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⇧Part I Statistics and main indicators
This section provides statistics and indicators produced through FAO’s Statistics programmes, available by the year reported for the narrative section.
General geographic and economic indicators
Table1 – General geographic and economic data - Vanuatu
(1) 2007 average exchange rate: USD1 = Vanuatu vatu 104.0; GDP source: unpublished data kindly provided by the Vanuatu National Statistics Office
(2) This is the contribution of “total agriculture” in an unpublished document kindly provided by the Vanuatu National Statistics Office. “Total agriculture” includes commercial and subsistence fishing.
(3) This is the official fishing contribution to GDP. A recalculation shows the total fishing contribution to be USD 6.7 million: Gillett (2009). The Contribution of Fisheries to the Economies of Pacific Island Countries and Territories. Pacific Studies Series, Asian Development Bank, Manila
FAO Fisheries statistics
Table 2a – Fisheries data (i) - Vanuatu
Table2b – Fisheries data (ii) - Vanuatu
(4) Data from FAO food balance sheet of fish and fishery products. The production/export amounts apparently include the foreign-owned Vanuatu-flagged vessels.
(5) This is the number of “fishing households”as determined from the 2007 Agriculture Census. Source: NSO (2008). Preliminary Report Agriculture Census 2007. National Statistics Office, Port Vila
(6) From Gillett (2009); includes the six fishery production categories: (1) coastal commercial fishing, (2) coastal subsistence fishing, (3) locally-based offshore fishing, (4) catch by foreign-fleets, (5) freshwater fishing, and (6) aquaculture
Updated 2010⇧Part II Narrative
This section provides supplementary information based on national and other sources and valid at the time of compilation. References to these sources are provided as far as possible.
Production sectorVanuatu is a Y-shaped archipelago of about 80 islands, 67 of which are inhabited, and twelve of which are considered major. The islands plus associated reefs lie between latitudes 13-21°S and longitudes 166-172°E in the western Pacific Ocean. The archipelago measures approximately 850 km in length. Compared to other Pacific Island countries, inshore marine areas are not extensive in Vanuatu. Inner reef areas are limited to narrow fringing reefs and the area covered by mangroves is quite small. Nearly 80% of the population reside in rural areas.
With respect to the current situation, fisheries in the waters of Vanuatu can be placed into six categories. These categories and the associated production in 2007 are estimated as:
Table 3 – Fisheries production by category - Vanuatu
The main trends and important issues in the fisheries sector
The main trends in the sector include:
Some of the major issues in the fisheries sector are:
(7) This is the catch taken by the foreign fleet within the Vanuatu EEZ. In FAO statistics of capture fisheries production, this catch is accounted under the catch of the nation(s) under which the vessel(s) is (are) flagged.
(8) Corals and giant clams are commonly measured in pieces, rather than kg.Marine sub-sectorThe marine fisheries have two very distinct components, offshore and coastal:
Table 4 - Catch of offshore fishing reported under the Vanuatu based fleet
Estimates of the volumes and values of the offshore catches of the four main commercial species of tuna (Bigeye, yellowfin, skipjack and albacore) taken by foreign based fleet within the Vanuatu EEZ have been made by the Forum Fisheries Agency, using data sourced from the Oceanic Fisheries Program of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. By adding in volumes and values of catch of non-tuna species, estimates of total catches in the Vanuatu zone can be made:
Table 5 – Estimates of total catches in the Vanuatu zone
Estimates of catches from the coastal fisheries vary widely. Studies to estimate production were carried out by external researchers in 1996, 2000, and 2001– but the estimates were very different. Gillett (2009) used those studies plus (a) the results of the 2006 household income and expenditure survey, (b) export data, (c) estimates of production from recent specialized studies, (d) the results of the recent 2006/2007 agriculture census, and (e) opinions of fisheries specialists. The results indicated a coastal commercial production of 538 tonnes (worth USD2.2 million) and a coastal subsistence production of 2 830 tonnes (worth USD5.7 million).
The aquarium fishery has been in existence in Vanuatu for the last 15 years. Although Vanuatu’s reefs are not extensive, they provide sufficient habitat for ornamental resources that can maintain a small, but sustainable industry. In Vanuatu, about 300 species of non-food reef fish are important ornamental species, including many species of invertebrates, clams, soft corals, and cultured hard corals. In 2007 216 466 pieces of aquarium items worth USD200 403 were exported. (Source: National Marine Aquarium Trade Management Plan, 2008).
(9) This is the “in-sone”value; the value in destination markets, less the cost of shipment to those markets.Landing sitesThe foreign vessels that operate in the Vanuatu EEZ land their catches in a variety of locations. The Fiji-based longliners, many of which are flagged under Taiwan Province of China, offload their catches in Suva (fresh fish) or Levuka (frozen fish). Other Asian longliners either transship at ports in Vanuatu or neighboring country, or deliver their catch to Asian ports.
The Asian vessels that are based in Port Vila generally operate under the Vanuatu flag through joint venture arrangement or other arrangement. They usually operate out of the Vanuatu EEZ and offload their catch at Port Vila.
No discussion of fish landing sites in Vanuatu would be complete without some mention of the history of the large facility at Palekula (Box 1).
Box 1 - Vanuatu
Vanuatu operates the Vanuatu International Shipping Registry (VISR) under contract to the Vanuatu Maritime Services with some 500 ships registered under contract through an office in New York, USA. The VISR also allows foreign fishing companies to register as Vanuatu flagged vessels. The number of Vanuatu flagged vessels registered as fishing vessels in 2005 was 86 (up from 33 in 2002) with eleven of these being longliners licensed to operate within Vanuatu waters. In the wider WCPO area, 82 Vanuatu flagged vessels were registered, the fleet included 55 longliners, 24 purse seiners and 3 pole and line vessels. Vanuatu now has the second largest fishing fleet operating in the Eastern Pacific, and has the fastest growing fleet in the Indian Ocean. In the recent past, some of these vessels were implicated in illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing activities and a number of international tuna commissions expressed their concerns to the Department of Fisheries. Consequently, the Department has taken steps to regulate their fishing fleet through implementing a number of administrative and management measures including performing background checks on vessels applying to the registry, ensuring the timely submission of catch data, introducing certificates of origin, and placing a ceiling in fleet size of 116 vessels. (Naviti and Taleo, 2006; Hickey and Jimmy, 2008)In 2009 Vanuatu had a fleet composed of 90 vessels (larger than 18 m LOA) of which 27 were purse seiners, 62 long liners and 1 pole and line.
The commercial food fish catch (i.e. deep-water demersal fish) is mainly offloaded in Port Vila. The non-food catch (i.e. trochus shells) is mostly non-perishable and is often landed close to the fishing areas – which are scattered around the country.
Subsistence fishery landings occur at coastal villages throughout the country, roughly in proportion to the distribution of the population.
(10) Chapman, L. (2002). Development Options and Constraints Including Infrastructure and Training Needs Within the Tuna Fishing Industry and Support Services in Vanuatu. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Noumea.Fishing practices/systemsWCPFC Yearbook indicated that the number of vessels operated in the Western and Central Pacific in 2009 was 74, including 6 purse seiners and 68 longliners. Regarding to the foreign flag vessels, the Chinese fleet is currently the dominant fleet operating in the Vanuatu EEZ, both in terms of vessel numbers and capacity, followed by Taiwan Province of China, then Fiji.
The 2007 Agriculture Census does not contain information on fishing production means. Preston (1996)11 uses the 1991 Agriculture Census to conclude that fishing lines were by far the most common coastal fishing gear and were used by 94% of the 14,041 fishing households enumerated at that time. The second most common gear, hand-spears, were used by 46% of households, followed by spearguns (36%), bows and arrows (33%), and gill nets (19%). Most households owned more than one gear type, and had several of each type owned, with fishing lines averaging three per household.
It should be noted that some important fishing activities in Vanuatu (e.g. shell collection, lobster capture) do not require “fishing gear” (as used in the Agriculture Census), but rather just a diving mask or goggles.
(11) Preston, G. (1996). Masterplan for the Sustainable Management of Development of Vanuatu’s Inshore Fisheries Resources. Technical Report 2. TCP/VAN/4552. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bangkok.Main resourcesVanuatu Fisheries Department (2009)12 reports that in 2007 the major species in the longline catch was albacore (60% by weight), yellowfin (16%) and bigeye (10%). On the other hand, WCPFC Yearbook indicated that the majority (around 80 % with some fluctuation) of catch taken by purse seine was skipjack.
With respect to inshore fishing, Bell and Amos (1993)13 list the twenty-two species that are believed to be the most important finfish in Vanuatu: Naso lituratus (orangespine unicornfish), Kyphosus cinerascens (highfin rudderfish-topsail drummer), Epinephelus merra (honeycomb grouper), Variola louti (lunartail grouper), Scarus blochi (quoy's parrotfish), Cheilinus undulatus (napoleonfish-maori wrasse), Hemigymnus melaptarus (blackedge thicklip wrasse), Plectorhynchus gibbosus (black sweetlips), P. orientalis (oriental sweetlips), Chaetodon lineatus (lined butterflyfish), Lethrinus harak (blackspot emperor), L. miniatus (longnose emperor), Sargocentron tieroides (pink squirrelfish), Lutjanus fulvus (flametail snapper), L. gibbus (humpback snapper), Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (yellowstripe goatfish), Siganus canaliculatus (seagrass rabbitfish), S. doliatus (pencil-streaked rabbitfish), Acanthurus lineatus (bluebanded surgeonfish - convict tang), Shyraena genie (blackfin barracuda), Valamugil seheli (bluespot mullet), Caranx melampygus (bluefin trevally) and Geres oyena (oyena mojarra).
Invertebrate species are also very important in the inshore commercial and subsistence fisheries. These include rock lobsters, slipper lobster, coconut crab, green snail, trochus, aquarium fish, various crustaceans, and beche-de-mer.
Trochus is especially important in Vanuatu. It is a source of cash for remote communities, it forms the basis of a small manufacturing industry in Port Vila, has been cultured by the Fisheries Department, and is the object of much management effort. The box gives some information on this shell.14
Box 2 – Trochus - Vanuatu
For the aquarium ornamentals, the National Marine Aquarium Trade Management Plan gives the six fish groups most commonly targeted: the angelfish (Pomacanthidae), gobies (Gobiidae), tangs (Acanthuridae), damsels (Pomacentridae), groupers (Serranidae) and wrasses (Labridae). Of the Pomacanthidae, the flame angel (Centropyge loriculus) has been the most exported fish species, representing 12.5% of Vanuatu’s average total annual fish exports. Fish represent the bulk of Vanuatu’s marine aquarium exports, contributing about 66% of the total annual average export volume, followed by invertebrates (18%) and live rock (10%). (Source: National Marine Aquarium Trade Management Plan).
(12) Vanuatu Fisheries Dept (2009). National Tuna Fishery Report. Report WCPFC-SC5-AR/CCM-27, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commisssion, Pohnpei.
(13) Bell, L. and M. Amos (1993). Republic of Vanuatu Fisheries Resources Profiles. Report 93/49, Forum Fisheries Agency, Honiara.
(14) Sources: (1) Gillett, R. (1995). Aspects of Trochus Industries, Trade and Marketing Relevant to the Pacific Islands - a report prepared for the World Bank, 75 pages. (2) Bell, L. and M. Amos (1993). Republic of Vanuatu Fisheries Resources Profiles. Report 93/49, Forum Fisheries Agency, Honiara.Management applied to main fisheries
Tuna Fishery Management
The Vanuatu is a member of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission that was established by the Convention for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. The Convention entered into force in June 2004.
The “Revised Tuna Management Plan - A National Policy for the Management of Vanuatu Tuna Fisheries” is a 62-page document which (1) Identifies the fishery and assesses the present state of its exploitation, (2) Specifies the objectives to be achieved; and (3) Specifies the management and development measures to be taken. The revised plan was endorsed by the Government and launched by the Minister responsible for fisheries in December 2008.
The main objectives of the management of tuna fisheries in the Plan are:
Coastal Commercial Fisheries Management
Management plans for the coastal commercial fisheries have been prepared for aquarium ornmentals, trochus, and beche-de-mer. These plans have been made in accordance with Part 2 Section 3 of the Fisheries Act. As an example of the content of a management plan, the National Marine Aquarium Trade Management Plan contains sections on:
The management authority for subsistence fisheries is primarily vested with the traditional reef custodians through customary marine tenure (CMT). CMT is legally recognized in Vanuatu in Chapter 12 of the Constitution that states:
Institutional Arrangements for Fishery Management
In Vanuatu the main institution involved with fishery management is the Department of Fisheries. The role of this agency is covered in more detail in a section below.
(15) Ni-Vanuatu” is a term that means the indigenous inhabitants of Vanuatu.
(16) Hickey, F. and R. Jimmy (2008). Fisheries. In: Gay, D. Vanuatu Diagnostic Trade Integration Study 2008 Report. Blue Planet Media + Communications, Port Vila, Vanuatu.Fishing communitiesThe concept of “fishermen communities” has limited applicability to Vanuatu. Nearly all households in coastal villages are involved in coastal fishing activities. It could therefore be stated that all coastal villages in Vanuatu are “fishing communities”.Inland sub-sectorThe Vanuatu Fishery Resource Profiles17 contain extensive information on the country’s freshwater fish and invertebrate resources. It is reported that the distribution of the various freshwater ecosystems is patchy throughout the Vanuatu archipelago, covering only 1.0% of the total land area. The profiles cover 18 families of local freshwater fish, 3 families of introduced fish, and several species of shrimps and crab. The most important taxa for fishery purposes are:
Any management of the freshwater fisheries is carried out through customary marine tenure (see section above).
(17) Amos, M. (2007). Vanuatu Fishery Resource Profiles. Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Apia, Samoa.Fishing communitiesThe concept of “fishermen communities” has limited applicability to Vanuatu. Nearly all households in coastal villages are involved in coastal fishing activities. It could therefore be stated that all coastal villages in Vanuatu are “fishing communities”.Aquaculture sub-sector
Table 6 - Recent aquaculture production in Vanuatu
Vanuatu’s 2007 aquaculture production is estimated to be 31 tonnes of fishes and crustaceans and 2 500 pieces of giant clams and corals, with the estimated total value of about USD 389 000.Recreational sub-sectorHickey and Jimmy (2008) indicate that the sport fishing industry has steadily grown from two to three charter boats a decade ago to a current level of eight. Vanuatu currently holds blue marlin world records and is increasingly being recognized as an international game-fishing destination. Each boat lands approximately six to eight tonnes of pelagic fish annually. Fish landed by game boats remain the property of the boat, not the game fisher and the sale of these fish are used to offset fuel and operation costs. This equates to some 48 to 64 tonnes of fresh pelagic fish supplying the hotel, resort and restaurant trade.
The Vanuatu Game Boat Operators Association (VGBOA), established in 2004, indicates that 1 120 people came to Vanuatu in 2005 on pre-booked fishing charters and spent over USD 2.6 million in-country. Three quarters of this was spent on airfares, accommodation, food and drinks, entertainment, transport, sightseeing and outer island travel. The VGBOA funds, deploys and maintains three fish aggregating devices off Efate, although all fishers have access to them.
Currently, the Tourism Office grants a tourism licence for sport fishing boats while the Department of Fisheries grants a fishing licence. That licence comes within the scope of the Vanuatu Tuna Management Plan, which states that “charter sportfishing vessels that sell their catch are considered to be commercial fishing vessels and are required to obtain a commercial fishing licence and will follow the same rules for determining fees and license conditions as any other commercial vessel”.
Post-harvest sectorFish utilizationIn general offshore fishing is export oriented. The high quality fresh bigeye and yellowfin is typically exported to Japan and the USA. Much of the albacore is sent to canneries in American Samoa, with some going to canneries in Southeast Asia. The non-tuna catch and rejected tunas landed by the offshore fishing vessels that are based in Port Vila are consumed locally.
In the coastal fisheries:
Currently, there are a few commercial fish markets in the main urban areas of Port Vila and Luganville, plus several locations where fish are informally marketed.
Socio-economic contribution of the fishery sectorRole of fisheries in the national economyA recent study by the Asian Development Bank attempted to quantify the fishery-related benefits received by Vanuatu. The study gave the available information on the contribution of fishing/fisheries to GDP, exports, government revenue, and employment. The results can be summarized as:
The government has several strategies to increase the national fish supply. These involve supporting the marketing of fishery products in Port Vila from other parts of the country, deploying offshore fish aggregation devices, installation of ice machines in all six provinces, promoting aquaculture, and supporting village-level fisheries management.
Major factors affecting the local supply of fish are the cost of fuel, employment alternatives, transport links to the outer islands, and the offloading of fish by the locally-based longliners.
The per capita consumption of fish in Vanuatu, based on the 2007 FAO Food Balance Sheet, is 33.6 kg. Various other studies have made estimates ranging between 15.9 and 25.7 kg. Considering Vanuatu’s population, 25 kg of fish consumption per capita translates into a 2010 demand for 6 131 tonnes of fish.
Factors influencing the future demand for fish are increase in price of fish (over-exploitation of inshore areas, gradual devaluation of the local currency, fuel cost increases), increase in the tourism industry, relative cost of fish substitutes, and changes in dietary preferences.TradeOver the 2004-2007 period the FOB value of annual fisheries exports from Vanuatu fisheries averaged USD 1.2 million, which does not include tunas taken by Vanuatu flag vessels and exported. The major exports are trochus, beche de mer, and aquarium products. FAO estimates of the average export of tunas over 2004-2007 period were around USD 72 millions.
Fishery exports, excluding tunas, are responsible for about 3.4% of all exports of the country.Food securityFish is an important element of food security in Vanuatu. However, relative to other Pacific Island countries, fish is not as significant in Vanuatu. Many fish consumption studies show that Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea have the lowest per capita fish consumption in the region.
The FAO Food Balance Sheets show that in 2007 fish contributed an average of 15.8% of all protein to the diet and 39.2% of animal protein.
Animal protein substitutes for fish consist mainly of various types of imported and domestic meat.EmploymentThe most recent information on the degree of participation in fishing activities comes from the 2007 Agriculture Census. The report of the census states:
The earlier 2006 Agriculture Census had slightly different findings. 78% of all Vanuatu households (urban and rural) engage in fishing, with 48% in urban areas and 86% in rural areas.
A study by the Forum Fisheries Agency18 tracked the number of people in Vanuatu employed in tuna fishing and processing in Vanuatu over a seven-year period:
Table 7 – Number of people employed in tuna fishing and processing - Vanuatu
(18) Gillett, R. (2008). A Study of Tuna Industry Development Aspirations of FFA Member Countries. Forum Fisheries Agency, Honiara, 70 pages.Rural developmentThe Fisheries Department’s Capture and Development Section promotes artisanal, commercial and subsistence fishing enterprises to improve the livelihood of rural areas. The Department maintains extension centers in all six provinces. One of the major objectives of these outposts is to promote fisheries development. This is carried out through a variety of ways, including market facilitation, advice on fisheries management, deployment of offshore fish aggregation devices, and provision of ice-making equipment.
Trends, issues and developmentConstraints and opportunitiesSome of the major constraints in fisheries development are:
Present and former fisheries officials indicate that the two longline processing facilities under construction will result in a large increase in interest in longlining. In addition, all vessels licensed to fish in Vanuatu that do not offload in Vanuatu will pay significantly higher fees. These two factors will contribute to making the aspiration of having a substantial longline fleet based in the country a reality. A major operator of longline vessels (who is building the tuna processing facility in Vanuatu) aspires to have a fleet of 25 to 45 longline vessels based in Port Vila within a few years – but he stresses that fleet survival will be the main aspiration for the next decade. The desire to increase the fleet based in Port Vila is because the port is closer than in Suva (where much of his fleet is based) to the longline fishing ground that he targets.
(19) Gillett, R. (2008). A Study of Tuna Industry Development Aspirations of FFA Member Countries. Forum Fisheries Agency, Honiara, 70 pages.Government and non-government sector policies and development strategiesThe Fisheries Department annual reports contain information on the government’s policies and development strategies. Recent reports indicate that the Department is concentrating its development efforts on five main activities:
Small-scale fisheries development:
Support for Tuna Fishery Development
Many of the research activities have been carried out or supported by regional or international agencies, in particular the French research organization ORSTOM22 which until 1997 maintained a field centre in Vanuatu.
Historically, the main areas of research projects have been:
Presently, a research priority of the Fisheries Department is to carry out stock assessment of important inshore resources such as trochus, green snail, sea cucumber and giant clams.
(20) Gillett, R. D. and D. Kenneth (1987). Vanuatu Fisheries Bibliography. Document 87/7, FAO/UNDP Regional Fishery Support Programme, Suva, 67 pages.(21) Amos, M. (2007). Vanuatu Fishery Resource Profiles. Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Apia, Samoa.(22) Now known as IRD – Institute de recherche pour le développementEducation and trainingAs part of earlier EU funded fisheries development efforts a Fisheries Training Centre (FTC) was established in Luganville on Espiritu Santo in 1991. This centre provided training to island fisherman who resided at the centre for a month while they received training in deepwater and pelagic fishing gear and methods, fish handling, outboard engine and boat maintenance as well as basic financial management. Hundreds of fishers from throughout the group received training through the centre through the 1990s. However, with the cessation of EU funding in 1996, the government had difficulty in funding the centre and it was decided to eventually allocate the centre to the newly formed Vanuatu Maritime College (VMC) in 2001. The College trains seafarers for employment on merchant and fishing vessels as well as for cruise ships. The VMC includes in its mandate to provide practical fisheries training to rural communities in addition to its primary function of providing training to seafarers. Fisheries training courses are run in rural areas following requests from Provincial Governments, fisherman’s associations and/or from the Department of Fisheries (Hickey and Jimmy 2007)
Higher-level or academic training in fishery-related subjects is generally sought overseas. Overseas education is undertaken in a variety of institutions:
Important donors have included the Governments of Britain, Australia, New Zealand and Japan as well as the European Union. Other donors have included ACIAR, ICOD and CIDA. Assistance is also obtained from the international organisations of which Vanuatu is a member, including FAO, UNDP, ESCAP, and other United Nation agencies. The regional organisations serving Pacific Island countries, including the Forum Fisheries Agency, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, the Forum Secretariat, and the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission have been active in supporting Vanuatu’s fisheries sector.
Institutional frameworkAdministration, development and management of the fisheries sector is the responsibility of the Fisheries Department within the Ministry of Agriculture, Quarantine, Forestry and Fisheries. The Fisheries Department headquarters are in Port Vila with a regional office in Luganville, and smaller provincial centers in each of Vanuatu’s six provinces. The Fisheries Department is headed by a Director, and has five functional divisions (Amos 2007).
According to the most recent annual report of the Fisheries Department (Raubani 2008), the functions of the five divisions are:
Some of the important internet links related to fisheries in Vanuatu are:
Legal frameworkThe Fisheries Act No. 55 of 2005 is the main fisheries law of Vanuatu. The main provisions of the Act deal with:
Fisheries management plans
Amos, M. 2007. Vanuatu Fishery Resource Profiles. Apia, Samoa., Pacific Regional Environment Programme.
Bell, L. and M. Amos. 1993. Republic of Vanuatu Fisheries Resources Profiles. Honiara, Forum Fisheries Agency. Report 93/49.
Chapman, L. 2002. Development Options and Constraints Including Infrastructure and Training Needs Within the Tuna Fishing Industry and Support Services in Vanuatu. Noumea, Secretariat of the Pacific Community.
FAO. 2009. Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics: Food balance sheets. In: FAO Yearbook of Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics 2007. Rome, FAO. pp. 55-68.
Gillett. 2009. The Contribution of Fisheries to the Economies of Pacific Island Countries and Territories. Manila, Asian Development Bank. Pacific Studies Series.
Gillett, R. 2008. A Study of Tuna Industry Development Aspirations of FFA Member Countries. Honiara, Forum Fisheries Agency. 70 pp.
Gillett, R. 1995. Aspects of Trochus Industries, Trade and Marketing Relevant to the Pacific Islands - a report prepared for the World Bank. 75 pp.
Gillett, R. D. and D. Kenneth. 1987. Vanuatu Fisheries Bibliography. Suva, FAO/UNDP Regional Fishery Support Programme. 67 pp. Document 87/7.
Hickey, F. and R. Jimmy. 2008. Fisheries. In: Gay, D. Vanuatu Diagnostic Trade Integration Study 2008 Report. Port Vila, Vanuatu., Blue Planet Media + Communications .
NSO. 2008. Preliminary Report Agriculture Census 2007. Port Vila, National Statistics Office.
Preston, G. 1996. Masterplan for the Sustainable Management of Development of Vanuatu’s Inshore Fisheries Resources. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bangkok. Technical Report 2. TCP/VAN/4552.
Raubani, J. 2008. Fisheries Department 2007 Annual Report. Port Vila, Management & Policy Division, Fisheries Department .
Vanuatu Fisheries Dept. 2009. National Tuna Fishery Report. Pohnpei, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commisssion. Report WCPFC-SC5-AR/CCM-27.
FAO Thematic data bases
FAO Fisheries statistics