The designations employed and the presentation of material in the map(s) are for illustration only and do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers or boundaries.
⇧Part I Overview and main indicators
Part I of the Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profile is compiled using the most up-to-date information available from the FAO Country briefs and Statistics programmes at the time of publication. The Country Brief and the FAO Fisheries Statistics provided in Part I may, however, have been prepared at different times, which would explain any inconsistencies.
Country briefPrepared: May 2013
With a coastline of more than 83 000 km, including fjords and islands, Norway is one of the world’s leading nations regarding the production from marine fisheries and aquaculture. The fisheries sector has always played a key social and economic role, nationally and regionally, and has been the basis for settlement and employment along the entire Norwegian coast. The vast marine areas under Norwegian jurisdiction are among the most productive in the world and provide ideal conditions for aquaculture production. Fishing and fish farming represent 0.7 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010, with 12 900 full-time equivalents employed in the sector. In 2009, Norway ranked 11th in global capture fisheries production and the 7th in aquaculture production. It produced 3.5 million tonnes of seafood, about 25 percent coming from the aquaculture industry.
Norway, in terms of value, is the world’s second largest exporter of fish and fish products by value., Its main markets, in terms of export value are the European Union (EU), the Russian Federation, Japan, China, Ukraine and the United States of America. With USD 8.9 billion, seafood products were the second most important export item in 2012 and made up 6 percent of total Norwegian merchandise exports. The biggest share is represented by oil and gas (70 percent). Annual per capita fish consumption amounted to an estimated 53.1 kg in 2009.
The overall development of capture fisheries has resulted in the use of fewer and more efficient fishing boats. The number of fishermen has decreased steadily since the 1940s, from about 122 000 to 12 800 in 2011. The number of registered vessels has also experienced a strong reduction, from about 13 000 to 6 250 during the period 2000 to 2011. Norway has a diversified fishing fleet ranging from larger ocean vessels to smaller coastal ones.
The main capture species include herring, cod, capelin, mackerel, saithe, blue whiting, and haddock. A number of additional species are caught in smaller quantities but have high commercial value. These include prawns, Greenland halibut and ling. Total catches from marine capture fisheries were almost 2.7 million tonnes in 2010, with the highest catches recorded being of the order of 3.4 million tonnes in 1977. The average annual total catches in the 2001-10 period were around 2.5 million tonnes. It should be noted that fluctuations in catch are partially due to the natural variability of pelagic stocks such as capelin and herring. In addition to fish, sea mammals, including various species of seals and minke whales, and krill in the Antarctic are exploited.
Norwegian aquaculture is largely industrial, modern and highly competitive. Aquaculture production in Norway has more than doubled during the last decade and reached 1.14 million tonnes in 2011. The production in 2011 was dominated by Atlantic salmon (1.06 million tonnes: 93 percent) farmed in marine cages. Other important farmed species included rainbow trout (58 300 tonnes: 5 percent) and Atlantic cod (15 200 tonnes: 1 percent). Extensive development efforts are taking place to expand aquaculture activities to other species such as Atlantic halibut, wolf fish and shellfish. The aquaculture sector gives a high priority to environmental considerations, fish health and welfare as they are important conditions for the aquaculture industry’s ability to compete globally. The number of fish farmers has increased from about 4 300 in 2000 to about 5 800 in 2011.
Recreational fishing in Norway is subject to official monitoring and control. Recreational fishermen who are not Norwegian citizens are subject to some restrictions.
Regarding fisheries management, Norway places great importance on sustainable and environmentally friendly fisheries and aquaculture management, based on a thorough knowledge and understanding of fishery resources dynamics and their environment.
The management of Norway’s fisheries resources is mainly the responsibility of the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affaires. Norway has more than hundred years of institutional experiences in fisheries management and marine research through the Directorate of Fisheries and the Institute of Marine Research, both established in 1900. In 1946, Norway became the first country in the world to establish a Ministry of Fisheries.
Over the last few decades, the Norwegian fishing industry has evolved into a highly regulated industry with quotas and licensing requirements. A primary basis for determining fishing quotas are the recommendations issued by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Norway attaches great importance to research, and actively seeks to acquire increased knowledge of the marine environment and resources, as well as expertise on the interaction of different species.
Ninety percent of Norway’s fisheries harvest stocks are shared with other nations. Consequently, international cooperation is a critical aspect of the Norwegian management regime. For the most important fish stocks, quota levels are set in cooperation with other countries, including Russia, Iceland, Faroe Islands and Greenland and the EU .
Both Norwegian and foreign fishing vessels are subject to stringent controls in all Norwegian fishing waters. The Coast Guard annually performs more than 2 000 inspections of Norwegian and foreign vessels operating in Norwegian waters.
Norway is engaged in combating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. These efforts are comprehensive and include tackling illegal fishing, trans-shipment at sea, forgery of origin, covert landings, etc.
On Norway’s initiative, new expanded procedures for port State control were agreed unanimously by all the Contracting Parties of the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) in November 2006. These measures entered into force on 1 May 2007. Norway’s initiative has led to the FAO Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing in 22 November 2009. Norway was among the first who signed and ratified the Agreement. The Agreement will enter into force following the submission of the twenty-fifth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
Since June 1996 and December 1996, Norway is Party to the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and to the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement, respectively. Norway is also Party to the 1993 FAO Compliance Agreement since December 1994.
General geographic and economic indicators
Table 1 —Norway — General geographic and economic indicators
Source: FAO Country Profile
FAO Fisheries statisticsThe tables and graphs in this section are based on statistics prepared by the FAO Fishery Statistics and Information Unit and disseminated in 2012.
Table 2 —Norway — FAO fisheries statistics
Figure 1 — Norway — Total fishery production
Figure 2 — Norway — Composition of marine capture production — 2011
Figure 3 — Norway — Production of aquatic plants
Figure 4 — Norway — Capture production
Figure 5 — Norway — Major species groups in capture production
Figure 6 — Norway — Aquaculture production
Figure 7 — Norway —Major species groups in aquaculture production
Figure 8 — Norway — Import and export value of fish and fishery products
Figure 9 — Norway — Major species groups in import
Figure 10 — Norway — Major species groups in export
Figure 11 — Norway — Per capita supply of fish and fishery products
Figure 12 — Norway — Composition of total fish food supply — 2009
Updated 2011⇧Part II Narrative
Part II of the Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profile provides supplementary information that is based on national and other sources and that is valid at the time of compilation (see update year above). References to these sources are provided as far as possible.
Production sectorNorway has a long coastline, stretching 2 500 km from South to North. This increases to 25 000 kms when fjords, bays and islands, are included in the coastline. The country is surrounded by water to the south (Skagerak), the west (the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea) and the north and north-east (the Barents Sea).
The long Norwegian coastline is home to very rich fishing grounds, making Norway the biggest fishing nation in Europe. Aquaculture is an important part of the fisheries sector and the national economy. Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon accounts for over half of the world’s salmon supply.
The Norwegian fisheries and aquaculture sector is very modern and very advanced in terms of technology and management. The sector is extremely well documented through official reports and statistics, and therefore offers an opportunity for a thorough analysis of all aspects of it.
Over the past decade, total production has varied from 3.1 million tonnes (2006) to 3.5 million tonnes (2009). While landed catch has in general shown a declining trend, aquaculture production has increased steadily.
The inland fisheries are dominated by recreational fishermen and by farmers, who land limited quantities mainly for their own consumption.Marine sub-sectorNorway’s marine fishery sector can roughly be divided into the coastal sector and the offshore sector. The coastal sector is dominated by small vessels manned by 1-5 persons, while the offshore sector consists of larger vessels with a crew of up to 20 persons or more.
A number of foreign vessels also operate within Norway’s Exclusive Economic Zone, and some of their catch is landed in Norwegian ports.
Fishing activity takes place along the Norwegian coast, with most of the catch taken from within the EEZ. Arctic cod is taken from the boundary area between Russia and Norway; the Barents Sea is fished under annual agreements with Russia for cod, haddock and capelin.
Norway has established three zones of 200 nautical miles. There is a fishery protection zone around Svalbard and a fishery zone around Jan Mayen .
In addition, there is an adjacent area in the Barents Sea covered by an agreement between Russia and Norway regarding the division of this area between the two countries.
Figure 13 — Norway’s fishery zones
Catch profileOver the last few years, landings by Norwegian vessels in Norwegian ports have been fairly stable at around 2.5 million tonnes per year. However, there have been rather large variations within individual species groups.
In addition to the catch that is landed by Norwegian vessels, another 200 000 to 300 000 tonnes are landed in Norwegian ports by foreign vessels. Most of this catch is pelagic fish or cod and cod-like fish. The domestic fleet landed a total of 2.5 million tonnes in national ports in 2009, valued at about NOK 11.3 billion (USD 1.8 billion).
Eighteen percent of this was destined for reduction, the majority of which consisted of pelagic species. The second most important group in terms of landing volume, but highest in terms of value, was groundfish, which includes cod, haddock, redfish and pollack1.
The largest landing of a single species is herring. The landing of this species has increased by approximately 50 percent between 2006 and 2009. Landings of blue whiting declined significantly during this period. Landings of shrimp have also continued to decline. Other important species in terms of volume are capelin, cod and saithe.
Table 3 — Norwegian fisheries 2009
Cod is the most important species of the Norwegian marine capture fisheries by value. Although herring landings were more than four times that of cod in 2009, the considerably lower price for herring means its value was slightly less.
The capelin fishery has made a remarkable recovery. From 2006 to 2009, capelin landings increased more than ten-fold both in volume and value. Mackerel landings have been fairly stable, but price fluctuations have been considerable.
In 2009 over 45 percent of the national landings in foreign ports were fish for reduction. The amount of fish for reduction increased gradually, as did its relative importance in total landings.
In terms of value, cod and cod-like fish and pelagic fish each represented approximately half of the landings by foreign vessels in domestic ports (2009). Other species landed by foreign vessels in domestic ports include mackerel, herring and fish for reduction.
(1) Norwegian Fisheries 2009. Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen, July 2010Landing sitesNorway has a highly decentralized port structure, with landing sites for fish in many ports along the coast. These range from small fish landing sites to large industrial ports.
The many landing sites and ports along the coast require large resources in terms of management, administration, maintenance and development. The Coastal Authority (Kystverket) is responsible for the development and maintenance of some 800 public fishing ports.
Most of the landings are in the western counties and the three northernmost counties. The most important fishing county in terms of volume is Møre and Romsdal, followed by Sogn og Fjordanene and two of the northernmost counties, Nordland and Troms. This has to do with the proximity to fishing grounds, although a number of vessels registered in western counties are also very active in the Barents Sea, for example.
Catches from the cod fishery are mainly landed in the north, while mackerel and herring are landed further south.
Landed catch by county
Figure 14 — Norway — Fishing quantity 2008 —Tonnes round weight
Fishing practices/systemsNorway has a diversified and technologically advanced fishing fleet, encompassing everything from small one-man inshore fishing vessels to large trawlers and purse seiners. The number of vessels in the Norwegian fishing fleet has steadily declined over the years, but the landed quantities have remained relatively stable.
The largest reduction has been for the smallest vessels. The total number of fishing vessels decreased by 50 percent from 2000 to 2009.
Norwegian fishing vessels by size (overall length in metres)
Table 4 — Norway — Number of active vessels.
Source: Directorate of Fisheries
Removal of inactive fishing vessels from the Register of Norwegian Fishing Vessels and the introduction of an annual registration fee for vessels are the main reasons for the strong reduction in the number of smaller coastal vessels in the register. With regard to the larger coastal vessels and to the larger ocean-going vessels it is thought that the structural quota system is the main explanation for the reduction in the number of vessels. By comparing the number of vessels registered in the Register of Norwegian Fishing Vessels in 2008 and 2009 the following changes are noted:
The coastal fleet consists of relatively small vessels, mostly between 8 and 13 metres long. This fleet generally targets demersal species with a variety of fishing gear, including gill nets, hand-lines, long-lines and Danish seines. Cod are the main species both in terms of volume and value, followed by haddock, anglerfish and saithe. These vessels are operated by 1-2 fishermen and are on average 10.5 GT. Although these small coastal vessels represent over half of the fleet that operates throughout the year, they account for just seven percent of the total value of the landings.
The cod, saithe and shrimp-trawlers are one of the most important segments of the Norwegian fishing fleet. They are mostly owned by the processing industry and equipped with 15 or more crews. These trawlers target cod, which accounts for 60 percent of the value of this fishery, haddock, saithe, shrimp and Greenland halibut. Many of the vessels have two licences, one for cod fishing and the other for shrimp fishing.
With regard to the fishing gear used, there is still a dependency on high-volume oriented gear like purse seines and trawls. However, there is increasing interest in using more selective (and environment-friendly) gear like handline and long-line, which are the gears mostly used by the coastal fleet. Main resourcesMarine fisheries have traditionally been of great economic importance along the Norwegiancoastal waters, especially in the western and northern regions. The North Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak yield herring, sprat, cod and other groundfish, and the Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea give rise to Arcto-Norwegian cod, capelin, shrimp, herring and mackerel.
The most important Norwegian cod stock is the Arcto-Norwegian cod, which migrates between the economic zones of Norway and Russia. Despite the TAC regime, the stock declined in the 1970s, reaching a low point for both stock and catch in the late 1980s. It is argued that the degree of compliance with the TACs for the Arcto-Norwegian cod was very low, but strict regulation of the Norwegian share of the TAC in 1990-91 together with favourable climatic conditions lead to a partial recovery of the cod stock.
In the last few years, the cod stocks have shown signs of strong recovery thanks to improved co-management by Russia and Norway.
Many of the stocks in the North Sea are at a historically low level, especially demersal stocks, and are in need of protection. However, the Norwegian spring spawning herring is increasing due to large year classes and the mackerel stock is healthy.
Between three and five commercial vessels hunt seals in the East Ice2.Seals may also be hunted for recreational and specific research purposes. There are mainly two species of seal caught, harp and hooded seals. The number of seals caught decreased by 60 percent between 2000 (20 636) and 2009 (8 437). The seal meat is used for human consumption, as are the oils. The fur and the skin are processed into suede and leather for a variety of products.
Whaling by Norwegian vessels is carried out in the Norwegian zone of the North Sea, along the coast of northern Norway, eastwards and off Svalbard (Spitzbergen) and Jan Mayen. The catch is used for meat, blubber and animal feed. Norwegian minke whales are hunted using ordinary small fishing vessels, approximately 18 metres long, which are licensed for whaling.
Commercial whaling ceased between 1988 and 1992 after the 1986 moratorium imposed by the International Whaling Commission. However, whaling for research purposes was continued until 1991, when whaling completely ceased. As Norway opposed the decision and the moratorium was not binding, commercial whaling was resumed in 1993. Catch increased to 671 in 2002 but has since fallen back to 483 whales in 2009. The number of vessels whaling decreased significantly between 1998 and 2009, from 34 vessels in 1998 to 22 vessels in 2009.
(2) The “East Ice” covers an area east in the Barents Sea, north of Russia, including the White Sea (Kvitsjoen).Management applied to main fisheriesThe fundamental principle behind Norwegian management of living marine resources is that of sustainable harvest. The term ‘sustainable’ is generally defined as “a use or development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. In fisheries management, this can be interpreted as continuous harvesting of stocks in a viable condition. The aim of the Norwegian government is to have an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management in order to secure a sustainable harvest of marine living resources.
Sustainable harvest depends on healthy marine ecosystems. Maintaining the health of the sea is therefore a fundamental principle for all activities concerning fishing, sealing, whaling and aquaculture. Today, nearly all stocks with commercial value are regulated through quotas and licensing.
Norwegian fisheries have evolved into a highly regulated industry with quotas and licensing requirements. The most important fish stocks migrate between Norwegian and foreignwaters and, consequently, good governance requires close cooperation with neighbouring countries. This means that the most critical management decision – the amount of fish that can be harvested from a given stock – is an internationally determined premise for a domestic decision-making process.
A primary basis for determining fishing quotas is the advice and recommendation from the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Scientists from member countries develop the various recommendations through expert groups and advisory committees. After ICES has given its quota recommendations, the negotiations on management issues between Norway and other States take place.
After the international negotiations are finalised, the domestic regulation process for quota allocation begins. The Directorate of Fisheries makes proposals for domestic regulation. The involvement of stakeholders in management decisions is achieved through the Advisory Meeting for Fisheries Regulations representing fishermen’s associations, the fishing industries, trade unions, the Sami Parliament, local authorities, environmental organisations and other stakeholders.
As a final step in this process, the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs decides how the quotas should be shared between the vessels and sets out the technical regulations for how the fishing should be carried out in the following year.
The Norwegian management of living marine resources is based on the best available scientific advice. The implementation of an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management requires knowledge of the size of fish stocks and other characteristics, as well as knowledge of the ecosystems of which the stocks are a part. For most stocks of interest to Norway, assessments are made jointly with scientists from several countries under the aegis of ICES. The requirement that a vessel has to be registered to participate in commercial fisheries is a “weak” kind of input regulation in the fisheries. In addition, the fisheries authorities have introduced input regulations through licensing to control the total input in the most important fisheries. Licensing has been introduced for the larger vessels, whereas annual permits regulate the activity in the fisheries by the coastal fleet.
Management measures and institutional arrangements
The regulation of Norwegian fisheries is based on international law and cooperation. The Law of the Sea Convention constitutes the global legal framework for all uses of the ocean, and the UN Fish Stocks Agreement provides a legal basis for improved control of fisheries on the high seas.
Norway also participates in fisheries cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and in several global and regional agreements on marine environment. Norway is also a member of the International Whaling Commission, the global organisation for the management of whale stocks.
Norway has negotiated a series of agreements with neighbouring countries under which the parties have agreed to meet regularly to decide on management regimes and the distribution of quotas.
The most important of these agreements are with Russia and the EU. In addition, the coastal states of the North East Atlantic have entered into agreements on Norwegian spring-spawning herring and mackerel. Fisheries in the areas outside the national economic zones are managed by the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) in co-operation with the coastal states.
The seal stocks in the East Ice are managed by the Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Commission. The North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO) is a forum for co-operation on the conservation, management and study of marine mammals in general. Minke whale harvesting is managed unilaterally by Norway, since the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has not been in a position to set quotas for this hunt since 1982.
Regional fisheries management cooperation
Norway is currently a member of five Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs). For Norway, the most important are The North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) and the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO).
Regional fisheries management organisations have grown in extent and importance in recent years. This is partly due to the increasing number of fisheries on the high seas and the power given to them by the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement, and partly because they provide a platform for cooperation in combating IUU fishing.
Around 90 percent of Norway’s fisheries are conducted on stocks that are shared with other states. For the most important fish stocks, quota levels and management strategies are therefore set in cooperation with other countries. Norway has negotiated a series of agreements with neighbouring countries.
Norway and Russia share the cod, haddock and capelin stocks in the Barents Sea. Most of Norwegian cod exports are North East Arctic Cod. Close cooperation between the two countries is needed to ensure rational management of these fishery resources. The cooperation with Russia takes place in the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Commission. The Commission has a thirty-year history of developing management strategies and setting TACs (Total Allowable Catch) for shared stocks.
The cooperation with the EU on the management of joint stocks in the North Sea involves a larger number of shared stocks than between Russia and Norway. Norway and the EU have developed management strategies for several joint stocks. These strategies are intended to ensure a national harvesting pattern and stable catch levels. The parties have agreed on long-term management plans for cod, haddock, saithe and herring.
The agreement on bilateral fisheries collaboration between Norway and Greenland, signed in September 1991, is based on a common understanding of the need to exclude illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries (IUU) in each country’s exclusive economic zone. Under the agreement, vessels from Norway and Greenland are permitted to fish in each other’s exclusive economic zone.
Norway, Iceland and Russia have a trilateral fisheries agreement under which the northern fish stocks in the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are regulated through the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Commission.
Norway also has bilateral agreements with the Faroe Islands on fisheries. Norway conducts negotiations on quotas with the Faroe Islands every year.
Norwegian spring spawning herring
The Norwegian spring-spawning herring stock is the largest fish stock in the North Atlantic. On 18 January 2007, the EU, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Russia concluded an agreement on the management of the Norwegian spring-spawning herring stock, as a result of which fishing on all the main fish stocks in Norwegian waters were regulated.
Since 2002 the coastal states, the EU, the Faroe Islands and Norway have agreed on a management regime for the fisheries of mackerel in the North East Atlantic. This management regime aims to ensure that the stock remains at a sustainable level.
Agreement on blue whiting
In the late 1990s, there was an enormous expansion in the blue whiting fishery, and a coastal state agreement was necessary. In December 2005, after six years of negotiation, the coastal states (the EU, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway) concluded an agreement on the allocation and management of the blue whiting stock. The agreement was renewed for 2007 and it is to be renewed on an annual basis.Fishing communitiesIn general, fishermen are fully integrated in the coastal communities , although some communities are clearly more of a “fisheries” community than others. This is particularly true for small, isolated communities.
As the industry has become more centralized, and more of the production is done on board large factory vessels, a number of these communities are loosing inhabitants. Inland sub-sectorThe commercial inland fishery is negligible, with most inland fish taken recreationally. The majority of fishing in rivers and lakes is managed by recreational fishing provisions. Most of the commercial activities in inland fisheries are connected to rental of fishing rights to recreational fishermen. Commercial inland fishermen are required to register their gear before each season begins.
Regulations apply to both commercial and recreational fisheries. The fishing rights in rivers and lakes are attached to the adjoining land. The permission to fish must be sought from the landowner by commercial and recreational fishermen alike. There are no general restrictions on fishing gear used in different seasons, although there are local rules that may apply. Local fishing seasons are revised every year depending on stock assessments. These seasons subsequently vary between locations.Aquaculture sub-sectorThe production of farmed fish has risen steeply since the industry was established at the beginning of the 1970s as a supplement to agriculture, to the point that Norway now accounts for about half of the world production of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). During the last 40 years aquaculture has become an important industry, especially for small coastal communities, and an important source of foreign exchange. Most of the Norwegian sea-farms are cage systems located in the deep, sheltered fjords.
Modern salmon farming started in Norway in the late 1960s and early 1970s. At first, this was also a “backyard activity”, usually undertaken by fishermen or fisher/farmers along the coast. They had very little knowledge about aquaculture, they had practically no equipment, and they succeeded mainly by trial and error.
By 1970, Norwegian salmon farming was attracting some attention both in Norway and elsewhere. Production of farmed salmon was only 50 tonnes, plus some 430 tonnes of rainbow trout. Over the next 40 years, this industry was going to grow into one of the most important industries in Norway. In 2009, Norwegian production of farmed salmon had reached almost 860 000 tonnes, plus 76 000 tonnes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and the export value of salmon and trout was almost USD 4.0 billion.
Figure 15 — Norwegian farmed production of Atlantic salmon and trout 1970 – 2009
Directorate of Fisheries
The total volume farmed in 2009 was close to 1.0 million tonnes; the first-hand value of the aquaculture production in 2009 was NOK 22.0 billion (USD 3.5 billion). Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout farmed in sea cages are the two most important species farmed in Norway, representing approximately 97 percent of total production volume and value. In 2009, other important farmed species in volume were rainbow trout and cod.
There is also cultivation of shellfish, including mussels (1 649 tonnes in 2009), the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and scallops. Of these species, mussels are the most important both in terms of value and volume.
Table 5 — Norway - —Norwegian aquaculture production by speciesVolume in tonnes
The emergence of the aquaculture industry also led to important technological developments, as fish farmers needed better and more efficient equipment and methods of farming. This has in turn led to the development of an aquaculture technology industry in Norway. Today, products and systems are exported from this industry to countries all over the world.Recreational sub-sectorNorwegian waters and rivers have been popular with recreational fishermen for centuries. Previously it was the salmon rivers that attracted most fishermen, but in recent years a number of tourists from continental Europe have found sea fishing to be exciting. Large numbers of recreational fishermen — particularly from Germany — have come to Norway to fish cod.
The coastal fish stocks in Norway are under pressure and the Government makes an effort to ensure that future generations will also be able to enjoy fishing as a sport or recreation in Norway. The fish in the sea are free for all, but it is the authorities’ responsibility to safeguard fish stocks for the future. Recreational fishermen must therefore observe the following rules:
In 2009 approximately 706 tonnes of fish were caught by recreational fishermen, of which 291 tonnes were caught in the sea and 415 tonnes in rivers. Salmon was the most abundant fish, both in the sea (283 tonnes in 2009) and in rivers (312 tonnes). There are no statistics for other species caught by recreational fishers.
Post-harvest sectorFish utilizationNorway has to a large extent been — and still is — a producer of raw materials and semi-processed products for the seafood industry. Most of the processing consists of salting, drying, filleting, packing and freezing. However, there is also some production of processed products such as frozen fish fingers, fish balls and fish cakes. The canning industry (mainly sardines and mackerel) has stagnated in recent years due to high costs of operation.
Traditionally, a relatively large part of the Norwegian catch has been used for reduction purposes. However, over the last five years, this has changed dramatically. In 2005, 32 percent of the landed catch (aquaculture production not included) went for reduction purposes, while in 2009, this had been reduced to 18 percent. During the same period, Norwegian imports of fish meal and fish oil increased, as the aquaculture industry had a growing demand for fish feed.
The processing industry mainly consists of a large number of small and medium-sized businesses scattered along the coastline. The majority of plants produce saltfish, stockfish and klipfish. Saltfish is usually made from cod, ling, tusk or saithe. The fish is headed, bled, split, the backbone removed, and is then laid in salt for three weeks. Stockfish is usually cod or haddock cured by being split and dried in the open air without salt, and klipfish is salted and dried cod. In 2009, 20 961 tonnes of klipfish were exported to Portugal, while 28 108 tonnes were exported to Brazil. Other major exports of cod products were frozen fillets (United Kingdom), salted fish (Portugal) and stockfish to Italy.
Although salting, drying and smoking processes are still the most common forms of processing, the number of plants producing these products has been decreasing and making way for other processes and products, such as frozen ready-to-eat products and fish oils and fishmeal.
The last decade has seen a number of changes in the Norwegian fish processing industry driven by high costs, negative trends in exchange rates and increasing difficulties in accessing EU markets. There has been substantial investment in modern facilities and equipment, including quality assurance, skills development and marketing initiatives. The industry has rationalised somewhat with a concentration of ownership in the whitefish sector and the sector processing pelagic fish such as herring, capelin and mackerel. A number of producers also relocated to EU countries where costs were lower and market access more favourable.
Table 6 – Norway - Norwegian production of fishery commodities — Volume in tonnes.
Source: FAO Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics
Utilization of farmed fish is very different from utilization of the wild catch. Practically all of the farmed fish goes for human consumption and only waste products (offal processing waste) are used for reduction purposes. Most of the salmon is exported as fresh gutted fish, but an increasing share is now being exported as fillets and loins.
In 2007, a total number of companies declined compared to 2006, but the number of employees increased slightly. However, the total number of employees in fish processing was reduced substantially between 2000 and 2007.
Table 7 — Norway — Companies and employment in fish processing by major sub-sector
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics
Fishermen’s sales organisations manage and coordinate the sale of the catch. These organisations are independent and based on direct membership of the fishermen and indirect membership through fisheries associations. There are six such organisations throughout Norway, including the Norwegian Raw Fish Organisation, which deals with fish, shellfish, molluscs and small whales landed in Norway between Nordmøre and Finnmark, and the organisation Norges Sildesalgslag, which deals with the sale of pelagic fish.
Most domestic retail fish sales are today channelled through the supermarkets, be it in frozen or fresh or other form. The Norwegian market is dominated by just a few supermarket chains, most of which have fresh fish counters. In addition, there is a small number of specialist fishmonger stores, mainly in the large cities.
For information on export markets, please see the section “Exports” under paragraph 6.2 Trade.
Socio-economic contribution of the fishery sectorRole of fisheries in the national economyThe share of Norway’s gross domestic product (GDP) derived from fishing, sealing and whaling and fish farming was 0.45 percent in 2009, which is a decrease from 0.8 percent in 1978. This is slightly lower than agriculture, hunting and forestry (0.47 percent in 2009). The highest contributor to GDP is the oil and gas extraction industry (21.0 percent in 2009).
The fishing industry plays an important role in many of the coastal areas, where a considerable number of people rely on the industry for employment. Alongside fishing activities, employment is generated indirectly through shipbuilding, gear manufacturing, packaging and transport of fish products. Fishing vessels and processing plants are largely privately owned and run, with most services and infrastructure being public.
Table 8 — Norway — Contribution to GNP in million NOK (2008)
Source: Sandberg et al., 2010
The total supply of seafood in Norway has been relatively stable over time, although the trend shows a slight growth. In 2007, total supplies showed a slight increase compared to a decade earlier. Seafood consumption per caput has been relatively stable at around 50 kg per person per year since the mid-1990s.
Non-food uses of fish supplies have declined over the past decade. This is in spite of the growing aquaculture industry, which requires more and more fish meal and fish oil for fish feed.
Table 9 — Norway — Food balance sheet of fish and fishery products in live weight
There is a long tradition of fish consumption in Norway. Norwegians have an annual supply of 51.9 kg of fish and fish products per caput3. Over the last decade there has been an increase in consumption in fish and fishery products by the 30 to 50 year age group, while the consumption by other age groups has been decreasing.
Fish accounts for approximately 16 percent of the average daily protein intake of Norwegians (17.1 g per day per caput). This is less than provided by meat (20.7 g per day per caput), milk (23.1 g per day per caput) and cereal (excluding beer, 29.9 g per day per caput) protein sources.
Total household consumption of seafood in Norway in 2008 amounted to 87 569 tonnes4 including fish that was caught by the consumer himself or received as gift. This constitutes an increase of about 1 percent since 2007. From 2007 to 2008 the value of seafood sold through the retail sector increased by 4 percent to NOK 5.5 billion (MVA included). In the period from 1997 to 2008 there was a nominal increase in sales of 69 percent by volume and 13 percent by value.
Norwegian seafood consumption is dominated by large size species, such as cod and salmon. Since the early 1990s, salmon has been a driving force in the increase in seafood consumption in Norway.
Table 10 — Norway — The seven most popular species consumed in NorwaySales value in NOK million.
Source: Norwegian Seafood Export Council
Consumption is changing in terms of both species and preservation method. There are several developments that contribute to this. A major factor is the urbanization of the population, which tends to result in higher sales of frozen ready-to-eat products. One-person households also contribute to this trend. The share of one-person households has increased from 4 percent in 1960 to 18 percent in 2009.
The ageing of the population in general results in higher consumption of seafood. At present, more than 33 percent of the total population are age 50 or older. This group accounts for some 60 percent of all seafood purchases.
The longer life expectancy of the population also means that more people will spend their last years in an institution. This leads to increased consumption through the HoReCa5 sector At present, the HoReCa sector buys seafood worth approximately NOK 2 billion (USD 318 million) per year, and this is expected to increase.
One important factor in this regard is the fact that in 2008 almost 10 percent of the total population (over 450 000 persons) consisted of first or second generation immigrants. These people and their children have grown up with food traditions that are different from the ethnic Norwegians. Until now, no analysis of the impact of this has been done, but it is expected that the large group of immigrants from Asian countries will consume large amounts of seafood.
There is an increasing national and international demand for seafood safety and quality certification . In response to this the Norwegian Food Safety Authority was launched at the beginning of 2004; it is responsible for seafood safety and quality, as well as fish health and ethically acceptable farming of fish.
Although Norway exports about 90 percent of its production, in recent years imports have grown significantly. This is partly because of the need to import fishmeal, fish oil and fish feed for its growing aquaculture industry.
In 2009 the value of imports was approximately 12 percent more than in 2008. The largest single import item in 2009 was fish meal and pellets for animal feed, representing approximately 34 percent of the import value. Since the mid-1990s both import volume and value have increased. One of the most imported fish products are fish oils, as well as fresh or chilled whole fish. Most imports are sourced from South America and EU Member States, in particular the UK and Denmark.
Table 11 — Norway — Norwegian imports of seafood
Source: Norwegian Seafood Export Council, 2010. — Volume in tonnes (product weight); Value in NOK 1000
Source: Norwegian Seafood Export Council, 2010 — Volume in tonnes (product weight); Value in NOK 1000
Norway is the second largest fish and fishery product exporting nation in the world. The EU countries, in particular France and Denmark, are the largest market. Other important destinations include Russia, Poland and Japan. In terms of value, the fisheries sector is the second largest single export industry, after oil and gas, and represented 5.7 percent of total Norwegian exports in 2009.
Approximately 90 percent of the landed and farmed fish is exported; the remaining 10 percent is sold in the domestic markets. The value of exported fish (both wild caught and farmed) has increased steadily and substantially. In 2009 it reached almost NOK 45 billion (USD 7.2 billion).
Frozen, fresh and chilled whole fish are the major export products. Frozen fish are mainly destined for non-OECD countries and Japan, with fresh and chilled fish largely destined for the EU.
Table 13 — Norway — Norwegian exports of seafood by species
Source: Norwegian Seafood Export Council, 2010. — Volume in tonnes (product weight); Value in NOK 1000
Table 14 — Norway — Norwegian exports of seafood by major markets
Source: Norwegian Seafood Export Council, 2010. — Volume in tonnes (product weight); Value in NOK 1000
(3)Round (gutted) weight. Source: FAO: Food Balance Sheet of Fish and Fishery Products in Live Weight and Fish Contribution to Protein Supply, FAO, Rome, 2010(4) Lien, Kristin: Markedsrapport Norsk Konsum av Sjømat 2009 (Market Report Norwegian Consumption of Seafood 2009). Norwegian Seafood Export Council, Tromsø, 2010.(5)HoReCa = Hotel, Restaurant and CateringFood securitySecuring a safe, nutritionally adequate and culturally acceptable supply of food is a priority for Norwegian authorities. Fisheries and aquaculture play a major role in Norwegian food security. Norway produces a huge surplus of seafood which is exported to foreign markets. Production is year-round, albeit with some seasonal variations, particularly for capture fisheries. Even so, domestic production of seafood would be able to substitute most of the imports of other animal proteins.EmploymentOver the last fifty years the number of active fishermen decreased significantly. This can to some extent be attributed to the increased efficiency in fishing methods and equipment, resulting in labour being substituted by capital, but the most important reason is the general economic development of the country and creation of more attractive employment opportunities. The highest employment in full- and part-time fishing is found in the northern regions of Norway, while the south has the least.
The Register of Fishermen in 2009 indicated that the long-term reduction in the total number of fishermen continued.
Table 15 — Norway — Number of fishermen
Source: Directorate of Fisheries, 2010
Table 16 – Norway - Employment in the fisheries, aquaculture and supporting industries (2008) - No. of man/years
Source: Sandberg et al., 2010
As in earlier years the northern counties Finnmark, Troms and Nordland and the counties of Møre og Romsdal, Sogn og Fjordane and Hordaland on the west coast of Norway had the highest number of registered fishermen in 2009. By comparing the number of fishermen registered in the register in 2009 with the number of fishermen in 2000 more long term trends are shown. Such a comparison shows the following:
Trends, issues and developmentConstraints and opportunitiesGiven that Norway exports a significant proportion of its fish, global market conditions are particularly important to the further development of the fisheries sector. World market prices for frozen finfish fillets have been falling because of increased availability of cheaper products from Russia, Alaska, South America and Asia. European Union trade barriers have also increased in the form of customs duty on processed fish products. It reduced the profitability of the Norwegian fisheries sector and will continue to be an important determinant in the sector’s performance.
In recent years operating costs — particularly the high labour costs in Norway — have made Norway less competitive. This has in part been compensated by increased efficiency and mechanisation, both in fisheries, aquaculture and processing. On the other hand, growing demand for seafood on a global basis represents an opportunity for further growth in Norway.
One of the constraints that may affect both the fisheries and the aquaculture is competition for marine areas from other activities. Along the coast, there is competition from sea transport, tourism and recreational activities. On the open sea, there is competition from, particularly, the offshore oil industry. However, the Government has tried to address these potential conflicts by establishing development plans for a number of areas along the coast.
Market access has been a constraint to the development of the industry, but through various trade agreements, the authorities have managed to gain access to the main markets. Norway is not a member of the EU, and is not expected to become one in the foreseeable future. This may pose a few problems, but in general it seems that the EU and other markets are quite dependent on supplies of seafood from Norway.
Norway is endowed with excellent natural resources. The marine fish resources now appear to be well managed, and some stocks are increasing. There is still room for expansion of the aquaculture industry, and Norwegian production of seafood may therefore grow somewhat in the future. Government and non-government sector policies and development strategiesA master plan for Norwegian fisheries development was adopted by the Norwegian Parliament (Storting) in 1998. Key policy elements include responsible management of resources, increased marketing efforts and product development, and better utilization of secondary products, including heads and guts.
In March 2002 the Government produced a White Paper stating the need for the principle of sustainable development to be integrated into management plans. More specific targets set by the White Paper include further development of the fishing industry and the implementation of an ecosystem-based management and precautionary approach. The White Paper also acknowledges the need to strike a balance between commercial interests, e.g. fisheries, aquaculture and the petroleum industry, and the need to protect the marine environment and biological diversity. Other future governmental plans are to reduce the fleet capacity to a level that will allow profitable harvesting of the marine resources in a sustainable way.
In order to meet these objectives the Government has made plans to place more emphasis on research into the marine ecosystem and to establish a new comprehensive legal framework (“Marine Resources Law”) covering all living marine resources. The purpose of the Act is to ensure sustainable and economically profitable management of wild living marine resources and to promote employment and settlement in coastal communities.Research, education and trainingResearchNorwegian scientists cooperate closely with other countries and research organizations such as the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Chilean and Norwegian scientists cooperate on research into aquaculture.
Universities provide the core of basic research and the education of scientists, with the Universities of Tromsø, Bergen and Oslo prominent in this respect. The most central research institutions within fisheries and aquaculture are:
In secondary school, a program gives the candidate a two-year theoretical orientation plus two years of practical training qualifying the candidate for an occupational certificate.
A total of 32 secondary schools offer programmes in fisheries and aquaculture. In addition, 11 universities and colleges offer degrees in various specialised fields within fisheries and aquaculture and related fields, such as marine biology, aquaculture technology, fish health etc. The universities also offer doctoral degrees in these fields.
The main educational institution for tertiary education in fisheries and aquaculture is the Norwegian College of Fisheries Science at the University of Tromsø. This college also offers courses and degrees to foreign students, and a great number of students from developing countries have received their degrees from this university. Foreign aidNorway has earned a reputation for being far advanced in fisheries research, fisheries administration and aquaculture, and a number of developing countries have therefore requested Norway’s assistance in these fields. Norwegian development assistance is focused mainly on bilateral programmes, but is also involved in a number of multilateral fisheries programmes. The most well-known programme is the “EAF Fridtjof Nansen programme”, which assists developing countries, particularly in Africa, in mapping their fisheries resources.
Institutional frameworkThe Norwegian fisheries and aquaculture sector is characterized by powerful organizations representing private sector interests. There are approximately 20 such organizations6.In addition, there are six sales organizations, seven production organizations, and another 26 sector organizations for various purposes.
Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal AffairsThe Ministry functions as the secretariat for the Minister of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs and exercises its administrative authority through such tasks as drafting and implementing laws and regulations.
The Ministry has a staff of approximately 110. Broken down by gender there is almost an equal number of men and women.
The Ministry was created in 1946 and Norway was the first country in the world to establish a separate ministry for fisheries.
Figure 16 – Norway - Internal organisation chart of The Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs
The Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs is responsible for the following areas:
The Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs is organized into three departments:
Figure 17 – Norway - Agencies and institutions attached to the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs
Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs (http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/fkd)
Department of Aquaculture, Seafood and Markets
The Department of Aquaculture, Seafood and Markets is responsible for the regulatory framework for and supervision of the aquaculture industry, including fish health and environmental sustainability.
Safe and healthy seafood falls under the department's responsibility, as does monitoring of seafood products throughout the entire production chain, including fish feed. Another integral area of responsibility is trade policy and market access, at the global (WTO), European (EU-EEA) and regional/bilateral level (EFTA).
The department bases its work on the value chain concept (“from fjord to table”) and helps to create value-added products through joint marketing, funded by the industry and administered by the Norwegian Seafood Export Council.
The department is responsible for following up on the legislation and regulatory framework of the Aquaculture Act, the act relating to the export of fish and fish products, the Food Act, and the act relating to animal welfare where it applies to seafood and aquaculture.
Department of Research and Innovation
The Department of Research and Innovation is responsible for research and innovation policy, regional policy and port and maritime transport policy, including the National Transport Plan. The department is responsible for national budget work, audits, financial management, subsidy administration and targets and performance management.
Supervision of the Directorate of Fisheries, the Norwegian Coastal Administration, the Institute of Marine Research, the National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), the National Veterinary Institute and the Fishery and Aquaculture Industry Research Fund also falls within the department's area of responsibility. Additionally, the department is also responsible for governance of NOFIMA Ltd and The Norwegian Seafood Export Council Ltd.
Nordic cooperation and aid matters as well as financing and operation of the infrastructure for Jan Mayen also rest with this department.
Department of Marine Resources and Coastal Management
Matters relating to fisheries, the marine environment and coastal management are the responsibility of the Department of Marine Resources and Coastal Management.
The portfolio of this department contains a wide range of topics, including quota negotiations and international fisheries agreements, IUU-fishing, coordination of area and environmental policies, regulation and access of fishing licences and permits, capacity adjustment schemes for the fishing fleet, petroleum matters, maritime safety and emergency preparedness system for acute pollution.
The department is responsible for the implementation and follow-up of the Marine Resource Act, Deltakerloven (act relating to fisheries participation), Pilotage Act, Farvannloven (act relating to ports and waterways) and Råfiskloven (act relating to marketing of raw fish).
Directorate of Fisheries
The Directorate of Fisheries, with its main office in Bergen, acts as the Ministry’s advisory and executive body in matters concerning fishing and the management of aquaculture. The Directorate of Fisheries’ role is to provide professional input in the policy-making process.
The Directorate was created in 1900, and its main goal is to promote profitable economic activity through sustainable and user-oriented management of marine resources and the marine environment.
The Directorate provides professional input to the policy making process by way of analyses, statistics and advice, by proposing and preparing legislature and regulative work and through regulation planning development. The Directorate also has an important role in managing and controlling fisheries, fish processing and aquaculture.
The Directorate is headed by the Director General of Fisheries, and has three main departments: Resource Management Department, Aquaculture and Coastal Department, and the Statistics Department. In addition, there is an Administrative Affairs Department, an IT Department, and a unit for Corporate Communications.
In addition to the head office in Bergen, the Directorate of Fisheries in Bergen is organised in seven regions and more than 20 local offices.
The regions are responsible for the Directorate’s resource management and control activities regionally (at county level) and locally (at municipal level). The functions can be divided into the following categories:
With a staff of close to 700, the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) is the largest marine research institution in Norway and a leading organisation within scientific investigations and advice on marine ecosystems and aquaculture. The Institute is the main adviser to the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs on these issues.
Traditional marine monitoring programmes have generally focused on individual elements of the ecosystem, such as a single fish species or a single environmental factor. The IMR now takes a holistic approach to marine ecology, using modern research vessels and facilities to monitor and study the whole marine ecosystem. By measuring all components of the ecosystem simultaneously it offers new and improved prospects for understanding ecological relationships.
The Institute monitors and studies the ecosystems of the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea, and the North Sea, as well as the ecosystems in the coastal zone. The Institute operates a fleet of seven modern research vessels.
The Norwegian Coastal Administration
The Coastal Administration is present along the whole of the Norwegian coast, and delivers a variety of services for all kinds of users of Norwegian waters. It is the responsibility of the Coastal Administration to ensure a good national preparedness against pollution.
The Coastal Administration’s most important tasks are:
The Norwegian Coastal Administration is headed by a Director General, who reports directly to the Department of Fisheries and the Minister of Fisheries. The head office of the Norwegian Coastal Administration is located in Ålesund.
The Norwegian Coastal Administration has divided the coast into five coastal regions with regional offices in Arendal, Haugesund , Ålesund, Kabelvåg and Honningsvåg. These five offices have been delegated the responsibility of running daily operations within their geographical areas.
The Norwegian Coast Guard
The Norwegian Coast Guard is a military force and part of the Royal Norwegian Navy, but has separate vessels, many of which are purpose-built. Four of these vessels are capable of embarking one or more helicopters. Norway's exclusive economic zone, the Coast Guard's area of responsibility, is about 2.2 million square kilometers, the largest in Western Europe.The flag of the Coast Guard is the international inspection pennant as ratified by the North Sea Fisheries Convention of 1882.
The Coast Guard was established on 1 April 1977. Before that, the functions of a coast guard had been carried out by different organisations within the Royal Norwegian Navy. One of the oldest of these organisations were groups of navy ships organised to prevent foreign ships from fishing in Norwegian territorial waters. A Coast Guard division named Det Regionale Sjømilitære Fiskerioppsyn (The Regional Navy Fisheries Surveillance) has now taken on that responsibility. The Coast Guard at present has a fleet of 13 surveillance vessels.
Together with the Directorate of Fisheries and the sales associations, the Coast Guard is responsible for exercising resource control. The Coast Guard is subordinated to the Ministry of Defence and one of its primary missions is to monitor the fisheries.
Norwegian Seafood Export CouncilTo promote exports of Norwegian seafood all over the world, the Norwegian Seafood Export Council (NSEC) was established by law in 1990, replacing a total of 13 different seafood promoting organisations which until then had had this task. In September 2005 the institution was made a limited company. The NSEC is governed by a Board of Directors.
The NSEC has its headquarters in Tromsø in the north of Norway, and representative offices in Germany (Hamburg), France (Paris), Spain (Madrid), Portugal (Lisbon), Italy (Milano), Russia (Moscow), Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), Japan (Tokyo), Singapore, China (Beijing) and the USA (Boston).
The NSEC is financed by an export levy on all seafood exports. The NSEC registers and approves exporters and acts as an advisor to the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs. The main activities of the NSEC include:
Marketing is designed to increase demand for Norwegian seafood. The NSEC is promoting all Norwegian seafood products that the organization feels will benefit the industry. The joint marketing efforts serve as support to the exporters’ own sales efforts and the NSEC initiates marketing activities in consultation with the exporters.
The NSEC has established special marketing groups for salmon and trout, whitefish (cod, saithe, haddock etc.), shrimp, conventional products (saltfish, klipfish, stockfish) and pelagic fish (herring, mackerel and capelin), and a separate group for the Norwegian market. In addition, there is a resource group for new species. The various groups include more than 70 respresentatives of the industry. On an annual basis, the NSEC undertakes about 600 different activities in 25 markets.
NSEC functions as the industry’s central source of statistics and trade information about Norwegian seafood, and the organization undertakes a continuous surveillance of world markets. Information about competing countries is collected, analysed and communicated to the industry. Which analyses to do are determined in consultation with the exporters. Every month the NSEC publishes exports statistics which are distributed to the exporters. The objective for the market information activities is to give the industry, the authorities and the NSEC itself a sound and reliable basis for decision making. On an annual basis an average of about eight market seminars are organised.
The Norwegian seafood industry should have at least as good a competitive situation and access to markets as its competitors. Consequently, the NSEC has established a system whereby exporters are fed information about import quotas in main markets, customs tariffs and trading conditions in the various markets. In these areas the NSEC provides continuous advice to the exporters.
PR, information and crisis management
NSEC shall contribute to the industry’s good reputation through actively informing the media. Press stipends, press tours and PR activities should increase the general awareness of Norwegian seafood in world markets.
Preparedness for crisis situations and crisis management is a priority area for NSEC. To safeguard the good reputation of the industry and Norwegian seafood is extremely important in the long run.
The NSEC web pages (www.seafood.no) make all this information readily available to exporters, the media and consumers.
National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES)
NIFES is a research institute with administrative duties, linked to the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs. The institute's research focus is nutrition: feed for fish - and fish as food. The institute gives scientific advice to the government and food authorities concerning health and safety aspects of seafood from both wild catch and aquaculture.
The institute is independent of the fishery industry and the research results are published in international scientific peer reviewed journals and made available to the general public via the institute’s web pages. The results are used by the EU in determining upper maximum limits for contaminants in feed and food, such as dioxins, mercury and arsenic.
Norwegian Food Safety Authority
The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) is a governmental body, operating on a national basis, whose aim is to ensure that food and drinking water are as safe and healthy as possible for consumers.
NFSA is responsible for the monitoring and enforcement of legislation concerning the production and distribution of food. This includes business activities within primary production, food industries, grocery stores, all kinds of food catering and some import, such as import of animals, food and plants.
NFSA also inspects and licenses veterinarians and other animal health personnel, businesses who deal in by-products (for instance waste from slaughtered animals) and anyone who cares for animals. Furthermore, the NFSA inspects industries producing cosmetics and body care products, as well as the distribution of medicinal products sold outside of pharmacies.
In addition, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority’s role is to draft and provide information about legislation, perform risk-based inspections, monitor food safety as well as plant, fish and animal health and provide updates on developments in these fields.
National Veterinary Institute
The National Veterinary Institute is a biomedical contingency and research institution in the fields of fish health, animal health and welfare, feed and food safety. The National Veterinary Institute shall provide unbiased and scientifically independent services.
The National Veterinary Institute is the main adviser to the Norwegian National Authorities on matters relating to prevention, diagnosis and management of serious infectious disease in fish and terrestrial animals as well as zoonotics. The National Veterinary Institute provides additional services in prevention and management of crises related to hazardous constituents and infectious agents in feedstuffs and food.
The National Veterinary Institute also provides services and advice to industry, other scientific bodies and to animal owners, and has played an important role in the development of the aquaculture industry.
The Central Bureau of Statistics
Statistics Norway (The Central Bureau of Statistics) was formally established as an independent entity in 1876.
Statistics Norway is an independent institution in its field which includes a comprehensive research activity. This means that Statistics Norway is responsible for the total statistical product within the guidelines and budgets set by superior bodies, determines the statistical methods which are to form the basis for preparation of given statistics, is responsible for how and when statistics are published as well as for economic statistics and research.
In cooperation with Norwegian Customs and the Norwegian Seafood Export Council, Statistics Norway publishes very detailed weekly and monthly export and import statistics for seafood products.
The Fishery and Aquaculture Industry Research Fund
The Fishery and Aquaculture Industry Research Fund is a funding scheme for industrial research and development work within fisheries and aquaculture, and is based on a levy of 0.3 percent on all exported fish and fish products. The funds shall be used for industrial R&D work for the benefit of all or part of the industry, and are distributed in the form of grants for research programmes and major projects. The levying of a research and development tax in the fisheries and aquaculture industry came into force on 1 January 2001.
The tax funds are administered by a Board appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs. Board members are representatives from the fisheries and aquaculture industry. The primary duty of the board is to develop short- and long-term strategies for the fisheries and aquaculture industry for using funds from the R&D tax, based on an ongoing dialogue with the entire industry. The board also distributes the research funds and stipulates the terms for the allocation of funds in accordance with strategies drawn up. It is also their responsibility to follow up the R&D initiatives.
The Research Council of Norway and the Norwegian Industrial and Regional Development Fund are important partners in both strategy planning and the co-funding of R&D work in the fisheries and aquaculture industry.
The Fishery and Aquaculture Industry Research Fund reports to the Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs through annual reports.
Nofima is a business oriented research group working in research and development for the aquaculture, fisheries and food industry in Norway. Nofima was established on 1 January 2008, and has about 470 employees. The group's total turnover in 2008 was about NOK 470 million (USD 83.4 million). The group's main office is located in Tromsø in northern Norway, while the research divisions are located in six places: Ås, Stavanger, Bergen, Sunndalsøra, Averøy and Tromsø.
Nofima shall, in cooperation with business actors and their professional organisations, provide research and solutions at an international level which will give a competitive edge throughout the value chain. Business areas include:
(6) A complete overview of fisheries organizations in Norway, as well as a listing of all private sector companies and organizations, can be found in Tande, Thorvald jr. (Ed.): Organisasjoner i Fiskerinæringen 2010 (Organizations in the Fisheries Sector 2010). Published by Norsk Fiskerinæring AS, Råholt, Norway, 2009
Legal frameworkNorway has around two million km2 of sea under its jurisdiction. A 200 nautical mile economic zone was established in 1977. Norway ratified the UN Agreement on Straddling Fish Stocks and Migrating Fish Stocks and the UN Convention on the Law Of the Sea in 1996.
Representatives of the Norwegian fishing industry and governmental authorities cooperate in the formulation of the regulatory regime. A regulatory council with representatives from both parties debate on the distribution of quotas within the fishing industry and provide advice for the Ministry of Fisheries. The Ministry then decides on the final management strategies.
Laws and regulations regulating the fishing operations
There are three basic Acts upon which the management of fishing licences and other management options for the Norwegian fishing fleet are based:
The Marine Resources Act of 6 June 2008 no. 37 is relating to the management of wild living marine resources. This Act applies to all harvesting and other utilization of wild living marine resources and genetic material derived from them.
The purpose of this Act is to ensure sustainable and economically profitable management of wild living marine resources and genetic material derived from them, and to promote employment and settlement in Norway's coastal communities.
The wild living marine resources belong to the Norwegian society as a whole.
Laws regulating aquaculture
The main purpose of the Aquaculture Act is to promote the profitability and competitiveness of the aquaculture industry within the framework of sustainable development. The Aquaculture Act establishes the framework for the aquaculture industry’s future through responsible development with due regard for the environment and effective use of the coastal zone.
The Act has a strong environmental profile. At the same time, the relationship between the use of the coastal zone and different user interests is taken into account. The environmental and land use provisions are intended to contribute to a good coexistence between the aquaculture industry and other public interests.
In aquaculture production, the welfare of the animals is important both ethically and for ensuring high-quality products. The Animal Welfare Act sets out general rules for animal husbandry.
Animals shall be treated well and not be subject to unnecessary stress and strain. Further, an animal may only be kept for as long as it is deemed proper to the animal’s welfare. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority determines whether an application for a licence is in compliance with the Animal Welfare Act. The purpose of the Act is to promote animal welfare and respect for animals.
The Food Act is intended to ensure food safety and promote health benefits, quality and consumer considerations throughout the entire aquaculture production chain. The Act applies to all aspects of aquaculture production and processing, as well as distribution of intermediate inputs at the primary food production level. The act also includes general requirements and obligations to ensure compliance with the purpose of the Act.
AnnexesADDRESSES TO CENTRAL INSTITUTIONS
Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs
(Fiskeri- og kystdepartementet)
P.O. Box 8118 DEP
0032 Oslo, Norway
Tel.: +47 2224 9090
Fax: +47 2224 9585
Norwegian Seafood Federation
(Fiskeri- og Habruksnæringens Landsforening)
Middelthuns gate 27
P.O. Box 5471 Majorstuen
0305 Oslo, Norway
Tel.: +47 9911 0000
Norwegian College of Fisheries Science
University of Tromsø
9037 Tromsø, Norway
Tel.: +47 7764 6000
Fax: +47 7764 6020
The Norwegian Seafood Association
(Norske Sjømatbedrifters Landsforening)
Dronningens gate 7
P.O. Box 639 Sentrum
7406 Trondheim, Norway
Tel.: +47 7384 1400
Fax: +47 7384 1401
Central Bureau of Statistics
Kongens gate 6
P.O. Box 8131 DEP
0033 Oslo, Norway
Tel.: +47 2109 0000
Norwegian Seafood Export Council
(Eksportutvalget for fisk AS)
P.O. Box 6176
9291 Tromsø, Norway
Tel.: +47 7760 3333
Fax: +47 7768 0012
Institute of Marine Research
P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes
5817 Bergen, Norway
Tel.: +47 5523 8500
Fax: +47 5523 8531
National Institute for Food and Seafood Research (NIFES)
(Nasjonalt institutt for ernærings- og sjømatforskning)
P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes
5817 Bergen, Norway
Tel.: +47 55 90 51 00
Fax: +47 55 90 52 99
National Veterinary Institute
P.O. Box 750 Sentrum
N-0106 Oslo, Norway
Tel.: +47 2321 6000
Fax: +47 2321 6001
The Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Fund
(Fiskeri- og havbruksnæringens forskningsfond (FHF))
Tollbugata 32, Oslo
P.O. Box 429 Sentrum
0103 Oslo, Norway
Tel.: +47 2389 6408
Fax: +47 2389 6409
(Nofima Head Office)
Muninbakken 9-13 Breivika,
PO Box 6122
9291 Tromsø, Norway
Tel: +47 7762 9000
Fax: +47 7762 9100
Norwegian Fishermen’s Sales Organization
P.O. Box 6162
9291 Tromsø, Norway
Tel.: +47 7766 0100
Fax: +47 7768 6989
The Norwegian Fishermen’s Association
7462 Trondheim, Norway
Tel.: +47 7354 5850
Fax: +47 7354 5890
Central Bureau of Statistics. 2010 Statistical Yearbook 2010. Oslo 2010.
Directorate of Fisheries.. Key figures for the Norwegian aquaculture sector (Nøkkeltall fra norsk havbruksnæring 2010), Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen, July 2010 (ISBN 82-91065-15-2).
Directorate of Fisheries. 2010. Key economic and biological figures for the Norwegian fisheries sector (Nøkkeltall fra norsk havbruksnæring 2010), Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen, July 2010 (ISBN 82-91065-15-2).
Directorate of Fisheries. 2010. Fiskefartøy og fiskarar, konsesjonar og årlege deltagaradgangar (Fishing vessels and fishers, licenses and annual participation permits), Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen, April 2010. .
FAO. Food Balance Sheet of Fish and Fishery Products in Live Weight and Fish Contribution to Protein Supply. Rome, FAO.
Flaten, Ola and Shuji Hisano.[nd]. Food Security Policy in a Food Importing Country: The Case of Norway. Paper published in the Japanese journal Nougyou to Keizai (Agriculture and Economy), Vol. 73, No. 8, pp 129 – 136. Translated by Shuji Hisano. .
Gjøsæter, H., Haug, T., Hauge, M., Karlsen, Ø., Knutsen, J.A., Røttingen, I., Skilbrei, O., Sunnset, B.H. (red.). Havforskningsrapporten 2010 (The Ocean Research Report 2010). In Fisken og havet, special publication no. 1–2010.
Lien, Kristin. 2010. Markedsrapport Norsk Konsum av Sjømat 2009 (Market Report Norwegian Consumption of Seafood 2009). Norwegian Seafood Export Council, Tromsø.
Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs. 2010. Facts about fisheries and aquaculture 2009. Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs, Oslo.
Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs.2007 Norwegian Fisheries Management. Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs, Oslo.
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