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Part I Statistics and main indicators

  1. General geographic and economic indicators
  2. FAO Fisheries statistics

Part II Narrative (2008)

  1. Production sector
    • Marine sub-sector
      • Main resources
      • Management applied to main fisheries
      • Fishing communities
    • Inland sub-sector
    • Aquaculture sub-sector - NASO
  2. Post-harvest sector
    • Fish utilization
    • Fish markets
  3. Socio-economic contribution of the fishery sector
    • Role of fisheries in the national economy
    • Supply and demand
    • Trade
    • Food security
  4. Trends, issues and development
    • Constraints and opportunities
    • Research, education and training
      • Research
      • Education and training
  5. Institutional framework
  6. Legal framework

Additional information

  1. FAO Thematic data bases
  2. Publications
  3. Meetings & News archive

Part I Statistics and main indicators

This section provides statistics and indicators produced through FAO’s Statistics programmes, available by the year reported for the narrative section.

General geographic and economic indicators

Table 1 – General geographic and economic data - Madagascar

Area: 587,041 km²
Water area: 5 500 km²
Population (2006): 19.2 million
GDP current (2006): 5.5 billion $US
GNI per head (2006): 280 $US
Agricultural GDP (2006): 27.5% of GDP
Fisheries GDP (2005): 160 million $US


FAO Fisheries statistics

Table 2a – Fisheries data (i) - Madagascar

2005 Production Imports Exports Total supply Per caput supply
  tons liveweight kg/year
Fish for direct human consumption 142,899 17,782 34,458 126,223 6.8
Fish for animal feed and other purposes 2,001 - - - -


Table 2b – Fisheries data (ii) – Madagascar

Estimated employment (2006):  
Primary sector (including aquaculture) 193,370
Secondary sector: 3,000
Gross value of fisheries output US$  
Trade ( 2006):  
Value of fisheries imports: 32 102 000 US$
Value of fisheries exports: US$ 162 606 000 US$


Updated 2008Part II Narrative

This section provides supplementary information based on national and other sources and valid at the time of compilation. References to these sources are provided as far as possible.

Production sectorThe production from the shrimp sector constitutes the major export in fisheries of Madagascar. However since 2004 the sector has experienced difficulties due to: low profitability, climate change, low price due to great Asian and South American production and increase in price of petroleum products.

Madagascar lies in the tropical Western Indian Ocean, surrounded by waters of the Southern Equatorial Current (SEC) and forming part of the Agulhas Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). Madagascar’s long coastline is estimated at 5,600 km, east and west coasts, large latitudinal range and upstream location in relation to eastern and southern Africa.

Madagascar includes the smaller offshore islands and the main island. The island has a central high plateau that is 1,000 to 2,000 metres in altitude and fall steeply into a narrow coastal line.

Madagascar continental shelf has a breadth of 20 to 30 km in the North West and 2 to 5 km along certain areas on the east coast. The surface area is 177,000 km². The west side of the continental shelf is conducive to traditional fishing There are basically two types of fisheries in Madagascar the industrial fisheries which targets off-shore tuna, bill-fish, sharks (as by catch) and the near shore shrimp fishery.

The traditional fisheries are carried out from dugout canoes using oars and sails and exploits marine mammals, sea turtles, fish, sharks and rays, echinoderms, molluscs, crustaceans and some sea weeds. In addition non-edible resources such as aquarium fish, corals and sponges are also periodically collected. The collection of sea cucumber from deeper waters is also a growing industry.

Madagascar large shrimp production sub-sector has over the years recorded a continued growth and is the main export commodity bringing in the much needed foreign exchange. The different categories of fishing are:
  • Subsistence fishing as food for the family
  • Traditional fishing using smaller traditional crafts
  • Industrial fishing aimed at local market and for export
  • Sports fishing (as a leisure activity) and
  • From time to time exploratory/scientific fishing carried out by the authorities
The conditions of fishing are defined as follows:
  • zones of fishing
  • opening and closure of fishing seasons
  • size of the fish allowed for capture and the protection of the hatchery
  • forbidden materials and method of fishing
  • forbidden baits
  • forbidden species (breeding and capture fisheries)
  • special measures applicable to established aquaculture
Prohibited for the capture of fish:
  • the use of toxic substances, explosives and electrical methods
  • the use of the air cylinders or other devices which allow a very long immersion
The fisheries sector of Madagascar is divided into three sub sectors:
  • Inland fisheries (freshwater fishing in streams and lakes);
  • Marine fisheries (structured in three main segments: traditional fisheries, artisanal fisheries and industrial fisheries);
  • Aquaculture (marine aquaculture and freshwater aquaculture).
Marine aquaculture includes the culture of shrimp, seaweed and collect of sea cucumber. Freshwater aquaculture is dominated by the culture of Tilapia and Carp. The culture of Spirulina is fast becoming an important activity in the fight against mal-nutrition.

The estimated potential for capture fisheries and aquaculture is 480,000 tonnes, out of which some 300,000 tonnes of fish with commercial interest are exploited.

Table 3 – Capture and aquaculture fisheries – Madagascar

Capture

Country

SpeciesSpeciesFishing area2006
MadagascarCyprinids neiCyprinids neiAfrica – inland waters

4,000

MadagascarCichlids neiCichlids neiAfrica – inland waters

21,500

MadagascarFreshwater fishes neiFreshwater fishes neiAfrica – inland waters

4,500

MadagascarDemersal percomorphs neiDemersal percomorphs neiIndian Ocean, Western

...

MadagascarNarrow-barred Spanish mackerelNarrow-barred Spanish mackerelIndian Ocean, Western

12,000

MadagascarSkipjack tunaSkipjack tunaIndian Ocean, Western

-

MadagascarYellowfin tunaYellowfin tunaIndian Ocean, Western

-

MadagascarMarine fishes neiMarine fishes neiIndian Ocean, Western

79,385

MadagascarMarine crabs neiMarine crabs neiIndian Ocean, Western

1,600

MadagascarTropical spiny lobsters neiTropical spiny lobsters neiIndian Ocean, Western

550

MadagascarNatantian decapods neiNatantian decapods neiIndian Ocean, Western

9,382

MadagascarCephalopods neiCephalopods neiIndian Ocean, Western

600

MadagascarMarine mollusks neiMarine mollusks neiIndian Ocean, Western

400

MadagascarMarine turtles neiMarine turtles neiIndian Ocean, Western-
MadagascarSea cucumbers neiSea cucumbers neiIndian Ocean, Western

500

TotalTotalTotalTotal134,417

Aquaculture

Country

Species

Species

Fishing area

2006

MadagascarCommon carpCyprinus carpioAfrica – Inland waters

2,750

MadagascarTilapias neiOreochromis (= Tilapia) spp.Africa – Inland waters

0

MadagascarRainbow troutOncorhynchus mykissAfrica – Inland waters

0

MadagascarGiant tiger prawnPenaeus monodonIndian Ocean, Western

8,463

MadagascarBrine shrimpArtemia salinaIndian Ocean, Western

-

TOTALTOTALTOTALTOTAL11,213


Marine sub-sector

Fish production

Marine capture fisheries accounts for more than 80 percent of total fish production and is derived mainly from:
  • Industrial fishing (shrimps, tunas, etc.)
  • Smaller craft fishing or semi industrial fishery (shrimps, tunas, fishes)
  • traditional fishing (all the species)
For a long time, the industrial fishing has been the source of foreign exchange earnings in Madagascar mainly with the export of shrimps and tunas. However in the past few years a net decline has been noted probably due to increased recurrent charges and climatic conditions.

Fishing by the EU fleet is limited to 43 purse seiners and 50 Surface longliners. In 2007, the EU fleet consisted of 97 tuna purse seiners out of which 41 was from France, 48 from Spain, 7 from Portugal and Italy with one fishing vessel. Furthermore, Spain had 24 longliners, Portugal 6, and France with 10 longliners.

Trawling is the main method for shrimp fishing. The industrial fleet trawls off the central and north-west and east coasts and 1 to 2 miles from shore line. They also exploit a coastal belt around 1 to 10 miles wide on the west coast. It has been noted that industrial shrimp production has decreased over the last three years due to climate change and high level of exploitation of the resources. The catch has stabilized at around 8,500 tonnes annually for the last ten years. The By catch from the industrial fishery amounts to 3,175 tonnes and is entirely sold on the local market.

Tuna production stood at 10 000 tonnes/year, and is mainly caught by the EU fleet. Similar decline has been noted over the past few years.

Artisanal fisheries though still at a low level of development, they are better organized and technically more advanced than traditional fisheries with each level exploiting different fishing grounds.

The coastal marine resources have been estimated at 180,000 tonnes and 140,000 tonnes for ocean fishing. Coastal resources are mainly exploited by industrial fishing units catching some 15,800 tonnes of fish and 5,400 tonnes of shrimps. Traditional fishermen using dugout canoes with or without outriggers produce some 72,300 tonnes whilst the small scale fishery produces some 600 tonnes per year.

Employment in the traditional fisheries approximates 60,000 fishers using 62,000 low equipped canoes. At a national level, it is conducted mainly along the coast. The coastal area is under-exploited and the yields are usually low 2 to 3 tonnes of fish per year per canoe. Usually it targets octopus, squids and crabs for export.

The traditional fishing sector is responsible for 53 percent of the total marine fish catch, whilst the industrial shrimp and deep water fisheries accounts for 8.8 percent of the total catch). This industry is in a period of expansion as it was authorized only in 2001.

There are two different types of vessels in the fisheries sector:
  • Fishing vessels aimed at capture fisheries
  • Support vessels aimed at collecting, storage, and transportation of the catch.


Main resourcesThe production from the shrimp sector constitutes the major export in fisheries of Madagascar. However since 2004 the sector has experienced difficulties due to: low profitability, climate change, low price due to great Asian and South American production and increase in price of petroleum products.

Madagascar lies in the tropical Western Indian Ocean, surrounded by waters of the Southern Equatorial Current (SEC) and forming part of the Agulhas Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). Madagascar’s long coastline is estimated at 5,600 km, east and west coasts, large latitudinal range and upstream location in relation to eastern and southern Africa.

Madagascar includes the smaller offshore islands and the main island. The island has a central high plateau that is 1,000 to 2,000 metres in altitude and fall steeply into a narrow coastal line.

Madagascar continental shelf has a breadth of 20 to 30 km in the North West and 2 to 5 km along certain areas on the east coast. The surface area is 177,000 km². The west side of the continental shelf is conducive to traditional fishing There are basically two types of fisheries in Madagascar the industrial fisheries which targets off-shore tuna, bill-fish, sharks (as by catch) and the near shore shrimp fishery.

The traditional fisheries are carried out from dugout canoes using oars and sails and exploits marine mammals, sea turtles, fish, sharks and rays, echinoderms, mollusks, crustaceans and some sea weeds. In addition non-edible resources such as aquarium fish, corals and sponges are also periodically collected. The collection of sea cucumber from deeper waters is also a growing industry.

Madagascar large shrimp production sub-sector has over the years recorded a continued growth and is the main export commodity bringing in the much needed foreign exchange.
Management applied to main fisheriesThe Ministry for Agriculture and Fisheries (MAEP) in Madagascar has the responsibility for the management of the different fisheries. The Ministry defines the guidelines and policies necessary to the development of the fishing and aquaculture sectors over a period of four years (2004-2007). This four year plan is based fundamentally on research and good management practices for fish production and the development of new resources.

For the 2004-2007 periods, the economical and social objectives of the plan were to:
  • Increase state revenue;
  • Satisfy the needs of the country in terms of fish and fish products;
  • Improve the living standard and revenue of traditional fishermen;
  • Increase employment in the fisheries industry.
The management plan has had little impact on traditional fishing, except for some local initiatives involving shrimp fishermen. Measures such as the obligation for industrial shrimp fishermen to land a minimum of 0.5 kg of fish for every kg of shrimp have nonetheless contributed to a certain extent to the improvement of living conditions for traditional fishermen. Even though all fishing is regulated in Madagascar, only shrimp, tuna, lobster, crab, holothurians and algae are covered by specific management plans.

For endangered stocks (shrimp and lobster stocks) and which are important to the economy of the country, strict management measures are taken based on scientific data and analysis. For example, from 1996 the results of stock evaluation (1996, 1998) have shown that the fishing effort was at its maximum (all sectors) for shrimp fishing. In 1998, during a workshop on shrimp fishing under the responsibility of the MPRH and organized in the framework of the Sectorial Fishing Programme of the FAO, the GAPCM proposed to freeze the fishing effort. The MPRH then limited the number of licenses to 1998 level for duration of two years (order 4982/99). In 2000, this freeze was maintained at 36 licenses for artisanal fishing and 75 licenses for industrial fishing, based on 1999 references (Decree 2000-415). This measure was not accompanied by supplementary measures, such as restrictions in the volume of the catch and industrial companies compensated their diminishing returns by increasing the fishing effort to maintain production volume.

Over-exploited trepang and shark stocks, whose production in tonnage and export value are less important than shrimp have not been the focus of specific management measures to reduce or counteract any over-exploitation.

For under-exploited stock, the 2004-2007 Plan for fishing and aquaculture foresaw an annual production increase of 1,000 tonnes for deep water fish and crab. For the latter, the MAEP estimates the exploitable potential to be 15 times the present production. Moreover, deep water crustacean and cephalopod fishing offer interesting development possibilities. The major constraint has been the availability of finance for the proper implementation of the 2004/07 plan for the fisheries sector.Management objectivesNot much emphasis have been laid on the management of traditional fisheries as these are regulated like individual fishing, with a ban on the use of toxic substances, explosives and electrical devices to stun the fish as well as any equipment to extend diving time.

For the management of lobsters, crabs, holothurians and algae, an authorization from the Faritany Executive Committee is necessary. Same is true for the creation or the exploitation of a fishing enterprise and/or the sale and collection of its fishery products. In this case, the firm is obliged to technically assist fishermen and help them purchase materials and fishing vessels as and when required. He must also collect sales data and communicate same on a monthly basis. The holothurians and lobster fisheries are submitted to size restrictions (minimum of 11 cm fresh and 8 cm dry for holothurians and 20 cm for lobster). However, the restrictions concerning lobster are not actively enforced. Lobster fishing is also banned each year from the 1st of January to the 31st of March.

Shrimp production is by far the most important industrial fishery both in terms of volume or value. Industrial shrimp fishing has been exploited since 1967 and is constantly being monitored by the Ministry and international organizations. Formal and documented management plans have been put in place over the last years.Deep water fishing is submitted to a regime of licences and taxes. Fishing zones are regulated (two miles in the West coast and eight miles in the East). Net sizes are regulated and vessel-owners have to provide the Ministry with catch data.

A vessel monitoring system is operational since 2002. All artisanal and industrial fishing vessels are fitted with the Inmarsat C global positioning system and must transmit their location to the CSP every hour (24 positions daily). CSP qualified observers, paid by the ship owners are placed on each vessel.
Management measures and institutional arrangements

Co-management activities and participatory approaches

Madagascar has a unique mode of management for the shrimp fishery encompassing co-management of the fishery with stakeholders. New regulations have been promulgated. The control and monitoring of the fishery is carried out by the “programme national de recherche crevettière, observatoire économique de la filière crevette, autorité sanitaire halieutique”.

It is also felt that this participatory approach will be beneficial in the long term to the sustainable exploitation of the stock.

Rights-based approaches to fisheries management

Madagascar has not so far implemented the right based management approaches to its fisheries. However, the present management system, including data collection, analysis and organizational structure needs to be revisited for a more effective and efficient control of the various fisheries.
Fishing communitiesMadagascar is implementing various forms of community based management for its marine resources. The communities involved in fishing activities are encouraged to work in consultation with local tourism authorities, the Ministry of Fisheries and local operators to limit excessive take and reduce conflict among users.

Strategies include the establishment of a no-take zone and gear restrictions as well as re-investing from tourism into conservation and social projects.
Inland sub-sectorThe inland fisheries exploit various streams and lakes and are aimed mainly at local consumption. The main species targeted are the tilapias, carps, black-bass and fibata.

The following fishing grounds are exploited:
  • Lakes of Alaotra (East – center)
  • Lakes of Miandrivazo (West Center)
  • Lakes of Betsiboka (West Center)
  • Lake of Itasy (Centre)
  • Lake of Marovoay (West )
  • Channel of Pangalanes (East)
  • Lake of Mantasoa
The production is limited to 32,000 tonnes. Note that some amateur fishing is also carried out on the lakes.

Table 4 - Catch data for the inland fisheries - Madagascar

Species/years2000200120022003200420052006
Cichlids nei21,50021,50021,50021,50021,50021,50022,000
Common carp2,4802,3502,4002,5002,5002,5002,500
Cyprinids nei4,0004,0004,0004,0004,0004,0004,100
Freshwater fishes nei4,5004,5004,5004,5004,5004,5004,500
Nile crocodile6,6069,4086,9367,3004,7604,8504,850
Rainbow trout<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0,5
Tilapias nei<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0,5
Source: Ministry of Fisheries, Madagascar
Aquaculture sub-sector

Table 5 - Madagascar

Species Type 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Aquatic plants nei Mariculture          
Brine shrimp Mariculture          
Common carp Freshwater culture 2,480 2,350 2,400 2,500 2,500
Giant tiger prawn Mariculture 4,800 5,399 7,313 7,007 6,243
Rainbow trout Freshwater culture <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Tilapia nei Freshwater culture <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Total   7,280 7,749 9,713 9,507 8,743
Source: Fishstat 2004

Madagascar has had many problems with regards to environmental destruction by the rural population as 77 percent live in poverty. Aquaculture has become one of the alternatives projects in Madagascar to reduce poverty and to contribute to social well being of the population.

The USAID is one of the organizations that help the country with aquaculture as a way to promote rural development. This project encourages rural people to culture fish in rice fields. This project is funded by the USAID. With the the establishment of a fish nursery there has been a constant supply of fingerlings. At the moment there are 210 commercial fingerlings centers producing some 6 000 0000 fingerlings for local rural fish farmers.

About 40 percent of the farmers raise royal carp directly in rice fields. After each season, they dig out the manure rich mud and use this to fertilize garden plots or small plots of land devoted to intensive rice production. Farmers report that the yields on these plots have increased significantly. However, due to severe food shortages, fish theft is widespread. Markets need to be expanded to cater for increased production. It is worthy to note that fish culture is helping to reduce pressure on natural resources and providing local families with food and income they need.
Post-harvest sectorFish utilizationFish is utilized in many forms. The following main products are found at most markets:
  • fresh products for human consumption
  • dried, salted and smoked products
  • frozen products for export and local consumption
  • transformed products for export
  • Animal feed


Fish marketsMadagascar’s main fish export markets are listed below:
  • Shrimps: Japan, Europe, USA, Réunion and Mauritius
  • Fish: Réunion
  • Crab:Réunion and Mauritius
  • Lobster:France
  • Shellfish: Italy, France, Germany, India
  • Sea cucumber: Singapore, Hong Kong SAR
  • Shark fins: Singapore, China
Shrimp export is the major export commodity for Madagascar. The total shrimp output from aquaculture increased from 406 tonnes in 1994 to about 6,770 tonnes in 2006, following an expansion in the industry.

Due to the high shrimp prices, domestic demand for shrimp is very low. Local consumers usually purchase the small and medium-sized dried shrimp originating from the artisanal fisheries sector which are cheaper. The high quality, large-sized industrial shrimp landings are mainly for the export market, although a significant quantity is sold to the local restaurants, supermarket chains and hotels.

The total value for fish exports is increasing annually with shrimps as the principal export commodity and the main source of foreign exchange earnings. Around 33,000 tonnes are exported out of which more than 50 percent are exported to the European countries and the rest mainly to Japan, Mauritius and some Asian countries.
Socio-economic contribution of the fishery sectorFisheries and aquaculture sector is one of the three main pillars of the economy, together with the mine industry and the tourism industry. Madagascar has a rich biodiversity in terms of flora and fauna including the marine sector. Sustainable exploitation of these resources will ensure the future of the fishing industry.

Shrimp culture is quite developed and occupies a major place in the national economy. The industry has been expanding year by year and production through aquaculture present stands at around 50 percent of total production and is being actively promoted by the authorities to reduce the pressure on the natural resources.Role of fisheries in the national economyThe fisheries sector plays a major socio-economic role in the country. The capture fisheries including aquaculture contributes 7 percent to the gross Domestic Product (GPD) and is also a provider of employment. Approximately 194,000 direct jobs in the primary sector of which 33,365 as fish farmers and 3,000 indirect jobs have been created. In rural communities, fishing is the main source of income.

Fish Consumption is a major source of protein for the coastal population and stood at about 7 kg per caput per year, well below the average of 16 kg/caput. Fisheries play a predominant role in employment creation, food security and poverty alleviation.

The Fishing industry contributed more than US$ 161 million to foreign exchange earnings in 2001, representing more than 20 percent of the total export earnings for the same year and 7 percent as PIB.
Supply and demand

Supply

Data collection in the fisheries sector is not dependable, given the great price variation between species, size, value added (smoking, salting, drying) and the geographical location of the sale points. Nonetheless, it is certain that marine fish production, mostly traditional, is important to local market food supply.

Demand

The demand for fish and fish products annually in Madagascar exceeds 130,000 tonnes, however it also depends on the purchasing power of the population and the availability of the products on the market. Over the last two years, mining and tourism development have increased the demand in quantity and in quality for fish and fish products.
TradeThe main markets for Malagasy shrimp are France and Japan. Significant volumes are also exported to Réunion island, Mauritius, South Africa, Portugal and United Kingdom.

Madagascar is actively pursuing its policy of encouraging joint ventures in the fisheries sector. In this context, it is strengthening its capacity to establish an effective fish inspection system and to assist seafood exporters in meeting the quality standards in terms of staff capacity and training on trends in Quality Assurance and the HACCP concept.
Food securityFish and fish products plays an important role as regards to food security in Madagascar and is an important source of animal protein to coastal population. It has been estimated that fish and fish products contribute about 20 percent of animal protein consumption of total population to improve the quality of nutrition of population.
Trends, issues and developmentThe government of Madagascar has listed a number of development policies to sustain the fishery industry. These are:
  • A drive force to support to food and dietary security;
  • Ongoing support to traditional and non-industrial fishing;
  • Enhance existing regulation and enforcement of control measures to curb over exploitation and non discriminatory use of gears by operators in the sector;
  • Support to the establishment of land base activities such as cold storage and processing, and/or rehabilitation of facilities already existing for the development of sea food industry; and
  • Development of industrial and inland fisheries.
The following opportunities and potential have been identified:
  • The water resources are not fully exploited;
  • The culture of marine algae;
  • Possibility to triple the aquaculture production in the next 10 years through expansion;
  • Trout culture using the various water ways; and
  • Improvement in the production of tuna.


Constraints and opportunitiesSome of the major constraints are listed below:
  • The lack of traditional fishing equipment and materials, notably for the small unmotorized dug out canoes with very limited radius of action.
  • IUU fishing especially by unlicensed vessels
  • Industrial trawling especially on shallow continental shelf seas and sea mounts
  • Degradation of coral reefs through over fishing, climate change effects and sedimentation
  • Hunting or incidental capture of large marine fauna (dugong, dolphins, sea turtles, sharks, and sawfish).
  • Local exploitation of high-value species such as sea cucumbers
  • Conflicts between resource users
  • Insufficient protection for marine environment like the MPAs and no take zones
  • Insufficient capacity and information management
  • No security for traditional fishery in marine areas
  • Access difficulty to finance


Research, education and trainingResearchList of Institutes for research:
  • PNRC - Programme National de Recherche Crevettière in Mahajanga
  • IHSM - Institut Halieutique des Sciences Marines in Toliara
  • CNRE - Centre National de Recherche Environnementale in Antananarivo
  • OFCF - Overseas Fishery Corporation Foundation in Toamasina
  • FOFIFA - Agriculture centre for Research including Fish research


Education and trainingThere are two levels of education in fisheries and aquaculture in Madagascar:
  • EASTA - for secondary school which supply technician for the fishery sector
  • EESSA - University which offer diploma in Engineering


Institutional frameworkThe Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAEP) is responsible for the management of fishing through the Directorate of Fishing and Fish Resources. The organigram set out below gives the organizational structure of fisheries authorities at national level, listing the main institutions responsible for fisheries management as well as major stakeholders.

Figure 1 - Organizational chart of the MAEP - Madagascar
Figure 1 - Organizational chart of the MAEP - Madagascar


The Regional Directorate for Rural Development, the Regional Services for Fishing and Fish Production are responsible for implementation of projects and providing services at a regional level. They work in collaboration with the councils for fishing and agriculture. The various agencies co-ordinate the application of fisheries legislation.
Legal frameworkThe following legal frameworks govern the fisheries sector:
  • Ordonnance n°93-022 du 4 mai 1993, portant réglementation de la pêche et de l’aquaculture
  • Décret n° 94-112 du 18 février 1994, portant organisation générale des activités de pêche maritime
  • Décret n° 2007-957 du 31 octobre 2007, portant définition des conditions d’exercice de la pêche des crevettes côtières.

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