of Fisheries Surveillance and Aquaculture by providing licensing and surveillance).
Legal frameworkThe legal basis of the Angolan fisheries is given by the Fisheries law N.6-A/04 of 8 October 2004 and subsequent regulations. It provides for a fisheries management regime based on TAC/quotas and a limited entry regulation (licensing/effort allocation) accomplished by closed seasons and mesh size regulation. These management measures are revised periodically with a view to keeping them effective, inter alia based on results of stock assessments and estimates of the economic performance of the fleet.

In 1990, the Fisheries Administration Commission (CAP) was established with the aim to improve the involvement of the private sector and the fishing communities in management decision making. CAP is a forum for representatives of the Fisheries Public Administration and of the fishing industry. This forum is an advisory body to the Minister and discusses and analyzes issues such as quota and vessels allocations, magnitude and period of closed season, state of exploitation of capital resources and recommendations of management measures. Final decisions on administrative matters concerning fisheries are taken by the Fisheries Authorities following consultation with this Forum. The CAP also discusses regional and international matters before decisions are taken.

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