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Part I Overview and main indicators

  1. Country brief
  2. General geographic and economic indicators
  3. FAO Fisheries statistics

Part II Narrative (2011)

  1. Production sector
    • Marine sub-sector
      • Catch profile
      • Landing sites
      • Fishing practices/systems
      • Main resources
      • Management applied to main fisheries
      • Fishing communities
    • Inland sub-sector
    • Aquaculture sub-sector - NASO
    • Recreational sub-sector
  2. Post-harvest sector
    • Fish utilization
    • Fish markets
  3. Socio-economic contribution of the fishery sector
    • Role of fisheries in the national economy
    • Supply and demand
    • Trade
    • Food security
    • Employment
    • Rural development
  4. Trends, issues and development
    • Constraints and opportunities
    • Government and non-government sector policies and development strategies
    • Research, education and training
      • Research
      • Education and training
    • Foreign aid
  5. Institutional framework
  6. Legal framework
  7. Annexes
  8. References

Additional information

  1. FAO Thematic data bases
  2. Publications
  3. Meetings & News archive

Part I Overview and main indicators

Part I of the Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profile is compiled using the most up-to-date information available from the FAO Country briefs and Statistics programmes at the time of publication. The Country Brief and the FAO Fisheries Statistics provided in Part I may, however, have been prepared at different times, which would explain any inconsistencies.

Country briefPrepared: May 2013

With a coastline of more than 83 000 km, including fjords and islands, Norway is one of the world’s leading nations regarding the production from marine fisheries and aquaculture. The fisheries sector has always played a key social and economic role, nationally and regionally, and has been the basis for settlement and employment along the entire Norwegian coast. The vast marine areas under Norwegian jurisdiction are among the most productive in the world and provide ideal conditions for aquaculture production. Fishing and fish farming represent 0.7 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010, with 12 900 full-time equivalents employed in the sector. In 2009, Norway ranked 11th in global capture fisheries production and the 7th in aquaculture production. It produced 3.5 million tonnes of seafood, about 25 percent coming from the aquaculture industry.

Norway, in terms of value, is the world’s second largest exporter of fish and fish products by value., Its main markets, in terms of export value are the European Union (EU), the Russian Federation, Japan, China, Ukraine and the United States of America. With USD 8.9 billion, seafood products were the second most important export item in 2012 and made up 6 percent of total Norwegian merchandise exports. The biggest share is represented by oil and gas (70 percent). Annual per capita fish consumption amounted to an estimated 53.1 kg in 2009.

The overall development of capture fisheries has resulted in the use of fewer and more efficient fishing boats. The number of fishermen has decreased steadily since the 1940s, from about 122 000 to 12 800 in 2011. The number of registered vessels has also experienced a strong reduction, from about 13 000 to 6 250 during the period 2000 to 2011. Norway has a diversified fishing fleet ranging from larger ocean vessels to smaller coastal ones.

The main capture species include herring, cod, capelin, mackerel, saithe, blue whiting, and haddock. A number of additional species are caught in smaller quantities but have high commercial value. These include prawns, Greenland halibut and ling. Total catches from marine capture fisheries were almost 2.7 million tonnes in 2010, with the highest catches recorded being of the order of 3.4 million tonnes in 1977. The average annual total catches in the 2001-10 period were around 2.5 million tonnes. It should be noted that fluctuations in catch are partially due to the natural variability of pelagic stocks such as capelin and herring. In addition to fish, sea mammals, including various species of seals and minke whales, and krill in the Antarctic are exploited.

Norwegian aquaculture is largely industrial, modern and highly competitive. Aquaculture production in Norway has more than doubled during the last decade and reached 1.14 million tonnes in 2011. The production in 2011 was dominated by Atlantic salmon (1.06 million tonnes: 93 percent) farmed in marine cages. Other important farmed species included rainbow trout (58 300 tonnes: 5 percent) and Atlantic cod (15 200 tonnes: 1 percent). Extensive development efforts are taking place to expand aquaculture activities to other species such as Atlantic halibut, wolf fish and shellfish. The aquaculture sector gives a high priority to environmental considerations, fish health and welfare as they are important conditions for the aquaculture industry’s ability to compete globally. The number of fish farmers has increased from about 4 300 in 2000 to about 5 800 in 2011.

Recreational fishing in Norway is subject to official monitoring and control. Recreational fishermen who are not Norwegian citizens are subject to some restrictions.

Regarding fisheries management, Norway places great importance on sustainable and environmentally friendly fisheries and aquaculture management, based on a thorough knowledge and understanding of fishery resources dynamics and their environment.

The management of Norway’s fisheries resources is mainly the responsibility of the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affaires. Norway has more than hundred years of institutional experiences in fisheries management and marine research through the Directorate of Fisheries and the Institute of Marine Research, both established in 1900. In 1946, Norway became the first country in the world to establish a Ministry of Fisheries.

Over the last few decades, the Norwegian fishing industry has evolved into a highly regulated industry with quotas and licensing requirements. A primary basis for determining fishing quotas are the recommendations issued by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Norway attaches great importance to research, and actively seeks to acquire increased knowledge of the marine environment and resources, as well as expertise on the interaction of different species.

Ninety percent of Norway’s fisheries harvest stocks are shared with other nations. Consequently, international cooperation is a critical aspect of the Norwegian management regime. For the most important fish stocks, quota levels are set in cooperation with other countries, including Russia, Iceland, Faroe Islands and Greenland and the EU .

Both Norwegian and foreign fishing vessels are subject to stringent controls in all Norwegian fishing waters. The Coast Guard annually performs more than 2 000 inspections of Norwegian and foreign vessels operating in Norwegian waters.

Norway is engaged in combating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. These efforts are comprehensive and include tackling illegal fishing, trans-shipment at sea, forgery of origin, covert landings, etc.

On Norway’s initiative, new expanded procedures for port State control were agreed unanimously by all the Contracting Parties of the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) in November 2006. These measures entered into force on 1 May 2007. Norway’s initiative has led to the FAO Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing in 22 November 2009. Norway was among the first who signed and ratified the Agreement. The Agreement will enter into force following the submission of the twenty-fifth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

Since June 1996 and December 1996, Norway is Party to the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and to the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement, respectively. Norway is also Party to the 1993 FAO Compliance Agreement since December 1994.
 
General geographic and economic indicators

Table 1 —Norway — General geographic and economic indicators

    Source
Marine water area 819 628 km² FAO
Shelf area 155 000 km2 FAO
Length of continental coastline 25 148 km FAO
GDP at purchaser's value (2012)

NOK 2 915 354 million

USD 481 081 million*

Statistics Norway
GDP per capita (2012)

NOK 580 913

USD 95 860*

Statistics Norway
Agricultural GDP (2012)

NOK 29 517 million

USD 4 871 million*

Statistics Norway
Fisheries GDP (2012)

NOK 14 750 million

USD 2 434 million*

Statistics Norway
*Value converted by FAO as per UN currency exchange rate

Key statistics

Source
Country area385 178km2FAOSTAT. Official data, 2012
Land area365 268km2FAOSTAT. Official data, 2012
Inland water area19 910km2Computed. Calculated, 2012
Population - Est. & Proj.5.023millionsFAOSTAT. Official data, 2014
GDP499 667USD millionsWorld Bank. Estimated, 2012
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) area1 369 174km2VLIZ

Source: FAO Country Profile

FAO Fisheries statisticsThe tables and graphs in this section are based on statistics prepared by the FAO Fishery Statistics and Information Unit and disseminated in 2012.



Table 2 —Norway — FAO fisheries statistics

 

 

1980 1990 2000 2009 2010 2011
PRODUCTION (thousand tonnes) 2409.0 1753.5 3190.7 3486.3 3688.2 3420.2
    Inland 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8
    Marine 2408.6 1753.1 3190.1 3485.5 3687.4 3419.4
  Aquaculture 8.0 150.6 491.3 961.8 1008.0 1138.8
    Inland 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1
    Marine 8.0 150.6 491.3 961.8 1007.9 1138.7
  Capture 2401.0 1603.0 2699.4 2524.4 2680.2 2281.4
    Inland 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8
    Marine 2400.6 1602.5 2698.8 2523.8 2679.5 2280.7
                 
TRADE (USD million)            
  Import 70.0 237.4 598.3 1168.8 1073.8 1334.6
  Export 974.7 2059.8 3532.8 7072.7 8819.1 9456.8
                 
EMPLOYMENT (thousands) 34.8 32.0 24.4 18.3 18.5 18.6
  Aquaculture   4.5 4.3 5.1 5.5 5.8
  Capture 34.8 27.5 20.1 13.2 13.0 12.8
    Inland            
    Marine 34.8 27.5 20.1 13.2 13.0 12.8
                 
FLEET(thousands boats) ... ... 6.5 6.3 6.3
                 
APPARENT FOOD CONSUMPTION            
  Fish food supply (thousand tonnes in live weight equivalent) 177.8 191.6 221.8 256.7    
  Per Capita Supply (kilograms) 43.5 45.2 49.4 53.1    
  Fish Proteins (grams per capita per day) 15.2 14.2 16.1 16.2    
  Fish/Animal Proteins (%) 22.7 23.8 25.3 24.6    
  Fish/Total Proteins (%) 14.7 14.6 15.4 14.9    

Source: FAO Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics

1) Excluding aq.plants

2) Due to roundings total may not sum up





Figure 1 — Norway — Total fishery production
Figure 1 — Norway — Total fishery production




Figure 2 — Norway — Composition of marine capture production — 2011
Figure 2 — Norway — Composition of marine capture production — 2011




Figure 3 — Norway — Production of aquatic plants
Figure 3 — Norway — Production of aquatic plants




Figure 4 — Norway — Capture production
Figure 4 — Norway — Capture production




Figure 5 — Norway — Major species groups in capture production
Figure 5 — Norway — Major species groups in capture production




Figure 6 — Norway — Aquaculture production
Figure 6 — Norway — Aquaculture production




Figure 7 — Norway —Major species groups in aquaculture production
Figure 7 — Norway —Major species groups in aquaculture production




Figure 8 — Norway — Import and export value of fish and fishery products
Figure 8 — Norway — Import and export value of fish and fishery products




Figure 9 — Norway — Major species groups in import
Figure 9 — Norway — Major species groups in import




Figure 10 — Norway — Major species groups in export
Figure 10 — Norway — Major species groups in export




Figure 11 — Norway — Per capita supply of fish and fishery products
Figure 11 — Norway — Per capita supply of fish and fishery products




Figure 12 — Norway — Composition of total fish food supply — 2009
Figure 12 — Norway — Composition of total fish food supply — 2009


Updated 2011Part II Narrative

Part II of the Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profile provides supplementary information that is based on national and other sources and that is valid at the time of compilation (see update year above). References to these sources are provided as far as possible.

Production sectorNorway has a long coastline, stretching 2 500 km from South to North. This increases to 25 000 kms when fjords, bays and islands, are included in the coastline. The country is surrounded by water to the south (Skagerak), the west (the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea) and the north and north-east (the Barents Sea).

The long Norwegian coastline is home to very rich fishing grounds, making Norway the biggest fishing nation in Europe. Aquaculture is an important part of the fisheries sector and the national economy. Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon accounts for over half of the world’s salmon supply.

The Norwegian fisheries and aquaculture sector is very modern and very advanced in terms of technology and management. The sector is extremely well documented through official reports and statistics, and therefore offers an opportunity for a thorough analysis of all aspects of it.

Over the past decade, total production has varied from 3.1 million tonnes (2006) to 3.5 million tonnes (2009). While landed catch has in general shown a declining trend, aquaculture production has increased steadily.

The inland fisheries are dominated by recreational fishermen and by farmers, who land limited quantities mainly for their own consumption.Marine sub-sectorNorway’s marine fishery sector can roughly be divided into the coastal sector and the offshore sector. The coastal sector is dominated by small vessels manned by 1-5 persons, while the offshore sector consists of larger vessels with a crew of up to 20 persons or more.

A number of foreign vessels also operate within Norway’s Exclusive Economic Zone, and some of their catch is landed in Norwegian ports.

Fishing activity takes place along the Norwegian coast, with most of the catch taken from within the EEZ. Arctic cod is taken from the boundary area between Russia and Norway; the Barents Sea is fished under annual agreements with Russia for cod, haddock and capelin.

Norway has established three zones of 200 nautical miles. There is a fishery protection zone around Svalbard and a fishery zone around Jan Mayen .

In addition, there is an adjacent area in the Barents Sea covered by an agreement between Russia and Norway regarding the division of this area between the two countries.

Figure 13 — Norway’s fishery zones
Figure 13 — Norway’s fishery zones


Catch profileOver the last few years, landings by Norwegian vessels in Norwegian ports have been fairly stable at around 2.5 million tonnes per year. However, there have been rather large variations within individual species groups.

In addition to the catch that is landed by Norwegian vessels, another 200 000 to 300 000 tonnes are landed in Norwegian ports by foreign vessels. Most of this catch is pelagic fish or cod and cod-like fish. The domestic fleet landed a total of 2.5 million tonnes in national ports in 2009, valued at about NOK 11.3 billion (USD 1.8 billion).

Eighteen percent of this was destined for reduction, the majority of which consisted of pelagic species. The second most important group in terms of landing volume, but highest in terms of value, was groundfish, which includes cod, haddock, redfish and pollack1.

The largest landing of a single species is herring. The landing of this species has increased by approximately 50 percent between 2006 and 2009. Landings of blue whiting declined significantly during this period. Landings of shrimp have also continued to decline. Other important species in terms of volume are capelin, cod and saithe.

Table 3 — Norwegian fisheries 2009
Table 3 — Norwegian fisheries 2009


Cod is the most important species of the Norwegian marine capture fisheries by value. Although herring landings were more than four times that of cod in 2009, the considerably lower price for herring means its value was slightly less.

The capelin fishery has made a remarkable recovery. From 2006 to 2009, capelin landings increased more than ten-fold both in volume and value. Mackerel landings have been fairly stable, but price fluctuations have been considerable.

In 2009 over 45 percent of the national landings in foreign ports were fish for reduction. The amount of fish for reduction increased gradually, as did its relative importance in total landings.

In terms of value, cod and cod-like fish and pelagic fish each represented approximately half of the landings by foreign vessels in domestic ports (2009). Other species landed by foreign vessels in domestic ports include mackerel, herring and fish for reduction.



(1) Norwegian Fisheries 2009. Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen, July 2010
Landing sitesNorway has a highly decentralized port structure, with landing sites for fish in many ports along the coast. These range from small fish landing sites to large industrial ports.

The many landing sites and ports along the coast require large resources in terms of management, administration, maintenance and development. The Coastal Authority (Kystverket) is responsible for the development and maintenance of some 800 public fishing ports.

Most of the landings are in the western counties and the three northernmost counties. The most important fishing county in terms of volume is Møre and Romsdal, followed by Sogn og Fjordanene and two of the northernmost counties, Nordland and Troms. This has to do with the proximity to fishing grounds, although a number of vessels registered in western counties are also very active in the Barents Sea, for example.

Catches from the cod fishery are mainly landed in the north, while mackerel and herring are landed further south.

Landed catch by county

Figure 14 — Norway — Fishing quantity 2008 —Tonnes round weight
Figure 14 — Norway — Fishing quantity 2008 —Tonnes round weight


Fishing practices/systemsNorway has a diversified and technologically advanced fishing fleet, encompassing everything from small one-man inshore fishing vessels to large trawlers and purse seiners. The number of vessels in the Norwegian fishing fleet has steadily declined over the years, but the landed quantities have remained relatively stable.

The largest reduction has been for the smallest vessels. The total number of fishing vessels decreased by 50 percent from 2000 to 2009.

Norwegian fishing vessels by size (overall length in metres)

Table 4 — Norway — Number of active vessels.

Source: Directorate of Fisheries
O.a. length2000200120022003200420052006200720082009
Under 10m9 6888 6117 3536 6365 0434 6824 3104 0533 9223 689
10 - 10.99m1 2891 3161 3461 3621 3521 3751 3831 4011 4311 432
11 - 14.99m933905901888841835833825772760
15 - 20.99m503484463458413338299290238218
21 - 27.99m239256261280267247234237197191
28m and over365350317291273245241232225236
SUM13 01711 92210 6419 9158 1897 7227 3007 0386 7856 526


Removal of inactive fishing vessels from the Register of Norwegian Fishing Vessels and the introduction of an annual registration fee for vessels are the main reasons for the strong reduction in the number of smaller coastal vessels in the register. With regard to the larger coastal vessels and to the larger ocean-going vessels it is thought that the structural quota system is the main explanation for the reduction in the number of vessels. By comparing the number of vessels registered in the Register of Norwegian Fishing Vessels in 2008 and 2009 the following changes are noted:
  • The total number of vessels has been reduced by about 4 percent.
  • Except for vessels in the length categories 10-10.9 meter overall length (LOA) and 28 m LOA and above, there was a reduction in all vessel categories from 2008 to 2009. The vessel category below 10 m LOA had the largest decline.
  • Despite the continued decline in the number of vessels, overall engine power (hp) increased by about 1 percent from 2008 to 2009.
  • The average age of the fishing fleet increased from 25.5 years in 2008 to 25.8 years in 2009.
Considering the period 2000 to 2009 the following changes are conspicuous:
  • The total number of vessels was reduced by 50 percent in the period.
  • The group below 10 m LOA was reduced by 62 percent in the period; the main reason for the reduction in the number of vessels is removal of inactive coastal vessels from the register and the scrapping scheme.
  • The number of vessels in the length categories 15-20.9 m LOA was reduced by 57 percent and vessels in the length category 28 and above was reduced by 36 percent. For the length categories 11-14.9 m LOA and 21- 27.9 m LOA the reduction was about 20 percent.
  • In the same period the number of vessels in the length category 10-10.9 m LOA has increased by 11 percent.
The fleet is divided into coastal and offshore administrative categories. The offshore group consists of four segments, which are (i) the industrial trawlers, (ii) purse seiners, (iii) longliners and (iv) cod, saithe and shrimp trawlers. The coastal fleet is itself administratively split into two groups according to vessel length, i.e. vessels 15-28 metres long and vessels less than 15 metres long.

The coastal fleet consists of relatively small vessels, mostly between 8 and 13 metres long. This fleet generally targets demersal species with a variety of fishing gear, including gill nets, hand-lines, long-lines and Danish seines. Cod are the main species both in terms of volume and value, followed by haddock, anglerfish and saithe. These vessels are operated by 1-2 fishermen and are on average 10.5 GT. Although these small coastal vessels represent over half of the fleet that operates throughout the year, they account for just seven percent of the total value of the landings.

The cod, saithe and shrimp-trawlers are one of the most important segments of the Norwegian fishing fleet. They are mostly owned by the processing industry and equipped with 15 or more crews. These trawlers target cod, which accounts for 60 percent of the value of this fishery, haddock, saithe, shrimp and Greenland halibut. Many of the vessels have two licences, one for cod fishing and the other for shrimp fishing.

With regard to the fishing gear used, there is still a dependency on high-volume oriented gear like purse seines and trawls. However, there is increasing interest in using more selective (and environment-friendly) gear like handline and long-line, which are the gears mostly used by the coastal fleet.
Main resourcesMarine fisheries have traditionally been of great economic importance along the Norwegiancoastal waters, especially in the western and northern regions. The North Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak yield herring, sprat, cod and other groundfish, and the Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea give rise to Arcto-Norwegian cod, capelin, shrimp, herring and mackerel.

The most important Norwegian cod stock is the Arcto-Norwegian cod, which migrates between the economic zones of Norway and Russia. Despite the TAC regime, the stock declined in the 1970s, reaching a low point for both stock and catch in the late 1980s. It is argued that the degree of compliance with the TACs for the Arcto-Norwegian cod was very low, but strict regulation of the Norwegian share of the TAC in 1990-91 together with favourable climatic conditions lead to a partial recovery of the cod stock.

In the last few years, the cod stocks have shown signs of strong recovery thanks to improved co-management by Russia and Norway.

Many of the stocks in the North Sea are at a historically low level, especially demersal stocks, and are in need of protection. However, the Norwegian spring spawning herring is increasing due to large year classes and the mackerel stock is healthy.

Between three and five commercial vessels hunt seals in the East Ice2.Seals may also be hunted for recreational and specific research purposes. There are mainly two species of seal caught, harp and hooded seals. The number of seals caught decreased by 60 percent between 2000 (20 636) and 2009 (8 437). The seal meat is used for human consumption, as are the oils. The fur and the skin are processed into suede and leather for a variety of products.

Whaling by Norwegian vessels is carried out in the Norwegian zone of the North Sea, along the coast of northern Norway, eastwards and off Svalbard (Spitzbergen) and Jan Mayen. The catch is used for meat, blubber and animal feed. Norwegian minke whales are hunted using ordinary small fishing vessels, approximately 18 metres long, which are licensed for whaling.

Commercial whaling ceased between 1988 and 1992 after the 1986 moratorium imposed by the International Whaling Commission. However, whaling for research purposes was continued until 1991, when whaling completely ceased. As Norway opposed the decision and the moratorium was not binding, commercial whaling was resumed in 1993. Catch increased to 671 in 2002 but has since fallen back to 483 whales in 2009. The number of vessels whaling decreased significantly between 1998 and 2009, from 34 vessels in 1998 to 22 vessels in 2009.



(2) The “East Ice” covers an area east in the Barents Sea, north of Russia, including the White Sea (Kvitsjoen).
Management applied to main fisheriesThe fundamental principle behind Norwegian management of living marine resources is that of sustainable harvest. The term ‘sustainable’ is generally defined as “a use or development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. In fisheries management, this can be interpreted as continuous harvesting of stocks in a viable condition. The aim of the Norwegian government is to have an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management in order to secure a sustainable harvest of marine living resources.

Sustainable harvest depends on healthy marine ecosystems. Maintaining the health of the sea is therefore a fundamental principle for all activities concerning fishing, sealing, whaling and aquaculture. Today, nearly all stocks with commercial value are regulated through quotas and licensing.

Norwegian fisheries have evolved into a highly regulated industry with quotas and licensing requirements. The most important fish stocks migrate between Norwegian and foreignwaters and, consequently, good governance requires close cooperation with neighbouring countries. This means that the most critical management decision – the amount of fish that can be harvested from a given stock – is an internationally determined premise for a domestic decision-making process.

A primary basis for determining fishing quotas is the advice and recommendation from the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Scientists from member countries develop the various recommendations through expert groups and advisory committees. After ICES has given its quota recommendations, the negotiations on management issues between Norway and other States take place.

After the international negotiations are finalised, the domestic regulation process for quota allocation begins. The Directorate of Fisheries makes proposals for domestic regulation. The involvement of stakeholders in management decisions is achieved through the Advisory Meeting for Fisheries Regulations representing fishermen’s associations, the fishing industries, trade unions, the Sami Parliament, local authorities, environmental organisations and other stakeholders.

As a final step in this process, the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs decides how the quotas should be shared between the vessels and sets out the technical regulations for how the fishing should be carried out in the following year.

The Norwegian management of living marine resources is based on the best available scientific advice. The implementation of an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management requires knowledge of the size of fish stocks and other characteristics, as well as knowledge of the ecosystems of which the stocks are a part. For most stocks of interest to Norway, assessments are made jointly with scientists from several countries under the aegis of ICES. The requirement that a vessel has to be registered to participate in commercial fisheries is a “weak” kind of input regulation in the fisheries. In addition, the fisheries authorities have introduced input regulations through licensing to control the total input in the most important fisheries. Licensing has been introduced for the larger vessels, whereas annual permits regulate the activity in the fisheries by the coastal fleet.

Management measures and institutional arrangements

International co-operation

The regulation of Norwegian fisheries is based on international law and cooperation. The Law of the Sea Convention constitutes the global legal framework for all uses of the ocean, and the UN Fish Stocks Agreement provides a legal basis for improved control of fisheries on the high seas.

Norway also participates in fisheries cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and in several global and regional agreements on marine environment. Norway is also a member of the International Whaling Commission, the global organisation for the management of whale stocks.

Norway has negotiated a series of agreements with neighbouring countries under which the parties have agreed to meet regularly to decide on management regimes and the distribution of quotas.

The most important of these agreements are with Russia and the EU. In addition, the coastal states of the North East Atlantic have entered into agreements on Norwegian spring-spawning herring and mackerel. Fisheries in the areas outside the national economic zones are managed by the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) in co-operation with the coastal states.

The seal stocks in the East Ice are managed by the Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Commission. The North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO) is a forum for co-operation on the conservation, management and study of marine mammals in general. Minke whale harvesting is managed unilaterally by Norway, since the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has not been in a position to set quotas for this hunt since 1982.

Regional fisheries management cooperation

Norway is currently a member of five Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs). For Norway, the most important are The North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) and the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO).

Regional fisheries management organisations have grown in extent and importance in recent years. This is partly due to the increasing number of fisheries on the high seas and the power given to them by the 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement, and partly because they provide a platform for cooperation in combating IUU fishing.

Shared stocks

Around 90 percent of Norway’s fisheries are conducted on stocks that are shared with other states. For the most important fish stocks, quota levels and management strategies are therefore set in cooperation with other countries. Norway has negotiated a series of agreements with neighbouring countries.

Russia

Norway and Russia share the cod, haddock and capelin stocks in the Barents Sea. Most of Norwegian cod exports are North East Arctic Cod. Close cooperation between the two countries is needed to ensure rational management of these fishery resources. The cooperation with Russia takes place in the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Commission. The Commission has a thirty-year history of developing management strategies and setting TACs (Total Allowable Catch) for shared stocks.

European Union

The cooperation with the EU on the management of joint stocks in the North Sea involves a larger number of shared stocks than between Russia and Norway. Norway and the EU have developed management strategies for several joint stocks. These strategies are intended to ensure a national harvesting pattern and stable catch levels. The parties have agreed on long-term management plans for cod, haddock, saithe and herring.

Greenland

The agreement on bilateral fisheries collaboration between Norway and Greenland, signed in September 1991, is based on a common understanding of the need to exclude illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries (IUU) in each country’s exclusive economic zone. Under the agreement, vessels from Norway and Greenland are permitted to fish in each other’s exclusive economic zone.

Iceland

Norway, Iceland and Russia have a trilateral fisheries agreement under which the northern fish stocks in the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are regulated through the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Commission.

Faroe Islands

Norway also has bilateral agreements with the Faroe Islands on fisheries. Norway conducts negotiations on quotas with the Faroe Islands every year.

Norwegian spring spawning herring

The Norwegian spring-spawning herring stock is the largest fish stock in the North Atlantic. On 18 January 2007, the EU, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Russia concluded an agreement on the management of the Norwegian spring-spawning herring stock, as a result of which fishing on all the main fish stocks in Norwegian waters were regulated.

Mackerel

Since 2002 the coastal states, the EU, the Faroe Islands and Norway have agreed on a management regime for the fisheries of mackerel in the North East Atlantic. This management regime aims to ensure that the stock remains at a sustainable level.

Agreement on blue whiting

In the late 1990s, there was an enormous expansion in the blue whiting fishery, and a coastal state agreement was necessary. In December 2005, after six years of negotiation, the coastal states (the EU, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway) concluded an agreement on the allocation and management of the blue whiting stock. The agreement was renewed for 2007 and it is to be renewed on an annual basis.
Fishing communitiesIn general, fishermen are fully integrated in the coastal communities , although some communities are clearly more of a “fisheries” community than others. This is particularly true for small, isolated communities.

As the industry has become more centralized, and more of the production is done on board large factory vessels, a number of these communities are loosing inhabitants.
Inland sub-sectorThe commercial inland fishery is negligible, with most inland fish taken recreationally. The majority of fishing in rivers and lakes is managed by recreational fishing provisions. Most of the commercial activities in inland fisheries are connected to rental of fishing rights to recreational fishermen. Commercial inland fishermen are required to register their gear before each season begins.

Regulations apply to both commercial and recreational fisheries. The fishing rights in rivers and lakes are attached to the adjoining land. The permission to fish must be sought from the landowner by commercial and recreational fishermen alike. There are no general restrictions on fishing gear used in different seasons, although there are local rules that may apply. Local fishing seasons are revised every year depending on stock assessments. These seasons subsequently vary between locations.
Aquaculture sub-sectorThe production of farmed fish has risen steeply since the industry was established at the beginning of the 1970s as a supplement to agriculture, to the point that Norway now accounts for about half of the world production of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). During the last 40 years aquaculture has become an important industry, especially for small coastal communities, and an important source of foreign exchange. Most of the Norwegian sea-farms are cage systems located in the deep, sheltered fjords.

Modern salmon farming started in Norway in the late 1960s and early 1970s. At first, this was also a “backyard activity”, usually undertaken by fishermen or fisher/farmers along the coast. They had very little knowledge about aquaculture, they had practically no equipment, and they succeeded mainly by trial and error.

By 1970, Norwegian salmon farming was attracting some attention both in Norway and elsewhere. Production of farmed salmon was only 50 tonnes, plus some 430 tonnes of rainbow trout. Over the next 40 years, this industry was going to grow into one of the most important industries in Norway. In 2009, Norwegian production of farmed salmon had reached almost 860 000 tonnes, plus 76 000 tonnes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and the export value of salmon and trout was almost USD 4.0 billion.

Figure 15 — Norwegian farmed production of Atlantic salmon and trout 1970 – 2009
Figure 15 — Norwegian farmed production of Atlantic salmon and trout 1970 – 2009
Directorate of Fisheries


The total volume farmed in 2009 was close to 1.0 million tonnes; the first-hand value of the aquaculture production in 2009 was NOK 22.0 billion (USD 3.5 billion). Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout farmed in sea cages are the two most important species farmed in Norway, representing approximately 97 percent of total production volume and value. In 2009, other important farmed species in volume were rainbow trout and cod.

There is also cultivation of shellfish, including mussels (1 649 tonnes in 2009), the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and scallops. Of these species, mussels are the most important both in terms of value and volume.



Table 5 — Norway - —Norwegian aquaculture production by speciesVolume in tonnes

Source: FHL
  2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Salmon 435,119 462,495 509,544 563,915 586,512 629,888 744,222 737,694 859,056
Trout 48 778 71 763 83 560 68 931 63 401 58 875 62 702 77 381 85 176 76 007
Cod 169 864 1 258 2 185 3 165 7 409 11 087 11 104 18 052 20 924
Halibut 548 377 424 426 648 1 197 1 185 2 308 1 587 1 568
Arctic char 129 318 319 272 365 362 897 394 468 421
Other 590 376 663 1 229 1 659 2 549 2 798 3 365 3 286 218
TOTAL 490 275 508 817 548 719 582 587 633 153 656 904 708 557 838 774 846 263 958 194


The emergence of the aquaculture industry also led to important technological developments, as fish farmers needed better and more efficient equipment and methods of farming. This has in turn led to the development of an aquaculture technology industry in Norway. Today, products and systems are exported from this industry to countries all over the world.
Recreational sub-sectorNorwegian waters and rivers have been popular with recreational fishermen for centuries. Previously it was the salmon rivers that attracted most fishermen, but in recent years a number of tourists from continental Europe have found sea fishing to be exciting. Large numbers of recreational fishermen — particularly from Germany — have come to Norway to fish cod.

The coastal fish stocks in Norway are under pressure and the Government makes an effort to ensure that future generations will also be able to enjoy fishing as a sport or recreation in Norway. The fish in the sea are free for all, but it is the authorities’ responsibility to safeguard fish stocks for the future. Recreational fishermen must therefore observe the following rules:

  • Foreign tourists may only use handheld tackle when fishing in the sea. Tourists are not permitted to make use of nets, pots, traps, lines etc.
  • Tourists are permitted to take up to 15 kg of fish and one (whole) trophy fish out of the country. Freshwater fish such as salmon, trout and char are exempt from the 15 kg limit.
  • Recreational fishermen must keep a distance of more than 100 metres from the closest fish farm when fishing. All boat traffic must keep a distance of at least 20 metres from fish farms and moorings for fish farms.
  • Foreign tourists are not permitted to sell the fish they catch.
  • There are regulations for minimum size of fish.


In 2009 approximately 706 tonnes of fish were caught by recreational fishermen, of which 291 tonnes were caught in the sea and 415 tonnes in rivers. Salmon was the most abundant fish, both in the sea (283 tonnes in 2009) and in rivers (312 tonnes). There are no statistics for other species caught by recreational fishers.
Post-harvest sectorFish utilizationNorway has to a large extent been — and still is — a producer of raw materials and semi-processed products for the seafood industry. Most of the processing consists of salting, drying, filleting, packing and freezing. However, there is also some production of processed products such as frozen fish fingers, fish balls and fish cakes. The canning industry (mainly sardines and mackerel) has stagnated in recent years due to high costs of operation.

Traditionally, a relatively large part of the Norwegian catch has been used for reduction purposes. However, over the last five years, this has changed dramatically. In 2005, 32 percent of the landed catch (aquaculture production not included) went for reduction purposes, while in 2009, this had been reduced to 18 percent. During the same period, Norwegian imports of fish meal and fish oil increased, as the aquaculture industry had a growing demand for fish feed.

The processing industry mainly consists of a large number of small and medium-sized businesses scattered along the coastline. The majority of plants produce saltfish, stockfish and klipfish. Saltfish is usually made from cod, ling, tusk or saithe. The fish is headed, bled, split, the backbone removed, and is then laid in salt for three weeks. Stockfish is usually cod or haddock cured by being split and dried in the open air without salt, and klipfish is salted and dried cod. In 2009, 20 961 tonnes of klipfish were exported to Portugal, while 28 108 tonnes were exported to Brazil. Other major exports of cod products were frozen fillets (United Kingdom), salted fish (Portugal) and stockfish to Italy.

Although salting, drying and smoking processes are still the most common forms of processing, the number of plants producing these products has been decreasing and making way for other processes and products, such as frozen ready-to-eat products and fish oils and fishmeal.

The last decade has seen a number of changes in the Norwegian fish processing industry driven by high costs, negative trends in exchange rates and increasing difficulties in accessing EU markets. There has been substantial investment in modern facilities and equipment, including quality assurance, skills development and marketing initiatives. The industry has rationalised somewhat with a concentration of ownership in the whitefish sector and the sector processing pelagic fish such as herring, capelin and mackerel. A number of producers also relocated to EU countries where costs were lower and market access more favourable.

Table 6 – Norway - Norwegian production of fishery commodities — Volume in tonnes.

Source: FAO Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics
Commodity 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Crustaceans and molluscs 18 433 18 304 21 847 20 487 19 212 15 802 12 763
Crustaceans and molluscs  prepared or preserved 23 925 21 571 19 362 19 397 18 041 14 967 12 157
Fish  dried  salted, or smoked 129 083 122 149 112 659 124 823 115 884 120 554 132 951
Fish, fresh, chilled or frozen 1 117 213 1 099 475 989 318 902 483 901 980 815 576 926 565
Fish, prepared or preserved 35 060 32 932 28 436 32 066 34 316 33 775 30 877
Meals 216 000 241 000 212 100 215 100 154 300 169 500 171 500
Oils 69 057 64 509 55 596 39 455 33 428 42 340 46 917
TOTAL 1 608 771 1 599 940 1 439 318 1 353 811 1 277 161 1 212 514 1 333 730


Utilization of farmed fish is very different from utilization of the wild catch. Practically all of the farmed fish goes for human consumption  and only waste products (offal  processing waste) are used for reduction purposes. Most of the salmon is exported as fresh gutted fish, but an increasing share is now being exported as fillets and loins.

In 2007, a total number of companies declined compared to 2006, but the number of employees increased slightly. However, the total number of employees in fish processing was reduced substantially between 2000 and 2007.



Table 7 — Norway — Companies and employment in fish processing by major sub-sector

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics
Sub-group 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Salting, drying and smoking:                
Companies 234 224 214 190 183 173 163 147
Employees 2 949 2 822 2 532 2 008 1 975 1 794 1 958 1 849
Freezing:                
Companies 138 130 135 130 124 117 108 102
Employees 5 790 5 648 5 555 5 051 4 464 4 152 3 773 3 964
Canning:                
Companies 19 16 16 16 13 12 9 9
Employees 458 399 383 390 328 292 227 184
Fish oil and meal, other:                
Companies 266 273 280 291 296 281 278 250
Employees 3 207 3 278 3 569 3 580 3 501 3 131 2 779 2 840
TOTAL:                
Companies 657 643 645 627 616 583 558 508
Employees 12 404 12 147 12 039 11 029 10 268 9 369 8 787 8 837
Fish marketsNorway is one of the world’s biggest exporters of fish products. Nonetheless, the domestic market is still important to the national industry, as reflected in the high Norwegian consumption levels.

Fishermen’s sales organisations manage and coordinate the sale of the catch. These organisations are independent and based on direct membership of the fishermen and indirect membership through fisheries associations. There are six such organisations throughout Norway, including the Norwegian Raw Fish Organisation, which deals with fish, shellfish, molluscs and small whales landed in Norway between Nordmøre and Finnmark, and the organisation Norges Sildesalgslag, which deals with the sale of pelagic fish.

Most domestic retail fish sales are today channelled through the supermarkets, be it in frozen or fresh or other form. The Norwegian market is dominated by just a few supermarket chains, most of which have fresh fish counters. In addition, there is a small number of specialist fishmonger stores, mainly in the large cities.

For information on export markets, please see the section “Exports” under paragraph 6.2 Trade.
Socio-economic contribution of the fishery sectorRole of fisheries in the national economyThe share of Norway’s gross domestic product (GDP) derived from fishing, sealing and whaling and fish farming was 0.45 percent in 2009, which is a decrease from 0.8 percent in 1978. This is slightly lower than agriculture, hunting and forestry (0.47 percent in 2009). The highest contributor to GDP is the oil and gas extraction industry (21.0 percent in 2009).

The fishing industry plays an important role in many of the coastal areas, where a considerable number of people rely on the industry for employment. Alongside fishing activities, employment is generated indirectly through shipbuilding, gear manufacturing, packaging and transport of fish products. Fishing vessels and processing plants are largely privately owned and run, with most services and infrastructure being public.

Table 8 — Norway — Contribution to GNP in million NOK (2008)

Source: Sandberg et al., 2010
Sector Fisheries Aquaculture TOTAL
Fishing 7 190 0 7 190
Aquaculture 0 2 840 2 840
Processing 4 520 2040 6 550
Wholesale 840 720 1 570
Supporting industries 8 090 10 830 17 430
TOTAL 20 640 16 430 35 580
Supply and demand

Supply

The total supply of seafood in Norway has been relatively stable over time, although the trend shows a slight growth. In 2007, total supplies showed a slight increase compared to a decade earlier. Seafood consumption per caput has been relatively stable at around 50 kg per person per year since the mid-1990s.

Non-food uses of fish supplies have declined over the past decade. This is in spite of the growing aquaculture industry, which requires more and more fish meal and fish oil for fish feed.

Table 9 — Norway — Food balance sheet of fish and fishery products in live weight

Source: FAO
Year Production Non-food uses Imports Exports Stock variations Total food supply Population (thousands) Per caput supply (kg)
1997 3230676 1180877 358647 2239422 57458 226483 4408 51.4
1998 3271980 1338242 385077 2094300 10100 234615 4433 52.9
1999 3103466 1019296 390792 2272794 19711 221879 4458 49.8
2000 3190694 1104331 470988 2346673 11118 221796 4484 49.5
2001 3197691 1142721 419791 2206814 -42268 225679 4511 50.0
2002 3291641 1190095 356049 2189601 -38306 229688 4538 50.6
2003 3133398 1112018 231710 2136407 92772 209455 4567 45.9
2004 3161266 1154203 257317 2031526 0 232854 4599 50.6
2005 3054781 930939 188810 2071630 0 241023 4635 52.0
2006 2968694 853876 197496 2075361 0 236953 4676 50.7
2007 3209140 865457 235407 2334251 0 244839 4720 51.9


Demand

There is a long tradition of fish consumption in Norway. Norwegians have an annual supply of 51.9 kg of fish and fish products per caput3. Over the last decade there has been an increase in consumption in fish and fishery products by the 30 to 50 year age group, while the consumption by other age groups has been decreasing.

Fish accounts for approximately 16 percent of the average daily protein intake of Norwegians (17.1 g per day per caput). This is less than provided by meat (20.7 g per day per caput), milk (23.1 g per day per caput) and cereal (excluding beer, 29.9 g per day per caput) protein sources.

Total household consumption of seafood in Norway in 2008 amounted to 87 569 tonnes4 including fish that was caught by the consumer himself or received as gift. This constitutes an increase of about 1 percent since 2007. From 2007 to 2008 the value of seafood sold through the retail sector increased by 4 percent to NOK 5.5 billion (MVA included). In the period from 1997 to 2008 there was a nominal increase in sales of 69 percent by volume and 13 percent by value.

Norwegian seafood consumption is dominated by large size species, such as cod and salmon. Since the early 1990s, salmon has been a driving force in the increase in seafood consumption in Norway.



Table 10 — Norway — The seven most popular species consumed in NorwaySales value in NOK million.

Source: Norwegian Seafood Export Council
Species 1997 2006 2007 2008

% change

1997 – 2008

% change 2003 – 2008
Cod 623 897 925 1 062 71% 27%
Salmon 309 782 914 971 214% 80%
Shrimp 405 554 554 522 29% -11%
Mackerel 196 342 380 438 124% 46%
Trout 140 213 270 311 123% 74%
Herring 215 256 255 259 20% 11%
Saithe 228 293 262 254 12% -7%


Consumption is changing in terms of both species and preservation method. There are several developments that contribute to this. A major factor is the urbanization of the population, which tends to result in higher sales of frozen ready-to-eat products. One-person households also contribute to this trend. The share of one-person households has increased from 4 percent in 1960 to 18 percent in 2009.

The ageing of the population in general results in higher consumption of seafood. At present, more than 33 percent of the total population are age 50 or older. This group accounts for some 60 percent of all seafood purchases.

The longer life expectancy of the population also means that more people will spend their last years in an institution. This leads to increased consumption through the HoReCa5 sector At present, the HoReCa sector buys seafood worth approximately NOK 2 billion (USD 318 million) per year, and this is expected to increase.

One important factor in this regard is the fact that in 2008 almost 10 percent of the total population (over 450 000 persons) consisted of first or second generation immigrants. These people and their children have grown up with food traditions that are different from the ethnic Norwegians. Until now, no analysis of the impact of this has been done, but it is expected that the large group of immigrants from Asian countries will consume large amounts of seafood.

There is an increasing national and international demand for seafood safety and quality certification . In response to this the Norwegian Food Safety Authority was launched at the beginning of 2004; it is responsible for seafood safety and quality, as well as fish health and ethically acceptable farming of fish.

Trade

Imports

Although Norway exports about 90 percent of its production, in recent years imports have grown significantly. This is partly because of the need to import fishmeal, fish oil and fish feed for its growing aquaculture industry.

In 2009 the value of imports was approximately 12 percent more than in 2008. The largest single import item in 2009 was fish meal and pellets for animal feed, representing approximately 34 percent of the import value. Since the mid-1990s both import volume and value have increased. One of the most imported fish products are fish oils, as well as fresh or chilled whole fish. Most imports are sourced from South America and EU Member States, in particular the UK and Denmark.

Table 11 — Norway — Norwegian imports of seafood

Source: Norwegian Seafood Export Council, 2010. — Volume in tonnes (product weight); Value in NOK 1000
  2008   2009  
Product Volume Value Volume Value
Fish meal and pellets for animal feed 224 721 1 530 958 310 198 2 364 154
Fish fat and oils for animal feed 121 143 985 149 193 405 960 279
Fresh mackerel 36 436 374 395 78 982 689 774
Fish oil not for animal feed 59 168 623 916 53 601 518 989
Frozen cod - - 18 914 317 628
Shrimp, raw frozen 9 226 146 243 9 499 159 134
Shrimp, cooked, shell-on frozen 5 278 162 461 4 686 150 953
Shrimp, peeling in brine 5 278 162 461 4 686 150 953
Canned mackerel 2 538 96 402 3 022 118 912
Other products 124 113 2 110 546 103 821 1 520 194
TOTAL 587 901 6 192 531 780 814 6 950 970




Source: Norwegian Seafood Export Council, 2010 — Volume in tonnes (product weight); Value in NOK 1000
  2008   2009  
Origin Volume Value Volume Value
EU 192 254 2 081 511 257 046 2 517 274
Peru 118 065 903 360 198 326 1 339 368
Denmark 123 855 1 189 577 134 590 1 172 547
Iceland 108 920 793 914 140 808 947 707
United Kingdom 26 205 229 074 74 591 596 706
Russia 26 982 583 921 22 839 366 163
Sweden 10 489 317 514 10 935 341 483
Chile 32 980 274 252 36 384 308 303
Faeroe Islands 43 362 297 462 51 039 302 867
USA 23 287 421 460 22 110 230 465
TOTAL 587 901 6 192 531 780 814 6 950 970


Exports

Norway is the second largest fish and fishery product exporting nation in the world. The EU countries, in particular France and Denmark, are the largest market. Other important destinations include Russia, Poland and Japan. In terms of value, the fisheries sector is the second largest single export industry, after oil and gas, and represented 5.7 percent of total Norwegian exports in 2009.

Approximately 90 percent of the landed and farmed fish is exported; the remaining 10 percent is sold in the domestic markets. The value of exported fish (both wild caught and farmed) has increased steadily and substantially. In 2009 it reached almost NOK 45 billion (USD 7.2 billion).

Frozen, fresh and chilled whole fish are the major export products. Frozen fish are mainly destined for non-OECD countries and Japan, with fresh and chilled fish largely destined for the EU.



Table 13 — Norway — Norwegian exports of seafood by species

Source: Norwegian Seafood Export Council, 2010. — Volume in tonnes (product weight); Value in NOK 1000
  2008   2009  
Species Volume Value Volume Value
Salmon 618 140 17 905 578 711 277 23 663 366
Cod 110 944 5 494 347 135 943 5 024 027
Herring 772 686 3 781 125 765 271 4 044 427
Mackerel 171 399 2 269 578 199 209 2 192 019
Trout 73 697 1 820 603 61 317 1 941 198
Saithe 123 444 2 000 975 107 720 1 937 868
Haddock 40 488 803 732 67 595 1 064 251
Shrimp 21 435 654 138 13 280 498 400
Ling 8 440 380 398 7 904 294 918
Greenland halibut 9 676 245 307 8 251 241 407
Tusk 4 742 164 824 4 990 162 503
Redfish 7 447 99 605 6 276 94 676
Other 398 637 3 055 899 490 437 3 476 410
TOTAL 2 313 601 38 733 439 2 581 400 44 691 737




Table 14 — Norway — Norwegian exports of seafood by major markets

Source: Norwegian Seafood Export Council, 2010. — Volume in tonnes (product weight); Value in NOK 1000
  2008   2009  
Destination Volume Value Volume Value
EU 1 150 232 23 128 550 1 232 207 26 372 754
France 135 510 4 031 042 141 919 4 699 046
Russia 349 150 3 900 347 391 962 4 562 698
Denmark 254 711 2 846 897 211 760 3 202 109
Poland 123 977 2 437 733 152 182 3 122 897
United Kingdom 127 803 2 230 633 118 934 2 380 962
Japan 108 057 2 173 927 111 029 2 070 106
Sweden 61 233 1 722 051 67 614 2 026 025
Germany 61 754 1 304 205 94 960 1 859 726
USA 25 386 923 264 44 052 1 802 011
TOTAL 2 313 601 38 733 439 2 581 400 44 691 737




(3)Round (gutted) weight. Source: FAO: Food Balance Sheet of Fish and Fishery Products in Live Weight and Fish Contribution to Protein Supply, FAO, Rome, 2010(4) Lien, Kristin: Markedsrapport Norsk Konsum av Sjømat 2009 (Market Report Norwegian Consumption of Seafood 2009). Norwegian Seafood Export Council, Tromsø, 2010.(5)HoReCa = Hotel, Restaurant and Catering
Food securitySecuring a safe, nutritionally adequate and culturally acceptable supply of food is a priority for Norwegian authorities. Fisheries and aquaculture play a major role in Norwegian food security. Norway produces a huge surplus of seafood which is exported to foreign markets. Production is year-round, albeit with some seasonal variations, particularly for capture fisheries. Even so, domestic production of seafood would be able to substitute most of the imports of other animal proteins.EmploymentOver the last fifty years the number of active fishermen decreased significantly. This can to some extent be attributed to the increased efficiency in fishing methods and equipment, resulting in labour being substituted by capital, but the most important reason is the general economic development of the country and creation of more attractive employment opportunities. The highest employment in full- and part-time fishing is found in the northern regions of Norway, while the south has the least.

The Register of Fishermen in 2009 indicated that the long-term reduction in the total number of fishermen continued.

Table 15 — Norway — Number of fishermen

Source: Directorate of Fisheries, 2010
YearFull timePart-timeTotal
195068 14930 17598 324
196049 72020 65570 375
197031 88411 13443 018
198025 1409 64934 789
199020 4757 04327 518
199517 1606 49123 651
200014 2645 81120 075
200113 6745 22118 896
200213 8414 65118 492
200313 1713 96617 137
200412 5382 91615 454
200511 6112 93314 544
200610 8382 86313 701
200710 5472 66713 214
200810 2752 59212 867
200910 2002 53012 730


Table 16 – Norway - Employment in the fisheries, aquaculture and supporting industries (2008) - No. of man/years

Source: Sandberg et al., 2010
SectorFisheriesAquacultureTotal
Fishing9 64009 640
Aquaculture03 9303 930
Fish processing6 1302 8709 000
Wholesale7406301 370
Supporting industries9 38012 60020 070
TOTAL25 89020 03044 010


As in earlier years the northern counties Finnmark, Troms and Nordland and the counties of Møre og Romsdal, Sogn og Fjordane and Hordaland on the west coast of Norway had the highest number of registered fishermen in 2009. By comparing the number of fishermen registered in the register in 2009 with the number of fishermen in 2000 more long term trends are shown. Such a comparison shows the following:
  • The total number of fishermen was reduced by about 37 percent in the period.
  • The total number of persons having fisheries as their main occupation is reduced by 28 percent in the period, whereas the number of persons having fisheries as their secondary occupation dropped by more than 50 percent.
  • The reduction in the total number of fishermen was largest in the important coastal counties in the northern part and on the west coast of Norway.
Rural developmentThe fisheries and aquaculture industry in Norway has always been a major contributor to rural development and settlement. In fact, during the last 50 years the fisheries sector has been used actively by government as a means to maintain rural settlement along the coast. In remote areas, the fisheries and aquaculture industry and the military have been the main sources of employment for the population, but in recent years fisheries and aquaculture have increased their relative importance in coastal settlements.
Trends, issues and developmentConstraints and opportunitiesGiven that Norway exports a significant proportion of its fish, global market conditions are particularly important to the further development of the fisheries sector. World market prices for frozen finfish fillets have been falling because of increased availability of cheaper products from Russia, Alaska, South America and Asia. European Union trade barriers have also increased in the form of customs duty on processed fish products. It reduced the profitability of the Norwegian fisheries sector and will continue to be an important determinant in the sector’s performance.

In recent years operating costs — particularly the high labour costs in Norway — have made Norway less competitive. This has in part been compensated by increased efficiency and mechanisation, both in fisheries, aquaculture and processing. On the other hand, growing demand for seafood on a global basis represents an opportunity for further growth in Norway.

One of the constraints that may affect both the fisheries and the aquaculture is competition for marine areas from other activities. Along the coast, there is competition from sea transport, tourism and recreational activities. On the open sea, there is competition from, particularly, the offshore oil industry. However, the Government has tried to address these potential conflicts by establishing development plans for a number of areas along the coast.

Market access has been a constraint to the development of the industry, but through various trade agreements, the authorities have managed to gain access to the main markets. Norway is not a member of the EU, and is not expected to become one in the foreseeable future. This may pose a few problems, but in general it seems that the EU and other markets are quite dependent on supplies of seafood from Norway.

Norway is endowed with excellent natural resources. The marine fish resources now appear to be well managed, and some stocks are increasing. There is still room for expansion of the aquaculture industry, and Norwegian production of seafood may therefore grow somewhat in the future.
Government and non-government sector policies and development strategiesA master plan for Norwegian fisheries development was adopted by the Norwegian Parliament (Storting) in 1998. Key policy elements include responsible management of resources, increased marketing efforts and product development, and better utilization of secondary products, including heads and guts.

In March 2002 the Government produced a White Paper stating the need for the principle of sustainable development to be integrated into management plans. More specific targets set by the White Paper include further development of the fishing industry and the implementation of an ecosystem-based management and precautionary approach. The White Paper also acknowledges the need to strike a balance between commercial interests, e.g. fisheries, aquaculture and the petroleum industry, and the need to protect the marine environment and biological diversity. Other future governmental plans are to reduce the fleet capacity to a level that will allow profitable harvesting of the marine resources in a sustainable way.

In order to meet these objectives the Government has made plans to place more emphasis on research into the marine ecosystem and to establish a new comprehensive legal framework (“Marine Resources Law”) covering all living marine resources. The purpose of the Act is to ensure sustainable and economically profitable management of wild living marine resources and to promote employment and settlement in coastal communities.
Research, education and trainingResearchNorwegian scientists cooperate closely with other countries and research organizations such as the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Chilean and Norwegian scientists cooperate on research into aquaculture.

Universities provide the core of basic research and the education of scientists, with the Universities of Tromsø, Bergen and Oslo prominent in this respect. The most central research institutions within fisheries and aquaculture are:
  • The Norwegian College of Fishery Science is a university faculty connected to the University of Tromsø, and is the main institution for higher fisheries education in Norway.
  • The Department of Fisheries and Marine Biology, University of Bergen, has its main activities in fisheries science, marine biology and ecology.
  • The Centre for Fisheries Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Bergen, is specialized in bio-economic modelling, economics and market research.
  • The Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Tromsø is a contract research institute for the Norwegian fisheries and aquaculture industry.
  • Norwegian Marine Technology Research Institute (MARINTEK) in Trondheim undertakes marine technology research and development services for national and international companies and organizations.
Education and trainingThe first fisherman’s training school in Norway was founded in 1939. Norwegian education in fisheries and aquaculture is well developed, and today offers courses at every level from secondary school through the university level and beyond.

In secondary school, a program gives the candidate a two-year theoretical orientation plus two years of practical training qualifying the candidate for an occupational certificate.

A total of 32 secondary schools offer programmes in fisheries and aquaculture. In addition, 11 universities and colleges offer degrees in various specialised fields within fisheries and aquaculture and related fields, such as marine biology, aquaculture technology, fish health etc. The universities also offer doctoral degrees in these fields.

The main educational institution for tertiary education in fisheries and aquaculture is the Norwegian College of Fisheries Science at the University of Tromsø. This college also offers courses and degrees to foreign students, and a great number of students from developing countries have received their degrees from this university.
Foreign aidNorway has earned a reputation for being far advanced in fisheries research, fisheries administration and aquaculture, and a number of developing countries have therefore requested Norway’s assistance in these fields. Norwegian development assistance is focused mainly on bilateral programmes, but is also involved in a number of multilateral fisheries programmes. The most well-known programme is the “EAF Fridtjof Nansen programme”, which assists developing countries, particularly in Africa, in mapping their fisheries resources.
Institutional frameworkThe Norwegian fisheries and aquaculture sector is characterized by powerful organizations representing private sector interests. There are approximately 20 such organizations6.In addition, there are six sales organizations, seven production organizations, and another 26 sector organizations for various purposes.

Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal AffairsThe Ministry functions as the secretariat for the Minister of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs and exercises its administrative authority through such tasks as drafting and implementing laws and regulations.

The Ministry has a staff of approximately 110. Broken down by gender there is almost an equal number of men and women.

The Ministry was created in 1946 and Norway was the first country in the world to establish a separate ministry for fisheries.



Figure 16 – Norway - Internal organisation chart of The Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs
Figure 16 – Norway - Internal organisation chart of The Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs


The Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs is responsible for the following areas:
  • The fisheries industry
  • The aquaculture industry
  • Seafood safety and fish health and welfare
  • Harbours, infrastructure for sea transport and emergency preparedness for pollution incidents
The Ministry concentrates on the most vital policy tasks, while tasks concerning technical matters are performed by and dealt with by specialised directorates and subordinate agencies and institutions.

The Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs is organized into three departments:In addition, a number of agencies and institutions report to the Ministry.

Figure 17 – Norway - Agencies and institutions attached to the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs
Figure 17 – Norway - Agencies and institutions attached to the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs
Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs (http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/fkd)


Department of Aquaculture, Seafood and Markets

The Department of Aquaculture, Seafood and Markets is responsible for the regulatory framework for and supervision of the aquaculture industry, including fish health and environmental sustainability.

Safe and healthy seafood falls under the department's responsibility, as does monitoring of seafood products throughout the entire production chain, including fish feed. Another integral area of responsibility is trade policy and market access, at the global (WTO), European (EU-EEA) and regional/bilateral level (EFTA).

The department bases its work on the value chain concept (“from fjord to table”) and helps to create value-added products through joint marketing, funded by the industry and administered by the Norwegian Seafood Export Council.

The department is responsible for following up on the legislation and regulatory framework of the Aquaculture Act, the act relating to the export of fish and fish products, the Food Act, and the act relating to animal welfare where it applies to seafood and aquaculture.

Department of Research and Innovation

The Department of Research and Innovation is responsible for research and innovation policy, regional policy and port and maritime transport policy, including the National Transport Plan. The department is responsible for national budget work, audits, financial management, subsidy administration and targets and performance management.

Supervision of the Directorate of Fisheries, the Norwegian Coastal Administration, the Institute of Marine Research, the National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), the National Veterinary Institute and the Fishery and Aquaculture Industry Research Fund also falls within the department's area of responsibility. Additionally, the department is also responsible for governance of NOFIMA Ltd and The Norwegian Seafood Export Council Ltd.

Nordic cooperation and aid matters as well as financing and operation of the infrastructure for Jan Mayen also rest with this department.

Department of Marine Resources and Coastal Management

Matters relating to fisheries, the marine environment and coastal management are the responsibility of the Department of Marine Resources and Coastal Management.

The portfolio of this department contains a wide range of topics, including quota negotiations and international fisheries agreements, IUU-fishing, coordination of area and environmental policies, regulation and access of fishing licences and permits, capacity adjustment schemes for the fishing fleet, petroleum matters, maritime safety and emergency preparedness system for acute pollution.

The department is responsible for the implementation and follow-up of the Marine Resource Act, Deltakerloven (act relating to fisheries participation), Pilotage Act, Farvannloven (act relating to ports and waterways) and Råfiskloven (act relating to marketing of raw fish).

Directorate of Fisheries

The Directorate of Fisheries, with its main office in Bergen, acts as the Ministry’s advisory and executive body in matters concerning fishing and the management of aquaculture. The Directorate of Fisheries’ role is to provide professional input in the policy-making process.

The Directorate was created in 1900, and its main goal is to promote profitable economic activity through sustainable and user-oriented management of marine resources and the marine environment.

The Directorate provides professional input to the policy making process by way of analyses, statistics and advice, by proposing and preparing legislature and regulative work and through regulation planning development. The Directorate also has an important role in managing and controlling fisheries, fish processing and aquaculture.

The Directorate is headed by the Director General of Fisheries, and has three main departments: Resource Management Department, Aquaculture and Coastal Department, and the Statistics Department. In addition, there is an Administrative Affairs Department, an IT Department, and a unit for Corporate Communications.

In addition to the head office in Bergen, the Directorate of Fisheries in Bergen is organised in seven regions and more than 20 local offices. 

The regions are responsible for the Directorate’s resource management and control activities regionally (at county level) and locally (at municipal level). The functions can be divided into the following categories:
  • Resource management
  • Resource control
  • Aquaculture management
  • Aquaculture control
  • Coastal zone management
Institute of Marine Research

With a staff of close to 700, the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) is the largest marine research institution in Norway and a leading organisation within scientific investigations and advice on marine ecosystems and aquaculture. The Institute is the main adviser to the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs on these issues.

Traditional marine monitoring programmes have generally focused on individual elements of the ecosystem, such as a single fish species or a single environmental factor. The IMR now takes a holistic approach to marine ecology, using modern research vessels and facilities to monitor and study the whole marine ecosystem. By measuring all components of the ecosystem simultaneously it offers new and improved prospects for understanding ecological relationships.

The Institute monitors and studies the ecosystems of the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea, and the North Sea, as well as the ecosystems in the coastal zone. The Institute operates a fleet of seven modern research vessels.

The Norwegian Coastal Administration

The Coastal Administration is present along the whole of the Norwegian coast, and delivers a variety of services for all kinds of users of Norwegian waters. It is the responsibility of the Coastal Administration to ensure a good national preparedness against pollution.

The Coastal Administration’s most important tasks are:
  • Piloting services
  • Vessel Traffic Services (VTS)
  • Maintaining lighthouses and buoys and issuing navigational warnings
  • Improving coastal channels and constructing and maintaining fishing ports
  • Taking care of the State’s preparedness against acute pollution
  • Managing legislation (e.g. the Norwegian Pilotage Act, the Harbour Act and parts of the Pollution Control Act)
  • Administrating the national ship reporting system and other information systems
The Coastal Administration also takes part in national planning (e.g. the maritime sections of the National Transportation Plan) and co-operate with other authorities responsible for safety, transport, and preparedness. The Coastal Administration also participates in international cooperation.

The Norwegian Coastal Administration is headed by a Director General, who reports directly to the Department of Fisheries and the Minister of Fisheries. The head office of the Norwegian Coastal Administration is located in Ålesund.
The Norwegian Coastal Administration has divided the coast into five coastal regions with regional offices in Arendal, Haugesund , Ålesund, Kabelvåg and Honningsvåg. These five offices have been delegated the responsibility of running daily operations within their geographical areas.

The Norwegian Coast Guard

The Norwegian Coast Guard is a military force and part of the Royal Norwegian Navy, but has separate vessels, many of which are purpose-built. Four of these vessels are capable of embarking one or more helicopters. Norway's exclusive economic zone, the Coast Guard's area of responsibility, is about 2.2 million square kilometers, the largest in Western Europe.The flag of the Coast Guard is the international inspection pennant as ratified by the North Sea Fisheries Convention of 1882.

The Coast Guard was established on 1 April 1977. Before that, the functions of a coast guard had been carried out by different organisations within the Royal Norwegian Navy. One of the oldest of these organisations were groups of navy ships organised to prevent foreign ships from fishing in Norwegian territorial waters. A Coast Guard division named Det Regionale Sjømilitære Fiskerioppsyn (The Regional Navy Fisheries Surveillance) has now taken on that responsibility. The Coast Guard at present has a fleet of 13 surveillance vessels.

Together with the Directorate of Fisheries and the sales associations, the Coast Guard is responsible for exercising resource control. The Coast Guard is subordinated to the Ministry of Defence and one of its primary missions is to monitor the fisheries.

Norwegian Seafood Export CouncilTo promote exports of Norwegian seafood all over the world, the Norwegian Seafood Export Council (NSEC) was established by law in 1990, replacing a total of 13 different seafood promoting organisations which until then had had this task. In September 2005 the institution was made a limited company. The NSEC is governed by a Board of Directors.

The NSEC has its headquarters in Tromsø in the north of Norway, and representative offices in Germany (Hamburg), France (Paris), Spain (Madrid), Portugal (Lisbon), Italy (Milano), Russia (Moscow), Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), Japan (Tokyo), Singapore, China (Beijing) and the USA (Boston).

The NSEC is financed by an export levy on all seafood exports. The NSEC registers and approves exporters and acts as an advisor to the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs. The main activities of the NSEC include:
  • Joint marketing
  • Market information
  • Market access
  • PR, information and crisis management
Joint marketing

Marketing is designed to increase demand for Norwegian seafood. The NSEC is promoting all Norwegian seafood products that the organization feels will benefit the industry. The joint marketing efforts serve as support to the exporters’ own sales efforts and the NSEC initiates marketing activities in consultation with the exporters.

The NSEC has established special marketing groups for salmon and trout, whitefish (cod, saithe, haddock etc.), shrimp, conventional products (saltfish, klipfish, stockfish) and pelagic fish (herring, mackerel and capelin), and a separate group for the Norwegian market. In addition, there is a resource group for new species. The various groups include more than 70 respresentatives of the industry. On an annual basis, the NSEC undertakes about 600 different activities in 25 markets.

Market information

NSEC functions as the industry’s central source of statistics and trade information about Norwegian seafood, and the organization undertakes a continuous surveillance of world markets. Information about competing countries is collected, analysed and communicated to the industry. Which analyses to do are determined in consultation with the exporters. Every month the NSEC publishes exports statistics which are distributed to the exporters. The objective for the market information activities is to give the industry, the authorities and the NSEC itself a sound and reliable basis for decision making. On an annual basis an average of about eight market seminars are organised.

Market access

The Norwegian seafood industry should have at least as good a competitive situation and access to markets as its competitors. Consequently, the NSEC has established a system whereby exporters are fed information about import quotas in main markets, customs tariffs and trading conditions in the various markets. In these areas the NSEC provides continuous advice to the exporters.

PR, information and crisis management

NSEC shall contribute to the industry’s good reputation through actively informing the media. Press stipends, press tours and PR activities should increase the general awareness of Norwegian seafood in world markets.

Preparedness for crisis situations and crisis management is a priority area for NSEC. To safeguard the good reputation of the industry and Norwegian seafood is extremely important in the long run.

The NSEC web pages (www.seafood.no) make all this information readily available to exporters, the media and consumers.

National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES)

NIFES is a research institute with administrative duties, linked to the Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs. The institute's research focus is nutrition: feed for fish - and fish as food. The institute gives scientific advice to the government and food authorities concerning health and safety aspects of seafood from both wild catch and aquaculture.

The institute is independent of the fishery industry and the research results are published in international scientific peer reviewed journals and made available to the general public via the institute’s web pages. The results are used by the EU in determining upper maximum limits for contaminants in feed and food, such as dioxins, mercury and arsenic.

Norwegian Food Safety Authority

The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) is a governmental body, operating on a national basis, whose aim is to ensure that food and drinking water are as safe and healthy as possible for consumers.

NFSA is responsible for the monitoring and enforcement of legislation concerning the production and distribution of food. This includes business activities within primary production, food industries, grocery stores, all kinds of food catering and some import, such as import of animals, food and plants.

NFSA also inspects and licenses veterinarians and other animal health personnel, businesses who deal in by-products (for instance waste from slaughtered animals) and anyone who cares for animals. Furthermore, the NFSA inspects industries producing cosmetics and body care products, as well as the distribution of medicinal products sold outside of pharmacies.

In addition, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority’s role is to draft and provide information about legislation, perform risk-based inspections, monitor food safety as well as plant, fish and animal health and provide updates on developments in these fields.

National Veterinary Institute

The National Veterinary Institute is a biomedical contingency and research institution in the fields of fish health, animal health and welfare, feed and food safety. The National Veterinary Institute shall provide unbiased and scientifically independent services.

The National Veterinary Institute is the main adviser to the Norwegian National Authorities on matters relating to prevention, diagnosis and management of serious infectious disease in fish and terrestrial animals as well as zoonotics. The National Veterinary Institute provides additional services in prevention and management of crises related to hazardous constituents and infectious agents in feedstuffs and food.

The National Veterinary Institute also provides services and advice to industry, other scientific bodies and to animal owners, and has played an important role in the development of the aquaculture industry.

The Central Bureau of Statistics

Statistics Norway (The Central Bureau of Statistics) was formally established as an independent entity in 1876.

Statistics Norway is an independent institution in its field which includes a comprehensive research activity. This means that Statistics Norway is responsible for the total statistical product within the guidelines and budgets set by superior bodies, determines the statistical methods which are to form the basis for preparation of given statistics, is responsible for how and when statistics are published as well as for economic statistics and research.

In cooperation with Norwegian Customs and the Norwegian Seafood Export Council, Statistics Norway publishes very detailed weekly and monthly export and import statistics for seafood products.

The Fishery and Aquaculture Industry Research Fund

The Fishery and Aquaculture Industry Research Fund is a funding scheme for industrial research and development work within fisheries and aquaculture, and is based on a levy of 0.3 percent on all exported fish and fish products. The funds shall be used for industrial R&D work for the benefit of all or part of the industry, and are distributed in the form of grants for research programmes and major projects. The levying of a research and development tax in the fisheries and aquaculture industry came into force on 1 January 2001.

The tax funds are administered by a Board appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs. Board members are representatives from the fisheries and aquaculture industry. The primary duty of the board is to develop short- and long-term strategies for the fisheries and aquaculture industry for using funds from the R&D tax, based on an ongoing dialogue with the entire industry. The board also distributes the research funds and stipulates the terms for the allocation of funds in accordance with strategies drawn up. It is also their responsibility to follow up the R&D initiatives.

The Research Council of Norway and the Norwegian Industrial and Regional Development Fund are important partners in both strategy planning and the co-funding of R&D work in the fisheries and aquaculture industry.

The Fishery and Aquaculture Industry Research Fund reports to the Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs through annual reports.

Nofima

Nofima is a business oriented research group working in research and development for the aquaculture, fisheries and food industry in Norway. Nofima was established on 1 January 2008, and has about 470 employees. The group's total turnover in 2008 was about NOK 470 million (USD 83.4 million). The group's main office is located in Tromsø in northern Norway, while the research divisions are located in six places: Ås, Stavanger, Bergen, Sunndalsøra, Averøy and Tromsø.

Nofima shall, in cooperation with business actors and their professional organisations, provide research and solutions at an international level which will give a competitive edge throughout the value chain. Business areas include:
  • Norwegian Seafood Federation
  • The Norwegian Seafood Federation represents the majority of companies within the fisheries and aquaculture sectors.
  • The Norwegian Seafood Federation (Fiskeri-og havbruksnæringens landsforening, FHL) represents the interests of approximately 500 member companies and 8 000 employees. FHL covers the entire value chain from fjord to dinner table in the fisheries and aquaculture sectors in Norway.
  • FHL is associated with the Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise (NHO), the main representative body for Norwegian employers with a current membership of over 18 500 companies ranging from small family-owned businesses to multinational companies.
  • FHL provides the following key services:
  • Promotes policies and legislation that benefit members
  • Promotes members' interests in regard to exports and international arena
  • Advises member companies on a wide range of issues, including: Health, Safety, Environment; Quality systems; Food safety; Trade regulations; Legal advice in employee matters; Coordinates research and development; Represents employers in joint negotiations.


  • Norges Fiskarlag (The Norwegian Fishermen’s Association)
  • The Norwegian Fishermen’s Association is both a union and a business association for Norwegian fishermen. Thus, the Association is both an employees’ union, and an employer organization. The Association is also involved in tariff negotiations, and two sections (The Crew Section and the Boat Owner Section) represent the two parties in these negotiations.
  • The Norwegian Fishermen’s Association has seven regional associations and two group organizations as its members. The Association’s headquarters are located in Trondheim.


  • Norges Råfisklag (The Norwegian Fishermen’s Sales Organization)
  • Norges Råfisklag, known in English as the the Norwegian Fishermen's Sales Organisation, handles important aspects of the trade in seafood. Norges Råfisklag, together with five other fish Sales Organisations in Norway, also have an important national role according to resource control of fish stocks.
  • Norges Råfisklag's head office is in Tromsø, with regional offices in Svolvær and Kristiansund. The Organisation has approximately 60 employees.
  • Norges Råfisklag is the fishermen's own sales organisation. The Organisation has a well-developed service system and offers fishermen and buyers a number of services directly related to trading, sales and settlements. Fishermen and buyers can make direct mutual agreements in regard to supply, catches can be put out for auction on the Organisation's modern electronic auction system, or longer-term contracts can be made. A foundation for the whole system is the Organisation's business regulations, a market-based minimum price scheme and an effective settlement system that guarantees settlements for fishermen. This helps to safeguard equal competition conditions for participants in our raw fish market.
  • The organisation was established in 1938. The Raw Fish Act is the foundation and the premise that enables the Organisation and the other fish sales organisations to function in this role.
  • A complete overview of fisheries organizations in Norway, as well as a listing of all private sector companies and organizations, can be found in: Tande, Thorvald jr. (Ed.): Organisasjoner i Fiskerinæringen 2010 (Organizations in the Fisheries Sector 2010). Published by Norsk Fiskerinæring AS, Råholt, Norway, 2009.


(6) A complete overview of fisheries organizations in Norway, as well as a listing of all private sector companies and organizations, can be found in Tande, Thorvald jr. (Ed.): Organisasjoner i Fiskerinæringen 2010 (Organizations in the Fisheries Sector 2010). Published by Norsk Fiskerinæring AS, Råholt, Norway, 2009
Legal frameworkNorway has around two million km2 of sea under its jurisdiction. A 200 nautical mile economic zone was established in 1977. Norway ratified the UN Agreement on Straddling Fish Stocks and Migrating Fish Stocks and the UN Convention on the Law Of the Sea in 1996.

Representatives of the Norwegian fishing industry and governmental authorities cooperate in the formulation of the regulatory regime. A regulatory council with representatives from both parties debate on the distribution of quotas within the fishing industry and provide advice for the Ministry of Fisheries. The Ministry then decides on the final management strategies.

Laws and regulations regulating the fishing operations

There are three basic Acts upon which the management of fishing licences and other management options for the Norwegian fishing fleet are based:
  • Act of 26 March 1999 relating to the Regulation of the Participation in Fisheries;
  • Act of 3 July 1983 relating to Salt Water Fisheries; and
  • Act of 6 June 2008 no. 37, the Marine Resources Act
Under the European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement (1 January 1994), Norway collaborates with other countries on trade policy, both in international organizations, such as OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) and WTO (World Trade Organization), but also with individual countries and inter-governmental bodies such as the EU. There are also international working relationships on ensuring safe food under the FAO/WTO organization Codex Alimentarius.

The Marine Resources Act of 6 June 2008 no. 37 is relating to the management of wild living marine resources. This Act applies to all harvesting and other utilization of wild living marine resources and genetic material derived from them.

The purpose of this Act is to ensure sustainable and economically profitable management of wild living marine resources and genetic material derived from them, and to promote employment and settlement in Norway's coastal communities.

The wild living marine resources belong to the Norwegian society as a whole.

Laws regulating aquaculture

The main purpose of the Aquaculture Act is to promote the profitability and competitiveness of the aquaculture industry within the framework of sustainable development. The Aquaculture Act establishes the framework for the aquaculture industry’s future through responsible development with due regard for the environment and effective use of the coastal zone.

The Act has a strong environmental profile. At the same time, the relationship between the use of the coastal zone and different user interests is taken into account. The environmental and land use provisions are intended to contribute to a good coexistence between the aquaculture industry and other public interests. 

In aquaculture production, the welfare of the animals is important both ethically and for ensuring high-quality products. The Animal Welfare Act sets out general rules for animal husbandry.

Animals shall be treated well and not be subject to unnecessary stress and strain. Further, an animal may only be kept for as long as it is deemed proper to the animal’s welfare. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority determines whether an application for a licence is in compliance with the Animal Welfare Act. The purpose of the Act is to promote animal welfare and respect for animals.

The Food Act is intended to ensure food safety and promote health benefits, quality and consumer considerations throughout the entire aquaculture production chain. The Act applies to all aspects of aquaculture production and processing, as well as distribution of intermediate inputs at the primary food production level. The act also includes general requirements and obligations to ensure compliance with the purpose of the Act. 

AnnexesADDRESSES TO CENTRAL INSTITUTIONS

Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs
(Fiskeri- og kystdepartementet)
Grubbegt. 1 
P.O. Box 8118 DEP  
0032 Oslo, Norway 
Tel.: +47 2224 9090 
Fax: +47 2224 9585
E-mail: postmottak@fkd.dep.no  
Web: www.fkd.dep.no  

Norwegian Seafood Federation 
(Fiskeri- og Habruksnæringens Landsforening) 
Middelthuns gate 27 
P.O. Box 5471 Majorstuen 
0305 Oslo, Norway 
Tel.: +47 9911 0000 
E-mail: firmapost@fhl.no  
Web: www.fhl.no

Norwegian College of Fisheries Science 
(Norges Fiskerihøgskole) 
University of Tromsø 
Breivika 
9037 Tromsø, Norway 
Tel.: +47 7764 6000 
Fax: +47 7764 6020 
E-mail: postmottak@nfh.uit.no  
Web: www.nfh.uit.no

The Norwegian Seafood Association 
(Norske Sjømatbedrifters Landsforening) 
Dronningens gate 7 
P.O. Box 639 Sentrum 
7406 Trondheim, Norway 
Tel.: +47 7384 1400 
Fax: +47 7384 1401 
E-mail: post@nsl.no 
Web: www.nsl.no

Central Bureau of Statistics 
(Statistisk sentralbyrå) 
Kongens gate 6 
P.O. Box 8131 DEP 
0033 Oslo, Norway 
Tel.: +47 2109 0000 
E-mail: ssb@ssb.no 
Web: http://www.ssb.no/

Norwegian Seafood Export Council 
(Eksportutvalget for fisk AS)
Strandveien 106
P.O. Box 6176
9291 Tromsø, Norway
Tel.: +47 7760 3333
Fax: +47 7768 0012
postmottak@seafood.no  
Web: www.seafood.no  
Web: www.godfisk.no  

Institute of Marine Research 
(Havforskningsinstituttet)
Nordnesgaten 50 
P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes
5817 Bergen, Norway
Tel.: +47 5523 8500
Fax: +47 5523 8531
E-post: post@imr.no
Web: http://www.imr.no/

National Institute for Food and Seafood Research (NIFES)  
(Nasjonalt institutt for ernærings- og sjømatforskning)
P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes 
5817 Bergen, Norway
Tel.: +47 55 90 51 00 
Fax: +47 55 90 52 99 
E-mail: postmottak@nifes.no 
Web: www.nifes.no

National Veterinary Institute 
(Veterinærinstituttet)
Ullevålsveien 68  
P.O. Box 750 Sentrum 
N-0106 Oslo, Norway
Tel.: +47 2321 6000 
Fax: +47 2321 6001
E-mail: adm@vetinst.no  
Web: www.vetinst.no

The Fisheries and Aquaculture Research Fund 
(Fiskeri- og havbruksnæringens forskningsfond (FHF)) 
Tollbugata 32, Oslo  
P.O. Box 429 Sentrum 
0103 Oslo, Norway 
Tel.: +47 2389 6408 
Fax: +47 2389 6409 
E-mail: post@fhf.no 
Web: www.fhf.no

Nofima  
(Nofima Head Office) 
Muninbakken 9-13 Breivika,  
PO Box 6122 
9291 Tromsø, Norway
Tel: +47 7762 9000 
Fax: +47 7762 9100  
E-mail: nofima@nofima.no 
Web: www.nofima.no

Norwegian Fishermen’s Sales Organization 
(Norges Råfisklag) 
P.O. Box 6162 
9291 Tromsø, Norway 
Tel.: +47 7766 0100
Fax: +47 7768 6989
E-mail: firmapost@rafisklaget.no  
Web: www.rafisklaget.no

The Norwegian Fishermen’s Association 
(Norges Fiskarlag) 
Pir-Senteret 
7462 Trondheim, Norway 
Tel.: +47 7354 5850 
Fax: +47 7354 5890 
E-mail: fiskarlaget@fiskarlaget.no 
Web: www.fiskarlaget.no
References
Central Bureau of Statistics. 2010 Statistical Yearbook 2010. Oslo 2010.
Directorate of Fisheries.[2010]. Key figures for the Norwegian aquaculture sector (Nøkkeltall fra norsk havbruksnæring 2010), Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen, July 2010 (ISBN 82-91065-15-2).
Directorate of Fisheries. 2010. Key economic and biological figures for the Norwegian fisheries sector (Nøkkeltall fra norsk havbruksnæring 2010), Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen, July 2010 (ISBN 82-91065-15-2).
Directorate of Fisheries. 2010. Fiskefartøy og fiskarar, konsesjonar og årlege deltagaradgangar (Fishing vessels and fishers, licenses and annual participation permits), Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen, April 2010. .
FAO. Food Balance Sheet of Fish and Fishery Products in Live Weight and Fish Contribution to Protein Supply. Rome, FAO.
Flaten, Ola and Shuji Hisano.[nd]. Food Security Policy in a Food Importing Country: The Case of Norway. Paper published in the Japanese journal Nougyou to Keizai (Agriculture and Economy), Vol. 73, No. 8, pp 129 – 136. Translated by Shuji Hisano. .
Gjøsæter, H., Haug, T., Hauge, M., Karlsen, Ø., Knutsen, J.A., Røttingen, I., Skilbrei, O., Sunnset, B.H. (red.). Havforskningsrapporten 2010 (The Ocean Research Report 2010). In Fisken og havet, special publication no. 1–2010.
Lien, Kristin. 2010. Markedsrapport Norsk Konsum av Sjømat 2009 (Market Report Norwegian Consumption of Seafood 2009). Norwegian Seafood Export Council, Tromsø.
Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs. 2010. Facts about fisheries and aquaculture 2009. Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs, Oslo.
Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs.2007 Norwegian Fisheries Management. Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs, Oslo.
Norwegian Seafood Export Council. 2010. Handlingsplan 2010 – 2012: Fellesmarkedsføringen av sjømat i Norge (Action Plan 2010 – 2012: Joint Marketing of seafood in Norway). Norwegian Seafood Export Council, Tromsø .
Sandberg, Merete G. et al. 2010. Betydningen av fiskeri- og havbruksnæringen for Norge i 2008 – en ringvirkningsanalyse (The importance of the fisheries and aquaculture sector for Norway in 2008 – An analysis of spillover effects). SINTEF, Trondheim.
Tande, Thorvald jr. (Ed.). Organisasjoner i Fiskerinæringen 2010 (Organizations in the Fisheries Sector 2010). Published by Norsk Fiskerinæring AS, Råholt, Norway, 2009.

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