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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries. Dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.

Part I Overview and main indicators

  1. Country brief
  2. General geographic and economic indicators
  3. FAO Fisheries statistics

Part II Narrative (2018)

  1. Production sector
    • Marine sub-sector
      • Catch profile
      • Landing sites
      • Fishing practices/systems
      • Main resources
      • Management applied to main fisheries
      • Fishing communities
    • Inland sub-sector
      • Catch profile
      • Landing sites
    • Aquaculture sub-sector
    • Recreational sub-sector
  2. Post-harvest sector
    • Fish utilization
    • Fish markets
  3. Socio-economic contribution of the fishery sector
    • Role of fisheries in the national economy
    • Trade
    • Food security
    • Employment
    • Rural development
  4. Trends, issues and development
    • Constraints and opportunities
    • Government and non-government sector policies and development strategies
    • Research, education and training
      • Research
      • Education and training
    • Foreign aid
  5. Institutional framework
  6. Legal framework
    • Regional and international legal framework
  7. Annexes

Additional information

  1. FAO Thematic data bases
  2. Publications
  3. Meetings & News archive

Part I Overview and main indicators

Part I of the Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profile is compiled using the most up-to-date information available from the FAO Country briefs and Statistics programmes at the time of publication. The Country Brief and the FAO Fisheries Statistics provided in Part I may, however, have been prepared at different times, which would explain any inconsistencies.

Country briefPrepared: January, 2018.

Antigua and Barbuda form a twin island state. The two islands have a total area of 281 km2. Antigua and Barbuda have 12 miles of territorial sea and 3 568 km2 of continental shelf.Fisheries target mainly marine species and are characterized by their small-scale and commercial nature. There is currently no commercial exploitation of inland fisheries resources, however, there is traditional recreational or subsistence harvest of some freshwater and estuarine species.Capture production has been quite stable with around 3 000 tonnes between 2005 and 2016 with the year 2012 showing an outstanding production of 5 700 tonnes due to three main reasons: i) greater catches of reef fish (e.g. groupers and snappers); ii) greatly increased harvest of queen conch as fishing effort of the dive fishery shifted from the Caribbean spiny lobster to the queen conch as demand for lobster contracted due to reduced tourism; and iii) use of more Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) for pelagic species. Capture production involves mainly small fishing units targeting demersal or reef-based resources mainly by lines, trap nets, and gillnets. Over several decades there have been a number of failed attempts to conduct aquaculture on a range of products on Antigua. However, seaweed (Euchuma sp. and Gracilaria sp.) farming has achieved some success in Antigua but is still very limited.In 2015 a total of 1907 people were reported to engage in fishery and aquaculture sector, but in fact this was nearly all fishing activity. Four percent of fishers were women and the remaining 96% men. The fishing fleet in 2014 was composed of 338 motorized vessels of less than 18 meters in length (of which 237 were undecked and of less than 12 meters). In 2016, total exports of fish and fishery products amounted to USD 274 000 and imports to USD 5.9 million. The direct contribution of the sector to the GDP was estimated at 9.7 million USD in 2013 and accounted 47% of the agricultural GDP. The contribution of the sector to the combined national GDP was about 0.8%. Per capita consumption was estimated at 55.7 kg in 2013.Over the past 16 years, due to hurricanes, a total of 157 vessels were severely damaged, destroyed or lost at sea, in addition to the loss of fishing gears and damage to landing site infrastructure. Difficulty in obtaining financing and absence of reasonably priced vessel insurance has influenced the length of time that vessels are replaced or repaired or remain inactive.
 
General geographic and economic indicators

Table 1 - General Geographic and Economic Data - Antigua y Barbuda

    Source
Shelf area 3 886 km2 Sea around us: http://www.seaaroundus.org/
Length of continental coastline 153 km

World by Map:

http://world.bymap.org/Coastlines.html

Fisheries GVA (2012) 0,92% National GDP

CRFM: Statistics and Information Report 2012



Key statistics

Source
Country area440km2FAOSTAT. Official data, 2013
Land area440km2FAOSTAT. Official data, 2013
Inland water area0km2Computed. Calculated, 2013
Population - Est. & Proj.0.096millionsFAOSTAT. Official data, 2018
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) area111 914km2VLIZ
GDP (current US$)1 532millionsWorld Bank. 2017
GDP per capita (current US$)15 022US$World Bank. 2017
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added1.63% of GDPWorld Bank. 2017

Source: FAO Country Profile

FAO Fisheries statisticsTable 2 in this section is based on statistics prepared by the FAO Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit and disseminated in 2018. The charts are based on the same source but these are automatically updated every year with the most recent statistics.

Table 2 — FAO fisheries statistics – Antigua y Barbuda

      1980 1990 2000 2010 2015 2016 2017
EMPLOYMENT (thousands) 1.45 0.64 0.89 1.53 1.89
  Aquaculture 0.03
  Capture 1.45 0.64 0.89 1.50 1.89
    Inland
    Marine 1.45 0.64 0.89 1.50 1.89
                   
FLEET(thousands boats) 0.25 0.25 0.30 0.39 0.33 0.34
                   
Source: FAO Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics
1) Due to roundings total may not sum up


Please Note:Fishery statistical data here presented exclude the production for marine mammals, crocodiles, corals, sponges, pearls, mother-of-pearl and aquatic plants.

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Updated 2018Part II Narrative

Part II of the Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profile provides supplementary information that is based on national and other sources and that is valid at the time of compilation (see update year above). References to these sources are provided as far as possible.

Production sector

Antigua and Barbuda form a twin island state. The two islands have a total area of 281 km2. Antigua and Barbuda have a 19 km territorial sea and 3,568 km2 of continental shelf. 
Fisheries target mainly marine species and are characterized by their small-scale and commercial nature. There is currently no commercial exploitation of inland fisheries resources; however, there is a traditional recreational or subsistence harvest of some freshwater and estuarine species. 

Overall, the fisheries sector plays an important role for food security, both as a source of food to the local population, but as source of employment and income. Fish consumption is quite high at 55 kg, but the real consumption is probably less, as there is substantial unrecorded fish export taking place.

In September 2017, Hurricane Irma left Barbuda with 50% of its buildings destroyed or significantly damaged and its entire population evacuated. As an important part of the fisheries in the country is based in Barbuda, the impact on the fisheries in the late 2017 and early 2018 is significant. Antigua on the other hand suffered practically no destruction. In December 2017, the Board of Directors of the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) has approved US$29 million in funding to the Government of Antigua and Barbuda, to assist with recovery efforts after the passage of Hurricane Irma. The funds will be used to rehabilitate and reconstruct critical infrastructure in the transportation, education, water and sanitation, and agriculture sectors including the fisheries sector.

Marine sub-sector

Catch profileFisheries target mainly marine species and are characterized by their small-scale and commercial nature.

Landing sitesThere are 32 fish landing sites in Antigua and Barbuda. Sites range from rural beaches (with limited or no infrastructure) to fisheries complexes (with potable water, ice-making and chill storage facilities). There are now four complexes managed by the Fisheries division. The refrigeration machinery at the Urlings and Parham facilities have been replaced recently and now all refrigeration equipment is working.

Fishing practices/systemsMost of the traditional sloops and dories that dominated the sector in the 1970s have been gradually replaced by modern fibreglass launches and pirogues equipped with the latest fishing technology (global positioning systems, depth sounder, hydraulic haulers, etc.). While there have been significant changes in terms of vessel construction and fishing technology, traps used to target the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), reef fishes and deep water snappers (Lutjanidae) and groupers (Serranidae) remain the dominant gear.

The lobster fisheries is small-scale, involving 185 boats (from small pirogues to large fibreglass) involving 498 fishers. The main fishing techniques are traps and scuba diving. Fishing technology involves the conventional wooden or steel framed fish traps that are placed on extended sea shelves using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. The traps are hauled or cleared every two (2) days using hydraulic winches.

The Queen conch fisheries is also small-scale. In 2012, 17 full time conch-fishing vessels plus 4 part time vessels landed 582 metric tons of conch meat (digestive gland removed or 50% clean) with an ex-vessel value of EC$11 million (US$4.1 million); the live weight equivalent (including shell) using a mean conversion factor of 6.77 was 3,937 metric tons. Landing for 2012 was the highest recorded and coincided with the following: the second highest recorded catch rate.

Main resourcesMain resources are snappers and groupers, Caribbean spiny lobster and Queen conch. It is difficult to assess the resources exploitation, but it is likely to all the main resources are full exploited. At the First Meeting of the OSPESCA/WECAFC/CRFM/CFMC Working Group on Caribbean Spiny Lobster Panama City, Panama, 21–23 October 2014, the country representative declared the lobster resource as fully exploited but stable.

Management applied to main fisheriesThe lobster fisheries in Antigua and Barbuda is managed through various output controls. The carapace has to be greater than 95 mm or the weight more than 680 g. It is illegal to harvest or store lobsters that are egg bearing, moulting, carrying an intact spermatophores. In addition, the lobster has to be landed whole. With regard to input controls, there is a 2 months closed season for lobster from 1 May to 30 June. Closed areas exists for lobster juvenile protection. With regard to fishing gear, harpoon prohibited and minimum mesh size is 3.81 cm (1½ inches). There exists a limited entry, through the use of “special permits” in addition to license.

Queen conch has similar management, applying catch and effort controls through a special permitting system. An addition a minimum shell lip thickness of 5 mm is established for conch to be harvested. The law prohibits harvest of conch with shell less than 180 mm; or conch whose meat weight is less than 225 g without digestive gland. There are provisions for prohibited gears (e.g., hookah compressor diving rig) and protected areas. The Cades Bay Marine Reserve was established in 1999 (approx. size: 19.43 km2) primarily to protect conch nursery areas (e.g., seagrass meadows). The Act also makes provisions for the State to take action against citizens of Antigua and Barbuda that are involved in Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing outside Antigua and Barbuda waters. The shift towards collaborative co-management (where government and stakeholders share decisions) started in 1999 in an effort to improve overall governance of the conch fishery as well as fulfil Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) obligations. Originally, the governance approach was “consultative”, however as CITES obligations grew, it was realised that only through collaboration could parties achieve the desired goal of sustainability (in terms of resource status and international trade). In 2011 and 2012, the collaboration extended to include the active participation of conch fishers in fisheries research. This was in response to the rising costs associated with managing a CITES Appendix II species for an artisanal fishery. The active participation of fishers in research allowed for greater “buy-in” with respect to management decisions regarding measures such as limited entry, size restrictions and closed season. For example, the mean rate of compliance for the past decade regarding size restriction (meat weight) was 88%, indicating most conch had the opportunity to reproduce at least once before capture.

For all the other species, a precautionary approach to fisheries management is maintained. The fisheries plan will identify each fishery and assess the present state of its exploitation; identify and assess, to the greatest extent possible, the present state of species belonging to the same , specify the objectives to be achieved in the management of each fishery; specify the management and development measures to be taken; and specify the licensing programmes to be followed for each fishery, the limitations, if any, to be applied to local fishing operations and the amount of fishing, if any, to be allocated to foreign fishing vessels. In the preparation and review of the fisheries plan the local fishers, local authorities and such other persons as appear to be affected by the fisheries plan will be consulted.

Closed seasons exist, apart for spiny lobster and conch, also for parrot fish (three months, from 1 May to 31 July), red hind, Coney and Nassau grouper (three months, from 1 January to 31 March). There is a complete prohibition to take turtles.

Management objectivesThe management objectives is to guarantee food for the population through a sustainable fisheries management.

Management measures and institutional arrangements

Fisheries Act, 2006 (Act No. 22 of 2006), which entered into force on 1 February 2013, makes provisions for the management and conservation of marine fisheries resources of Antigua and Barbuda, for the registration of local fishing vessels and the designation of Marine Reserves and Fishing Priority Areas and provides rules relative to aquaculture. For purposes of administration of fishing, there shall be appointed a Chief Fisheries Officer and other Fisheries Officers as specified. The principal authority for purposes of this Act shall be the Minister. The Minister shall appoint a Fisheries Advisory Committee and may designate local fisheries management areas and appoint an authority for each area. The Act provides for registration of local fishing vessels with the Chief Fisheries Officer and for a system of licensing of foreign fishing vessels. As for foreign fishing, the Act contains provisions relative to the ratification of fisheries access agreements and provides some rules that apply to fishing by both foreign and local vessels. Carrying out of aquaculture requires a licence to be granted by the Chief Fisheries Officer. The Act also provides for the lease of land and parts of the coastal zone for purposes of aquaculture. Some rules concern use of feed in aquaculture and notification of diseases and pests affecting animals in aquaculture facilities. Other provisions of this Act concern, among other things, large driftnet fishing, introduction of non-indigenous species, importation of aquatic organisms, prohibited fishing methods, enforcement, legal proceedings, and regulation-making powers of the Minister.

Barbuda (Coastal Zoning and Management) Regulations, 2014 declare, in the Schedules, marine sanctuaries, no-net zones, anchoring and mooring zones and shipping areas and empower the Barbuda Council to amend the zones created in these Regulations or to create additional types of zones and to impose restrictions on activities in those zones to manage and accommodate other uses of Barbuda coastal waters. They also, among other things: require a specified management fee to be paid for before engaging in any activity listed in Schedule I; prohibit fishing in marine sanctuaries and fishing with nets in no-net zones (subject to some exceptions); provide for the protection of seagrass and/or coastal mangrove; empower enforcement officers designated under the Barbuda (Fisheries) Regulations to enforce these Regulations; and define offences and penalties. The Regulations also provide for specific protection of a scheduled areas named Codrington Lagoon.

Fishing communitiesFisheries communities are an important part of the population. In Barbuda, about one quarter of the population is somewhat involved in fisheries or is part of families involved in fisheries.

Inland sub-sector

Catch profile

Landing sitesThere is currently no commercial exploitation of inland fisheries resources; however, there is a traditional recreational or subsistence harvest of some freshwater and estuarine species. 

Aquaculture sub-sectorOver several decades, there have been a number of failed attempts to conduct aquaculture on a range of products on Antigua. These have all been land-based operations and most have failed due to the prohibitively high operational costs and limited freshwater supply as well as limited success in marketing such species as tilapia and catfish locally. However, seaweeds (Euchuma sp. and Gracilaria sp.) farming has achieved some success in Antigua but is still very limited.

In the last 7 years, there has been an resurgence in the land-based aquaculture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus sp.). Most of the factors which have contributed to the failures of past aquaculture operations, high energy costs, limited freshwater supply and the unfamiliarity of the culture species have been overcome by the incorporation of renewable solar electricity systems ,to reduce the cost of energy the adoption of aquaponics technologies for the reuse of limited freshwater supplies and the worldwide growth in popularity of tilapia which now commonly used in the local consumer market.

There are currently two (2) commercial aquaponic operations in Antigua, Indies Greens and Lincoln Farms, which produce tilapia for local consumption. It is estimated that the total annual commercial aquaculture production of tilapia in Antigua is in the region of 15 metric tons. Additionally, there are a number of backyard tilapia aquaculture systems where the operators primarily produce the fish to supplement the protein requirements of the household and educational demonstration systems for training purposes.

Recreational sub-sectorThe Antigua and Barbuda Sport Fishing Association is an important player in the recreational sector, The Antigua & Barbuda Sport Fishing Tournament has now become one of the largest fishing events in the Caribbean registering a record 47 teams. The Hurricanes led to a reduction of sports fisheries in the country in late 2017.

Post-harvest sector

Fish utilizationThe fish is mainly utilized in fresh form, as high-energy costs associated with processing and inadequate access to capital have curtailed the development of any further fish processing.

The practice of salting and drying certain fish is carried out in Barbuda where these foods are still consumed in traditional dishes.

Import and export of conch meat is negligible; hence mean annual domestic consumption based on production is about 0.97 kg conch meat (digestive gland removed or 50% clean) per capita. This is equivalent to 6.58 kg live weight per capita or about 3 adult conch per capita. While the rate appears to be relatively high, it has to be viewed in the context of the demands of the tourism sector; visitor arrivals (air and sea) are in the range of 1 million and resident population is only 90,000 individuals. In 2008 and 2011, conch consumption was abnormally high (2.10 and 2.02 kg conch meat respectively) as lobster divers diverted effort to conch to adjust for low lobster demand from the tourism sector; the global economic downturn coincided with decline in the national economy and stay-over visitor arrivals.

Fish marketsAll fishery products landed in Antigua and Barbuda are marketed fresh for direct human consumption. There are currently only two major facilities that allow processing of fisheries products for retail (Market Wharf and Point Wharf Fisheries complexes), and both only at a preliminary level. Traditional salting and drying (corning) of some species still occurs at a subsistence level. The lone seamoss farmer produces a number of products that are marketed both locally and are exported to regional neighbours. These products include bottled and canned concentrates, as well as dried and packaged seamoss.

Socio-economic contribution of the fishery sectorThe fisheries sector is an important part of the economy, even though the official figure with regard to the contribution to the GDP is rather low, at 0.96%. The main role is a provider of employment, and as a provider of food.

Role of fisheries in the national economyThe country has one of the highest per capita consumption figures of fish in the world, which indicates the importance of the sector for food security. The fisheries sector is also an important security net for the population, especially in moments when either means of income vanish. This was seen also in late 2017, when tourists were deserting the country due to the fear of hurricanes.

TradeIn 2015, imports of fishery products into Antigua and Barbuda were US$6.8 million, with Canada and USA as main trading partners. Dried and salted fish from Canada, and frozen fillets from the USA were the main products imported. About 1 500 tonnes of fish or 3 600 tonnes in live weight equivalent are imported every year, which represents an important part of the fish consumption in the country and thus is important for the food security in the country.

In 2015, official figures of exports of fish and fishery products amounted to US$0.6 million, but there must be substantial underreporting, as the statistics do not mention lobster or conch exports. The lobster exports alone can be estimated at 50 tonnes live weight or US$0.5 million per year. There are 7 fish exporters based in Antigua and 5 in Barbuda.

Food securityPer capita consumption of fish was estimated at 55.1 kg in 2013, one of the highest consumption levels in the world. Even though when accounting for the tourists, which are consuming fishery products during their stay in the country, the deducted figure of about 50 kg is still very important. Imports are accounting for about half of the fish intake. It is difficult to quantify the real consumption, due to under-reporting of exports. More or less 4 000 tonnes of the domestic production is exported, without being recorded in the national statistics.

EmploymentIn 2015 a total of 1877 people were registered to engage in fishery and aquaculture sector, but in fact this was nearly all fishing activity. Of these, 1776 were based in Antigua and 101 in Barbuda. However, as active fishers some 805 were reported in Antigua and 96 in Barbuda. Four percent of fishers were women and the remaining 96% men. An addition 30 individuals were employed in an underdeveloped processing sector; high-energy costs associated with processing and inadequate access to capital have curtailed the development of this area. In terms of employment levels, values should be taken as conservative estimates since the fisheries sector acts as a “safety-net” for other economic activities.

Rural developmentAs all the population lives close to the sea, fisheries plays an important role in rural development.

Trends, issues and development

Constraints and opportunitiesThe Fisheries sub-sector makes the greatest contributor to agriculture Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In 2011 it accounted for 51.5% or EC$26.3 million dollars, in real terms, of agriculture’s total contribution to the economy. Access to fisheries resources in international waters is limited only by the technical capabilities of the local fishing industry so that intensity of the fishing effort is a major determinant of production. The Fishing subsector is the most resourceful of all sub- sectors within the Agricultural sector and is yet to realize its full potential as a result of the myriad of challenges faced, including:

  • Imports of cheap fish products from other Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries
  • Chronic problems with fish poisoning i.e. ciguatera, particularly off the Redonda Bank
  • Poaching by fishers from the French islands
  • Restricted marketing of fish in European Union countries, resulting from the stringent health and quality standards
  • Limited investment capital to equip boats for deep sea fishing in order to harvest the migratory species
  • Limited enforcement of legislation to ban spear fishing in and around reefs.


Opportunities lay in improved fish processing, and maintenance of the cold chain in all retail outlets and during distribution. Replacement of the imported dried and salted products by domestic fishery products could bring a substantial boost to the local fisheries, especially of species that are presently under-exploited.

Government and non-government sector policies and development strategies

A Food and Nutrition Security Policy for Antigua and Barbuda 2012 cites among other policies the replacement of imports through domestic production, including

  • Promoting the sustainable exploitation of the country’s fisheries resources and exploring greater investments in aquaculture to increase the availability of fish and fish products
  • Promoting and utilizing sustainable fisheries management practices.


In 2010, Antigua and Barbuda adopted a Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing.

Research, education and trainingResearchThe Fisheries Division routinely monitors landings of fisheries produce through its catch and effort data collection programmes. The department also collects biological data on finfish, queen conch and spiny lobster, including length and weight data, sex and spawning information in the case of the spiny lobster. The information collected aids the department in conducting stock assessment for the major commercial fisheries.

Education and trainingThe Fisheries Division provides technical support to fishers through training in GPS technology, food safety and handling, and navigation. Staff members at the department have received technical training through short-term training programmes facilitated by the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States - Environment and Sustainable Development Unit and Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM).

Foreign aidThe Fisheries Division has been the recipient of several grant aids through a number of governments and international institutions. The Government of Japan (through the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA)) is perhaps the largest provider of grant support to the fisheries sector in Antigua and Barbuda, as it constructed and has recently refurbished Fisheries Complexes on the island: at Market Wharf, Urlings, Parham and the Point Wharf in St. John’s. The Government of Japan also provides technical support through the provision of long-term experts based at the Fisheries Division.The Fisheries Division has also received technical support from FAO for updating the fisheries legislation, as well as in the development of national plans of action IUU fishing, standards for fishing vessel construction and the assessment of infrastructure requirements for fisheries trade. FAO supported shark assessment studies in Antigua to enable the development of an NPOA – sharks in the near future.

During 2013-2015 a fisheries component for the Zero Hunger Challenge –Antigua and Barbuda was implemented which generated about 50 new jobs for the poorest youth and women headed households in the fisheries sector. The project involved practical capacity building in fish trap making, vessel repair, fish processing, angling and organization of fish fries and employment support services.

The country is part of a FAO Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) which is focusing in developing tilapia aquaculture as part of the Blue Growth Imitative with expected benefits of strengthening the aquaculture sector in the country as well as increasing the availability of locally produced fish and fish products in the domestic market.

The Caribbean Fisheries Co-Management Project (CARIFICO) was developed in 2012 and implemented since 2013 by CRFM in collaboration with JICA across six Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) member states, including Antigua and Barbuda.

Institutional frameworkThe Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Housing, and the Environment is the Ministry responsible for fisheries and aquaculture. The Fisheries Division is under this Ministry. The National Fisheries and Marine Resources are regulated and managed by the Fisheries Division with its associated units strategically located throughout Antigua and Barbuda. The Division is headed by the Chief Fisheries Officer, who reports directly to the Permanent Secretary. The Division’s staff complement includes several technical officers as well as supporting administrative staff. Organization of the Fisheries Division Barbuda’s fisheries sector is managed by the Barbuda Council, which employs a Fisheries Administrator and other technical staff. The Fisheries Division (in Antigua) provides technical support to Barbuda through the provision of training to technical staff. Other institutions that collaborate with the Fisheries Division include the Antigua and Barbuda Defence Force Coast Guard (which assists with monitoring and enforcement), the Central Board of Health, Government Laboratories (which is responsible for operating the laboratory facilities at the Point Fisheries Complex and assist with the conducting of routine food safety and water quality tests) and the Environment Division.

Legal frameworkThe fisheries sector is governed by the Fisheries Act No. 22 of 2006, which entered into force in 2013. The Act applies to an Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ) and fisheries zone of 200 nautical miles, a 12-mile territorial sea, archipelagic waters and internal waters, as defined in the Territorial Waters Act (1982). The Act and its regulations make provision for: the establishment of a fisheries advisory committee; fisheries access agreements; fishing licensing (local and foreign); fisheries research; fish processing establishments; fisheries enforcement; and the registration of fishing vessels. Technical conservation measures include: prohibition on the use of any explosive, poison or other noxious substance for the purpose of killing, stunning, disabling, or catching fish; close seasons; gear restrictions; and the creation of marine reserves. There is provision for input controls, such as special permits for the fishing of queen conch and spiny lobster.

Regional and international legal frameworkAntigua and Barbuda are participating in the Agreement establishing common fisheries surveillance zones of participating member States of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (1991), Agreement Establishing the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (2004), and in Agreement establishing the Caribbean Community Common Fisheries Policy (2014).

Annexes





Acronyms

Caribbean Fisheries Co-Management Project (CARIFICO) Caribbean Fisheries Co-Management Project (CARIFICO)
CARICOM Caribbean Community
CDB Caribbean Development Bank
CFMC Caribbean Fishery Management Council 
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
CRFM Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism
EC$ East Caribbean Dollar
EEZ Economic Exclusive Zone
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GPS Global Positioning System 
JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
CARICOM Illegal, unreported and unregulated 
kg kilogram
OECS Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
OSPESCA Central American Fisheries and Aquaculture Organization
TCP FAO Technical Cooperation Project
US$ United States of America Dollar
WECAFC Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission




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