FAO Home>Fisheries & Aquaculture
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationsfor a world without hunger
EspañolFrançaisРусский
  1. Profile
    1. Basic legislation
    2. Legal definition
    3. Guidelines and codes of conduct
    4. International arrangements
  2. Planning
    1. Authorization system
    2. Access to land and water
    3. EIA
  3. Operation
    1. Water and wastewater
    2. Fish movement
    3. Disease control
    4. Drugs
    5. Feed
  4. Food safety
    1. Miscellaneous
      1. References
        1. Legislation
        2. Related resources
      2. Related links
        Profile
        Basic legislation
        This study only refers to federal legislation and institutions.

        The Special Secretariat for Aquaculture and Fisheries (Secretaria Especial de Aqüicultura e Pesca – SEAP), attached to the Presidency of the Republic and created by Law No.10.683 of 2003  , is the main authority for the management and development of fisheries and aquaculture in Brazil. SEAP is, indeed, vested with advisory, promotional, supervisory and administrative functions. It assists the President in the drafting of policies and guidelines, promotes actions aiming at the construction of infrastructure for the development of fisheries, aquaculture and fish products trade, and implements programmes for the rational development of aquaculture, in cooperation with the Federal District, States and Municipal Authorities. SEAP is also responsible for the upkeep of the General Fisheries Register (Registro Geral da Pesca – RGP), the granting of licences, permits and authorizations for fisheries and aquaculture and shall transfer 50 percent of tax income and licence fees to the Brazilian Institute for the Environment (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente – IBAMA), attached to the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Ministério do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – MMA).

        Within the activity of SEAP, a central role is played by the National Council for Aquaculture and Fisheries (Conselho Nacional de Aqüicultura e Pesca – CONAPE), which is vested with advisory and organizational functions, mainly concerning the matters listed above.

        Another focal institution for the management of fisheries is the aforementioned IBAMA, which replaced the Superintendancy for Fisheries – Superintendência da Pesca – SUDEPE, in 1989  . Its responsibilities mainly concern environmental issues, such as natural resources conservation (including aquatic resources), environmental licences and water quality control. In fact, in 1998, part of the functions related to fisheries, and inherited from SUDEPE, were transferred to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento – MAPA), and more precisely to the newborn Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Departamento de Pesca e Aqüicultura – DPA - da Secretaria de Apoio Rural e Cooperativismo – SARC). Eventually, in 2003 said competencies were reassigned to SEAP.

        From a legislative point of view, the federal framework of aquaculture is quite fragmented. The Fisheries Code – Decree-Law promoting and protecting Fishing Activity (Código de Pesca – Decreto-Lei sôbre a Proteção e Estímulos à Pesca) (1967, as amended), which is the main piece of legislation regulating the matter, only dedicates three articles to aquaculture development. Consequently, through the Working Group on the Revision of Aquaculture Legislation created in 2003, SEAP is currently fostering the promulgation of an Aquaculture Law (Código de Aqüicultura), which would recognize several rights to farmers. Proposals shall be handed in as of December 31st, 2004.

        In 1995, the Executive Group for the Fisheries Sector – GESPE (Grupo-Executivo do Sector Pesqueiro – GESPE) was created, in order to promote the development of fisheries. The Group was in charge of proposing the National Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy to the Chamber for Natural Resources Policies (attached to the Presidency of the Republic), recommending legislative reforms for fisheries and aquaculture and implementing the directives issued by the Chamber with regard to fisheries. However, the National Plan for Fisheries and Aquaculture presented in 1998 never became operational. SEAP is now organizing the First Conference on Aquaculture and Fisheries in order to prepare a "democratic and integrated policy on aquaculture and fisheries", as stated by the Presidential Decree issued on August 18th, 2003. With Normative Instruction No.1 of 2004  , SEAP also created a Technical Working Group for the formulation of policies on aquaculture and fisheries cooperativism.

        Lastly, fisheries and aquaculture research is carried out by the National Council for Research and Development – CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento) from the Ministry of Science and Technology – MCT (Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia). Since the creation of SEAP, MCT and CNPq undertake annual meetings to decide aquaculture research priorities and publish calls for research proposals. The National Information System on Fisheries and Aquaculture – SINPESQ (Sistema Nacional de Informações da Pesca e Aqüicultura – SINPESQ), established by Decree No.1.694 of 1995 and managed by the Brazilian Foundation Institute of Geography and Statistics, is not yet operational.
        Legal definition
        The federal Fisheries Code does not give any definition of aquaculture, nor does it include fish farming in the definition of fisheries. However, definitions are often found in secondary legislation. For instance, Decree No.4.895 of 2003 describes aquaculture as the cultivation or breeding of organisms, whose life cycle develops, in natural conditions, totally or partially in an aquatic environment ("aqüicultura: o cultivo ou a criação de organismos cujo ciclo de vida, em condições naturais, ocorre total ou parcialmente em meio aquático"). Similarly, SEAP Normative Instruction No.3 of 2004 regards aquaculture as the cultivation, breeding or holding in captivity, with commercial purposes, of organisms whose life cycle develops, in natural conditions, totally or partially in an aquatic environment ("cultivo, criação ou manutenção em cativeiro, com fins comerciais, de organismos cujo ciclo de vida, em condições naturais, ocorre total ou parcialmente em meio aquático, incluindo a produção de imagos, ovos, larvas, pós-larvas, náuplios, sementes, girinos, alevinos ou mudas de algas marinhas").

        Although States' legislation exceeds the scope of the present study, it is worth mentioning that, according to the Saõ Paulo State Fisheries and Aquaculture Code  (Código de Pesca e Aqüicultura do Estado de São Paulo) (2002), aquaculture is the cultivation of hydrobiological organisms having an economic interest and is considered as a farming activity ("aqüicultura é o cultivo de organismos hidróbios de interesse econômico e constitui uma atividade agropecuária"). Further, the same Law more specifically defines aquaculture as the breeding/growing and the reproduction of aquatic animals and plants ("define-se por aqüicultura as atividades de criação e de multiplicação de animais e plantas aquáticas").
        Guidelines and codes of conduct
        Shrimp aquaculture being the best organized aquaculture sector in Brazil, the Brazilian Shrimp Growers Association  (ABCC - Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Camarão) has prepared four codes of good management practices, concerning shrimp farm management, shrimp feed production, shrimp hatchery, and processing plants. The latter mainly reinforces HACCP standards, whereas the former tackle the following issues:
        • Sustainable and responsible shrimp aquaculture management (Código de Conduta para Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Responsável da Carcinicultura Brasileira) (June 2004):
          • Mangroves conservation.
          • Site selection, standards and construction techniques.
          • Feed and feeding practices.
          • Shrimp health and biosafety.
          • Prevention of shrimp escape.
          • Use of chemicals and veterinary drugs.
          • Hatcheries management.
          • Harvest, conservation and transport.
          • Effluents and solid waste.
          • Rights of other water users.
          • Relationship with employees and local community.

        • Shrimp feed production (Código de Conduta e de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para Fabricantes de Rações para Camarão) (January 2004):
          • Site selection and location of facilities.
          • Selection and purchase of ingredients.
          • Storage and use of ingredients.
          • Processing.
          • Formulation.
          • Packaging and labelling.
          • Storage and transport of feed.
          • Human resources.
          • Sampling and testing methods.

        • Marine shrimp larviculture (Código de Conduta e de Boas Práticas de Manejo para Laboratórios de Larvicultura de Camarão Marinho) (May 2004):
          • Site selection and location of facilities.
          • Disinfection of the laboratory.
          • Operation and management.
          • Feed.
          • Animal health and biosafety.
          • Use of chemicals and veterinary drugs.
          • Harvest, packaging and transport.
          • Effluents and solid waste.
          • Employees and social relations.
        On the other hand, SEAP has prepared a draft version of Best Management Practices for fish, mollusc and frog aquaculture, which are available for public consultation with the productive sectors until May 2005, through the SEAP website, jointly with the sustainable aquaculture management code from ABCC:
        • Código de Conduta para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Responsável da Ranicultura Brasileira (June 2004).
        • Código de Conduta para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Responsável da Malacocultura Brasileira (June 2004).
        • Código de Conduta para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Responsável da Piscicultura Brasileira (June 2004).
        These documents contain guidelines for the following activities:
        • Aquaculture site selection.
        • Farm construction/installation.
        • Feed and feeding practices.
        • Biosafety.
        • Control of cultured animals escapes into the environment.
        • Use and storage of chemicals and therapeutic substances.
        • Farm management practices.
        • Effluents treatment and residues disposal.
        • Respecting rights of other users of aquatic resources.
        • Consideration of rights and needs of local communities.
        • Relationship with employees.
        International arrangements
        Brazil is a member of:
        • World Trade Organization (WTO).
        • Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).
        • MERCOSUR (Mercado Común del Sur).
        Brazil is also a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), but only by accession to the Biosafety Protocol.
        Planning
        Authorization system
        The right to set up aquaculture facilities requires the registration of aquaculture farmers in the RGP. Procedures are defined in Normative Instruction (SEAP) No.3 of 2004  , as follows.

        Applicants shall file their applications with the SEAP Office of their State of residence, including the following supporting documentation:
        • Application form properly filled in and signed by the applicant or by a legal representative.
        • For legal persons, a copy of a document attesting its legal personality.
        • A copy of the residence certificate of the applicant.
        • Detailed project of the existing or upcoming infrastructure.
        • A copy of the environmental licence, where appropriate.
        • Receipt of tax payment for aquaculture farmer registration.
        Additionally, for aquaculture projects to be developed in federal water bodies, a copy of the authorization to use portions of waterbodies (autorização de uso de espaços físicos de corpos d'água) shall be handed (see § on access to land and water below).

        The amount of the registration tax is calculated in proportion to the surface area occupied by the aquaculture units owned by the applicant. Aquaculture registration certificates must be renewed every year, with the apposition of an "Annual Visa" by the competent SEAP State Office, upon receipt of the annual registration tax.

        Any change in the conditions or permanent data must be communicated within 60 days to the competent SEAP State Office, with the relevant documentation. Furthermore, when the change consists in the incorporation of a new aquaculture unit, the application shall be filed with the SEAP Office of the State where the activity is established. This procedure is required for verification purposes and to either update the original registration or issue a new registration certificate.
        Access to land and water
        Law No.7.661 of 1988 establishes the National Costal Management Plan (Plano Nacional de Gerenciamento Costeiro – PNGC), to be drafted under the supervision of the Secretariat of the Interministerial Commission for Marine Resources (Secretaria da Comissão Interministerial para os Recursos do Mar – SECIRM). The PNGC is part of the National Policy for Marine Resources (Política Nacional para os Recursos do Mar – PNRM) and the National Environmental Policy (Política Nacional do Meio Ambiente – PNMA). The Plan, which shall determine zoning measures for the conservation of coastal resources, must be approved by the Interministerial Commission for Marine Resources (Comissão Interministerial para os Recursos do Mar – CIRM), after a hearing of the National Environmental Council (Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente – CONAMA). Licences for the use of coastal areas are subject to the presentation of an Environmental Impact Study and the corresponding Environmental Impact Report (Estúdio de Impacto Ambiental – EIA e Relatório de Impacto Ambiental – RIMA) (see § on EIA below). The Law does not make any specific reference to aquaculture.

        Access to public waters for fish farming in Brazil is covered by Decree No.4.895 of 2003  , regulating Authorizations to Use Federal Waterbodies for Aquaculture Purposes, and by Interministerial Normative Instruction No.6 of 2004  , jointly issued by SEAP, MMA, IBAMA, the Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management (Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão), the National Water Agency (Agência Nacional de Água – ANA) and the Maritime Authority.

        Applications for the authorization to use federal waterbodies for aquaculture purposes must be filed with the Secretariat for Federal Heritage (Secretaria do Patrimônio da União – SPU), attached to the Ministry of Planning, through the SEAP Office of the State where the project will be carried out.

        Submission forms include applications to SEAP  for registration in RGP (see § on authorization system above), to ANA for water use authorizations, and to IBAMA for environmental licences (see § on EIA below). The whole process is managed by SEAP, although the authorization is issued by SPU. Authorizations may only be granted to natural or legal persons included in the category of aquaculture farmers and are not transferable.

        Depending on the kind of project, applications may concern the development of aquaculture activities in three different environments:
        • Aquaculture areas (áreas aqüícolas): delimited areas in aquatic environment intended for the development of individual or collective aquaculture projects.
        • Aquaculture parks (parques aqüícolas): delimited areas in aquatic environment, composed of several aquaculture areas, and where compatible activities may be carried out in intermediate spaces.
        • Preference areas (faixas ou áreas de preferência): areas on which indigenous people have priority rights.
        The first step in the authorization process for the development of projects in aquaculture areas is the approval of the technical project by SEAP. Then, where appropriate, SEAP shall apply to ANA for a preventive authorization to use water resources. According to its area of competence, IBAMA analyses the potential environmental impact of the project and may either require a more detailed environmental impact study or observe that the environmental licence can be issued separately. Likewise, the Maritime Authority must ensure that the project does not hinder maritime transportation.

        It is important to note that ANA issues two types of water authorizations, as established by Law No.9.984 of 2000:
        • Preventive authorization to use water resources (outorga preventiva de uso de recursos hídricos), which only indicates water availability for planning purposes and does not grant any water right (maximum duration: 3 years).
        • Water use right (outorga de direito de uso de recursos hídricos), which grants the right to use water (maximum duration: 35 years, renewable).
        The former is automatically converted into the latter, upon approval of the project by SEAP.

        Applications concerning aquaculture parks and preference areas follow a slightly different procedure, since both parks and areas must be previously delimitated by SEAP, in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment (environmental licence), the Maritime Authority, the Ministry of Planning (final authorization to use public waters, issued by SPU) and ANA (preventive authorization for water availability). Interministerial Normative Instruction No.8 of 2003   establishes guidelines for the creation of aquaculture parks and areas.

        Instruction No.6 also regulates the procedure to establish Research Units and Demonstration Units. The former aims at the development of technologies for aquaculture, while the latter is intended for training, capacity building and technology transfer.

        The final step of the authorization process is the public selection process. After verifying competitiveness amongst applicants, the participation fee is determined and the selection process starts. The selection criteria are:
        • Sustainable development.
        • Increase in national fish production.
        • Creation of employment opportunities.
        • Contribution to food security.
        The authorization shall contain at least the following deadlines:
        • Six months for the installation of the agreed nautical signs and for the commencement of the project set up.
        • Three years for the completion for the project facilities.
        • Up to 20 years for the duration of the authorization (might be extended by SEAP).
        Aquaculture activities may also be set up in protected areas (unidades de conservação). These are regulated by Law No. 9.985 of 2000 establishing the National System of Protected Areas Management – SNUC, and are divided in two main groups: integral protection areas (unidades de proteção integral) and sustainable use areas (unidades de uso sustentável). CONAMA Resolution No.13 of 1990   provides that the establishment of activities in the area situated within the radius of 10 Km from any protected area is subject to a specific licensing procedure. The competent environmental authority may only grant the licence upon approval of the administration of the concerned area.

        Lastly, Order (SUDEPE) No. N-1 of 1977 provides that the construction of dams and dykes implying the alteration of water courses must ensure the protection of the aquatic fauna. Construction projects (including aquaculture projects) are communicated to SUDEPE  that shall:
        • Approve the aquatic fauna protection and conservation system.
        • Determine the size and location of the required installations.
        • Approve the construction project and the plan for eradication or control of invasive species.
        • Determine or approve working programmes.
        • Supervise the execution of works and programmes, as approved.
        • Acknowledge compliance with legal obligations.
        Should different applications be filed for the construction of various aquaculture stations or facilities diverting the same water course, SUDEPE may allow the construction of one single installation for fauna protection reasons. In this case, construction, operation and maintenance expenses are shared among the parties.Lastly, possessors of existing dams and dykes must comply with SUDEPE programmes on aquatic fauna conservation.
        EIA
        According to the Environmental Policy Act, Environmental Impact Assessment is one of the main tools of environmental policy. In Brazil, environmental protection is managed through the National Environmental System (Sistema Nacional do Meio Ambiente – SISNAMA), of which CONAMA and IBAMA are respectively the consultative and deliberative body, and the executive body. SISNAMA was established by the Environmental Policy Act (No. 6.938 of 1981) and is regulated by Decree No.99.274 of 1990. Environmental licensing is managed at federal, State or municipal level, mainly depending on the type of activity involved and on the extent of the impact area. Indeed, according to the federal Constitution, both fisheries and environmental matters fall within the concurrent legislative power of the Federation and the States, whereas only residual powers are vested in the Municipalities. The competent institution at federal level is IBAMA (delegated by CONAMA), while at State or municipal level, responsibility falls upon the respective environmental authority (Órgãos Estaduais de Meio Ambiente – OEMAs). Competence distribution is defined in CONAMA Resolution No.237 of 1997: IBAMA is always competent for activities to be developed in territorial seas.

        The establishment of aquaculture facilities is subject to environmental licensing and to the presentation of an Environmental Impact Study (EIA/RIMA).

        In fact, an environmental licence is required for the establishment of any activity that is likely to cause harm to the environment. As evinced by CONAMA Resolutions No.1 of 1986 and No.237 of 1997, the set up of aquaculture farms requires environmental licensing. In fact, aquaculture is unarguably an activity affecting human health, the biota (flora and fauna of a region), the environment and the quality of natural resources (i.e. water resources), as required by the former resolution. Additionally, to avoid all doubts, the latter explicitly mentions the management of living aquatic resources (manejo de recursos aquaticos vivos) and the breeding of animals (criação de animais).

        Legislation provides for three different types of environmental licences according to the stage of development of the project:
        • Preliminary Licence (Licença Previa – LP), approving concept and location.
        • Installation Licence (Licença de Instalação – LI), authorizing the setting up of the activity.
        • Operation Licence (Licença de Operação – LO), authorizing the commencement of the project.
        It must be pointed out that the Brazilian environmental licensing system does not automatically entail the presentation of an Environmental Impact Study. The requirement of a proper Study as a licensing condition is made mandatory, at constitutional level, only for the establishment of activities that may significantly harm the environment. Consequently, Decree No.99.274 of 1990 provides that CONAMA shall establish the basic criteria according to which an Environmental Impact Study (EIA/RIMA) is required. CONAMA Resolution No.237 of 1997 establishes that the competent authority (IBAMA or the State Environmental Authority) ought to determine the pertinent type of Environmental Study to be provided.

        CONAMA Resolution No.1 of 1986 provides for a legal presumption of significant harmfulness on certain activities, therefore requiring an Environmental Impact Study for their establishment. The list, which is obviously non exhaustive, explicitly includes aquaculture, adopting an unusual wording: «extração e cultivo de recursos hídricos» (art.2, XII - complexo e unidades agro-industriais).

        The application procedure goes through the following steps:
        1. Determination (by competent authority and applicant) of necessary documentation to support the application (there are 22 classes of activities according to the type of required procedure).
        2. Filing of application with competent authority, with supporting documentation (including EIA/RIMA, when required).
        3. Analysis of application and supporting documents.
        4. Request of clarifications or additional documentation, if necessary.
        5. Public review, when required.
        6. Request of clarifications or additional documentation, if necessary.
        7. Issuance of conclusive technical advice, and of legal advice, where appropriate.
        8. Granting or denial of licence and publication.
        Environmental Impact Studies (EIAs) are drafted according to the following guidelines:
        • Consider different options for the development of the project (technology and location).
        • Identify and assess the potential environmental impacts.
        • Define the project area of influence.
        • Consider governmental plans and programmes concerning the area of influence.
        Moreover, the preparation of the Study must at least involve the following activities:
        • Environmental diagnosis of the area of influence.
        • Analysis of environmental impact of the project and alternative options.
        • Mitigation measures.
        • Monitoring programme.
        Interministerial Normative Instruction No.6 of 2004 details additional information that may be required by the licensing authority for the establishment of aquaculture parks and areas in federal waters.

        On the other hand, Environmental Impact Reports (RIMAs) contains at least:
        • Project objectives and justifications.
        • Description of project and alternative options.
        • Summary of results of environmental diagnosis of the area of influence.
        • Description of probable environmental effects on the area of influence.
        • Characterization of future environmental quality of the area.
        • Description of expected positive effects of mitigation measures.
        • Impact monitoring programme.
        • Indication of recommended alternative option.
        Lastly, two CONAMA resolutions separately regulate the environmental licensing concerning sea turtles' nesting beaches and shrimp aquaculture in coastal areas.

        The former is Resolution No.10 of 1996, providing that environmental licences are issued by the competent environmental authority, upon approval and recommendations of IBAMA and with the advice of the Sea Turtles Centre (Centro de Tartarugas Marinhas – TAMAR). The SPU and the Ministry for Marine Affairs (Ministério da Marinha) must be heard as well.

        Regarding shrimp farming, Resolution No.312 of 2002   defines three categories of aquaculture facilities according to the size of the inundated area:
        • Small establishments (≤10 ha) shall undergo the simplified licensing procedure.
        • Medium establishments (>10 ha and ≤50 ha) are subject to the regular licensing procedure.
        • Large establishments (>50 ha), small and medium establishments causing significant harm to the environment, and those located in the area of influence of other establishments must present an Environmental Impact Study and the corresponding Environmental Impact Report.
        The resolution requires specific documentation to support applications and determines the minimum content of the Environmental Control Plan (Installation Licence phase – LI) and the Environmental Monitoring Plan (Operation Licence phase – LO).
        Operation
        Water and wastewater
        The federal Water Code – Decree No.24.643 of 1934, as amended – does not regulate the use of public water for fisheries purposes, and thus refers to special laws on the matter. The Water Policy Act No.9.433 of 1997, which requires a licence for wastewater discharge, does not make any reference to aquaculture.

        In Brazil, aquaculture is included in animal breeding and is thus subject to the general rules established for this kind of activity. Water use is controlled by the national Council of Aquatic Resources – CNRH (Conselho Nacional de Recursos Hídricos). The CNRH objectives, as defined in Decree No.4.613 of 2003  , include:
        • The coordination of a democratic and participatory process through the integration of the water policy act with other national and regional plans.
        • The establishment of criteria for granting of water use right.
        • The creation of Water Basin Committees.
        • The intermediation of conflicts between different water users.
        Water use rights may only be granted after a Water Basin Committee is created for the basin where the project will be installed, and a consensual decision is taken on how the water shall be used and how much it will cost for each user.

        Resolution (CONAMA) No.20 of 1986 provides a classification of fresh, brackish and marine waters, establishing quality standards according to the use they are intended for. Water use for aquaculture purposes is listed in classes 2 (freshwater), 5 (marine water) and 7 (brackish water). The resolution also gives directives to competent authorities for the definition of pollution control programmes and determines quality standards for effluents discharge into the water.
        Fish movement
        International fish trade is managed by the Animal Defense Department (Departamento de Defesa Animal – DDA) of the Agricultural Defense Secretariat (Secretaria de Defesa Agropercuária – SDA). In seven States (i.e. RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, MG and GO), the import of aquatic animals is subject to an authorization issued by the Animal Health Service of the Federal Delegation for Agriculture (Delegacia Federal de Agricultura – DFA) of the State where the aquaculture farm is located. In the remaining States, import requests must be sent to the central authority in Brasilia. The import form must be filed, jointly with the supplier's invoice. All requests must be analyzed and approved by IBAMA. Authorizations may include particular sanitary restrictions, according to the country of origin.

        The introduction of aquatic exotic species and the transfer of species within the country are controlled by IBAMA, which is thus the competent authority for the granting of authorizations. In particular, Order (IBAMA) No.145 of 1998   regulates the introduction, reintroduction and transfer of fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic macrophytes for aquaculture purposes. The introduction of freshwater species and macrophytes is forbidden. On this subject, it is worth mentioning that, according to the Fisheries Code, the import or export of any aquatic species, as well as the introduction of native or exotic species in inland waters requires the authorization of SUDEPE (now, SEAP and IBAMA).

        The first import of live exotic species requires the filing of an application of first import and experimental cultivation (Pedido de Introdução e Cultivo Experimental), providing the following information:
        • Applicant's registration number in Aquaculture Farmer Register and copy of registration tax receipt (except for Universities and Research Centres).
        • Species to be imported (scientific and vulgar name), taxonomic classification and place of origin.
        • Principal biological, ecological and zootechnical or agronomical characteristics.
        • Number of specimens to be imported and development stage, as well as available infrastructure for cultivation.
        • Geographic distribution and economic importance of species.
        • Potential domestic and foreign markets.
        • Indication of consignee, responsible for quarantine and research in order to get the commercial cultivation licence.
        • Place and methodology of experimental cultivation.
        Following the experimental phase, the applicant shall present a report in order to obtain the final licence for commercial cultivation (Licença para Cultivo Comercial).

        The introduction of live exotic species is subject to the filing of an application for reintroduction (Pedido de Reintrodução), containing the following details:
        • Applicant's registration number in Aquaculture Farmer Register and copy of registration tax receipt (except for Universities and Research Centres).
        • Species to be imported (scientific and vulgar name).
        • Place of origin of specimens.
        • Indication of consignee, responsible for quarantine.
        • Reason for reintroduction (only genetic improvement or creation of breeds for reproduction, bio-assays and bio-indication are allowed).
        Lastly, the transfer of live species within the country (from their natural area of origin to another area where they have not yet been introduced) requires an application for transfer (Pedido de Transferência), providing the following information:
        • Applicant's registration number in Aquaculture Farmer Register and copy of registration tax receipt (except for Universities and Research Centres).
        • Species to be imported (scientific and vulgar name), taxonomic classification and place of origin.
        • Principal biological, ecological and zootechnical or agronomical characteristics.
        • Number of specimens to be imported and development stage, as well as available infrastructure for cultivation.
        • Indication of consignee, responsible for quarantine and research in order to release the species for commercial cultivation.
        • Place and methodology of experimental cultivation.
        The procedures for quarantine requirements are established by MAPA: Order (MAPA) No.49 of 1987, regulating the import of live animals in general, provides that quarantine is mandatory for animals with economic value and for those intended for reproduction. More specifically, Normative Instruction (MAPA) No.53 of 2003   establishes the quarantine procedures for the import of aquatic animals. Upon landing, live aquatic animals and aquatic animal products are immediately redirected to the authorized quarantine unit for health monitoring, with the supervision of the competent Official Veterinary Service. Negative tests are communicated to the concerned veterinary doctor and to the aquaculture farm, while positive results are communicated to the DDA and to the DFA of the State where the farm is located. Should a disease agent be identified, the DDA must communicate it to the interested party within 72 hours and eliminate infected lots. The identification of an exotic disease or of a disease threatening public economy, public health or the environment causes the immediate elimination of infected specimens. Only first-generation descendants of the imported lot may be released into waterbodies for aquaculture purposes.

        Normative Instruction No.53 also establishes the sanitary and security measure for the movement of aquatic animals in the country. Animals shall be accompanied by an Animal Transit Guide (Guia de Trânsito Animal – GTA) to be issued either by the State Agriculture Secretariat (Secreteria da Agricultura) or by authorized veterinary doctors. Procedures are established by the DDA.

        The production and release of aquatic GMOs is subject to the specific legislation on biosafety, i.e. Act No.8.974 of 1995 and Decree No.1.752 of 1995, as amended. The National Technical Commission on Biosafety (Comissão Técnica Nacional de Biossegurança – CTNBio) is responsible for granting the Quality Certificate of Biosafety (Certificado de Qualidade em Biossegurança – CQB). Furthermore, CONAMA Resolution No.237 of 1997 requires an environmental licence for the introduction of exotic species and GMOs.

        Normative Instruction No.3 of 2004 requires registration to the RGP of companies trading live aquatic organisms (Empresa que Comercia Organismos Aquáticos Vivos). Applications shall be accompanied by the following documentation:
        • Copy of identity document of the applicant.
        • Copy of residence certificate of the applicant.
        • Information on existing or upcoming infrastructure.
        • Information on origin of organisms being traded.
        • Register tax receipt.
        Disease control
        State authorities and DFAs are in charge of animal health in Brazil. At federal level, the DDA is responsible for the coordination, standardization and implementation of the animal health programme.

        Normative Instruction (MAPA) No.53 of 2003, approving the Technical Regulation to the National Programme for Aquatic Animal Health, is the main piece of legislation governing fish disease control. Decree No.24.548 of 1934  , regulating animal health in general, is applicable to aquatic animals regarding the elimination of infected specimens. Normative Instruction No.53 provides that, on matters related to aquatic animals, the DDA is assisted by the Advisory Committee for the National Programme on Aquatic Animal Health (Comitê Consultivo do Programa Nacional de Sanidade de Animais Aquáticos – CC/PNSAA) and, at State level, by the State Committees for Aquatic Animal Health (Comitês Estaduais de Sanidade de Animais Aquáticos – COESAAs).

        Concerning animal health matters, aquaculture farms are classified as follows:
        • Reproduction establishment (establecimento de reprodução).
        • Nursing establishment (establecimento de recria).
        • Breeding establishment (establecimento de terminação).
        • Recreational establishment (establecimento de recreação).
        • Trade establishment (establecimento de comercialização).
        All aquaculture establishments are subject to the supervision of the Official Veterinary Service, attached to the relevant animal health authority at federal, State and municipal level.

        A mandatory notification to the Official Veterinary Service is required in case of suspicion of exotic disease outbreak, or when the disease is a menace to public economy, public health or the environment. Upon notification by the veterinary doctor, the owner, or any other person having knowledge or suspicion of the disease outbreak, the following measures must be taken:
        • Inspection of infected farm and analysis of samples.
        • Epidemiological assessment.
        • Declaration of infected area and surveillance zone.
        • Communication of disease outbreak to local Official Veterinary Service, which must give communication to State Service (immediate communication is only required in case of suspicion of exotic disease outbreak, or when the disease is a menace to public economy, public health or the environment).
        • Sanitary sacrifice (elimination of infected specimens), depending on disease.
        • Therapeutic treatment, where possible.
        • Disinfection.
        • Monitoring and control of disease, aiming towards eradication.
        • Isolation of the disease and revocation of infected area.
        The identification of disease agents during quarantine is discussed in the paragraph on fish movement above.
        Drugs
        No specific provisions.
        Feed
        This matter is covered by Law No.6.198 of 1974 establishing Sanitary Controls to be carried out on Animal Feedstuff and its Regulation, contained in Decree No.76.986 of 1976  . In addition, Decree No.80.583 of 1977 establishes quality standards for salt to be used in animal feed. No specific reference is made to the use of feed in aquaculture. MAPA is the competent authority at federal level.
        Food safety
        The Ministry of Health (Ministério da Saúde – MS) is the responsible authority for matters related to food safety. In particular, attached to the Ministry is the National Sanitary Control Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – ANVISA), which is the main body of the National Sanitary Control System (Sistema Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – SNVS).

        The main principles on health in general and food safety are established by the Federal Sanitary Code (Act No.5.027 of 1966). More specifically, food safety is regulated by Decree-Law No.986 of 1969  , establishing basic rules on food products. Neither refers to fish products in particular. Furthermore, several Technical Regulations issued by MS and ANVISA establish health standards and good practices for food products derived from animals.

        Decree No.55.871 of 1965, amending Decree No.50.040 of 1961   on the use of chemical additives in food products, establishes the maximum amounts of inorganic contaminants to be found in food, including fish products.

        Lastly, to ensure the implementation of food safety measures, Law No.7.889 of 1989 establishes sanitary inspections to be carried out on food products derived from animals, whereas Law No.6.437   regulates violations to federal health legislation.
        Miscellaneous
        Aquaculture development
        Law No.8.171 of 1991 on Agricultural Policy promotes the implementation of aquaculture development programmes, aiming towards food security and the conservation of species. In this direction, the Law includes commercial aquaculture establishments among the beneficiaries of rural credit.
        References
        Legislation
        Decree No.24.548 approving the Regulation on the Service for Animal Sanitary Defense (Decreto No.24.548 que aprova o Regulamento do Serviço de Defesa Sanitária Animal) (03.07.1934). (No copy available)
        Normative Instruction (MAPA) No.53 approving the Technical Regulation to the National Programme for Aquatic Animal Health – PNSAA (Instrução Normativa (MAPA) No.53 que aprova o Regulamento Técnico do Programa Nacional de Sanidade de Animais Aquáticos   PNSAA) (02.07.2003).
        Decree No.1.694 creating the National System for Fishing and Aquaculture Information – SINPESQ (Decreto No.1.694 que cria o Sistema Nacional de Informações da Pesca e Aqüicultura – SINPESQ) (1995)
        Decree No.1.697 creating the Executive Group of Fisheries Sector – GESPE (Decreto No.1.697 que cria o Grupo-Executivo do Sector Pesqueiro – GESPE) (1995)
        Decree creating the Technical Working Group in charge of drafting Proposals for the Update and Revision of Aquaculture and Fisheries Legislation (Decreto que Cria o Grupo Tecnico de Trabalho com a Finalidade de Apresentar Propostas de Atualização e Revisão da Legislação do Setor de Aqüicultura e Pesca) (13.06.2003) (Deadline extended until December 31st, 2004, by Decree of 15.03.2004).
        Decree calling the First National Conference on Aquaculture and Fisheries (Decreto que convoca a Primeira Conferência Nacional de Aqüicultura e Pesca) (18.08.2003).
        Decree No.4.895 regulating Authorizations to Use Federal Water Bodies for Aquaculture Purposes (Decreto No.4.895 dispõe sobre a Autorização de Uso de Espaços Físicos de Corpos d'Água de Domínio da União para Fins de Aqüicultura) (25.11.2003). (1995)
        Interministerial Normative Instruction No.8 (Ministry of Environment and SEAP) establishing Guidelines for the Installation of Aquaculture Facilities as required by Article 20, Decree No.2.869 of December 9th, 1998 (Instrução Normativa Interministerial No.8 que establece Directrizes para Implantação de Cultivos Aqüicolas de que trata o Artigo 20 do Decreto No.2.869 de 9 de Dezembro de 1998) (26.11.2003).
        Interministerial Normative Instruction No.6 (SEAP, Ministry of Environment and others) establishing Complementary Rules on Authorizations for the Use of Federal Waterbodies for Aquaculture Purposes (Instrução Normativa Interministerial No.6 que estabelece as Normas Complementares para a Autorização de Uso dos Espaços Físicos em Corpos d'Água de Domínio da União para Fins de Aqüicultura) (28.05.2004).
        Resolution (CONAMA) No.1 concerning Environmental Impact Assessment Requirements (Resolução (CONAMA) que dispõe sobre Critérios Básicos e Diretrizes Gerais para o Relatório de Impacto Ambiental – RIMA) (23.01.1986)
        Resolution (CONAMA) No. 20 establishing a classification of fresh, brackish and marine waters (Resolução (CONAMA) No.20 que estabelece a Classificação das Águas Doces, Salobras e Salinas do Território Nacional) (18.06.1986)
        Resolution (CONAMA) No.13 regulating the Area Situated within the Radius of 10 Km from Protected Areas (Resolução CONAMA No.13 que dispõe sobre a Área Circundante, num Raio de 10 (dez) Quilômetros, das Unidades de Conservação) (06.12.1990).
        Resolution (CONAMA) No.10 regulating Environmental Licensing in Sea Turtles' Nesting BeachesResolution (CONAMA) (Resolução (CONAMA) No.10 que regulamenta o Licenciamento Ambiental em Praias onde ocorre a Desova de Tartarugas Marinhas) (24.10.1996)
        Resolution (CONAMA) No.237 regulating the Licensing for Environmental ActivitiesResolution (CONAMA) (Resolução (CONAMA) No.237 que regulamenta os Aspectos de Licenciamento Ambiental estabelecidos na Política Nacional do Meio Ambiente) (19.12.1997)
        Resolution (CONAMA) No.312 regulating the Environmental Licencing of Shrimp Aquaculture in Coastal Areas (Resolução (CONAMA) No.312 que dispõe sobre Licenciamento Ambiental dos Epreendimentos de Carcinicultura na Zona Costeira) (10.10.2002).
        No. N-1 making Provisions on the Construction of Dams and Dykes diverting Watercourses Order (SUDEPE) (Portaria (SUDEPE) No. N-1 que dispõe sobre as Condições a serem observadas na Construção de Barragens que implicarem na Alteraçao de Cursos d'Água) (04.01.1977)Order (SUDEPE)
        Order (IBAMA) No.145-N regulating the Introduction, Reintroduction and Transfer of Fish, Crustaceans, Molluscs and Aquatic Macrophytes for Aquaculture Purposes, excluding Ornamental Species (Portaria (IBAMA) No.145 que estabelece Normas para Introdução, Reintrodução e Transferência de Peixes, Crustáceos, Moluscos e Macrófitas Aquáticas para Fins de Aqüicultura, excluindo-se as Espécies Animais e Ornamentais) (29.10.1998).
        Normative Instruction (SEAP) No.3 regulating the Functioning of the General Fisheries Register (Instrução Normativa (SEAP) No.3 que dispõe sobre Operacionalização do Registro Geral da Pesca) (12.05.2004). (Copy available at: Order (IBAMA) No.95-N regulating the registration for aquaculture activity)
        Law No. 5.027 establishing Sanitary Code (Lei No.5.027 que institui o Código Sanitário do Distrito Federal) (14.06.1966)
        Decree No.50.040 establishing the Special Technical Rules on the Use of Chemical Additives in Food Products (Decreto No.50.040 que dispõe sôbre as Normas Técnicas Especiais Reguladoras do Emprego de Aditivos Químicos a Alimentos) (24.01.1961, as amended, in particular by Decree No. 55.871 of 26.03.1965).
        Decree-Law No.986 establishing Basic Rules on Food Products (Decreto-Lei No.986 que institui Normas Básicas sobre Alimentos) (21.10.1969).
        Portaria (MS) No.1428 que aprova, na forma dos textos anexos, o "Regulamento Técnico para Inspeção Sanitária de Alimentos", as "Diretrizes para o Estabelecimento de Boas Práticas de Produção e de Prestação de Serviços na Área de Alimentos" e o "Regulamento Técnico para o Estabelecimento de Padrão de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ's) para Serviços e Produtos na Área de Alimentos"; determina que os estabelecimentos relacionados à área de alimentos adotem, sob responsabilidade técnica, as suas próprias Boas Práticas de Produção e/ou Prestação de Serviços, seus Programas de Qualidade, e atendam aos PIQ\'s para Produtos e Serviços na Área de Alimentos (26.11.1993).
        Portaria (MS) No.326 que aprova o Regulamento Técnico sobre "Condições Higiênico-Sanitárias e de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para Estabelecimentos Produtores/Industrializadores de Alimentos" (30.07.1997).
        Resolução RDC (ANVISA) No.12 que aprova o Regulamento Técnico sobre Padrões Microbiológicos para Alimentos (02.01.2001).
        Law No. 6.198 establishing Sanitary Controls to be carried out on Animal Feedstuff (Lei No.6.198 que dispõe sobre a Inspeção e a Fiscalização Obrigatórias dos Produtos Destinados à Alimentação Animal) (26.12.1974)
        Decree No. 76.986 regulating Law No. 6.198 of 1974, establishing Sanitary Controls to be carried out on Animal Feedstuff (Decreto No.76.986 que regulamenta a Lei No.6.198, de 26 de dezembro de 1974, que dispõe sobre a Inspeção e a Fiscalização Obrigatórias dos Produtos Destinados à Alimentação Animal) (06.01.1976).
        Law No.6.437 regulating Violations to Federal Health Legislation and establishing Santions (Lei No.6.437 que configura Infrações à Legislação Sanitária Federal, estabelece as Sanções Respectivas) (20.08.1977).
        Law No.7.661 establishing the National Costal Management Plan (Lei No.7.661 que institui o Plano Nacional de Gerenciamento Costeiro) (16.05.1988)
        Resolution CONAMA No.10 creating the Technical Chamber for Matters related to Coastal Management (Resolução CONAMA No.10 que cria Câmara Técnica para Assuntos de Gerenciamento Costeiro, com prazo indeterminado) (04.05.1994).
        Law No.7.889 establishing Sanitary Measures to be carried out on Animal Products (Lei No.7.889 que dispõe sobre Inspeção Sanitária e Industrial dos Produtos de Origem Animal) (23.11.1989)
        Law No.8.171 on Agricultural Policy (Lei No.8.171 que dispõe sobre a Política Agrícola) (17.01.1991)
        Law No.9.984 establishing the National Water Agency – ANA (Lei No.9.984 que dispõe sobre a Criação de Agência Nacional de Água – ANA) (17.07.2000)
        Law No.9.985 establishing the National System of Protected Areas Management – SNUC (Lei No 9.985 que institui o Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação da Natureza – SNUC) (18.07.2000)
        Law No.10.683 establishing the Organization of the Presidency of the Republic and the Ministries (converting Medida Provisória No.103, 01.01.2003) (Lei No.10.683 que dispõe sobre a Organização da Presidência da República e dos Ministérios) (28.05.2003).
        Decree No.4.661 regulating the Execution of the Functions mentioned in Subsection I of Paragraph 1, Article 23 of the Temporary Measure No.103 of January 1st, 2003 on the Organization of the Presidency of the Republic and the Ministries (Decreto No.4.661 que disciplina o Exercicio das Atribuições de que Trata o Inciso I do Paragrafo 1 do Artigo 23 da Medida Provisoria 103, de 1 de Janeiro de 2003, que dispõe sobre a Organização da Presidência da República e dos Ministérios) (02.04.2003).
        Decree No.4.670 approving the Structure and Functions of the Special Secretariat for Aquaculture and Fisheries, Organ of the Presidency of the Republic (Decreto No.4.670 que aprova a Estrutura Regimental e o Quadro Demonstrativo dos Cargos em Comissão e das Funções Gratificadas da Secretaria Especial de Aquicultura e Pesca, Orgão Integrante da Presidencia da Republica) (10.04.2003).
        Decree No. 5.069 establishing the Composition, Structure, Competences and Functioning of the National Council for Aquaculture and Fisheries – CONAPE (Decreto No.5.069 que dispõe Sobre a Composição, Estruturação, Competencias e Funcionamento do Conselho Nacional de Aquicultura e Pesca – CONAPE) (05.05.2004).
        Normative Instruction (SEAP) No.1 creating the Technical Working Group to draft and propose Policies on Aquaculture and Fisheries Cooperativism (Instrução Normativa (SEAP) No.1 que cría o Grupo Técnico de Trabalho para discutir, elaborar e propor polìticas para o Cooperativismo Aqüícola e Pesqueiro – GT/CAP) (22.03.2004).
        Saõ Paulo State Fisheries and Aquaculture Code (Código de Pesca e Aqüicultura do Estado de São Paulo) (27.06.2002).
        Water Policy Act No. 9.433 (Lei No.9.433 que institui a Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos) (08.01.1997)
        Water Code – Decree No.24.643 (Código de Águas – Decreto No.24.643) (10.07.1934, as amended)
        Decree No. 4.613 regulating the National Council for Aquatic Resources (Decreto No. 4.613 que regulamenta o Conselho Nacional de Recursos Hídricos) (11.03.2003).
        Brazilian Shrimp Growers Association (Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Camarão - ABCC)
        Código de Conduta e de Boas Práticas de Manejo para uma Carcinicultura Ambientalmente Sustentável e Socialmente Responsável (January 2004)
        Código de Conduta e de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para Fabricantes de Rações para Camarão (January 2004)
        Código de Conduta e de Boas Práticas de Manejo para Laboratórios de Larvicultura de Camarão Marinho (May 2004)
        Special Secretariat of Aquaculture and Fisheries (Secretaria Especial de Aqüicultura e Pesca - SEAP)
        Draft – Versão preliminar – Código de Conduta para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Responsável da Ranicultura Brasileira (June 2004)
        Draft – Versão preliminar – Código de Conduta para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Responsável da Malacocultura Brasileira (June 2004)
        Draft – Versão preliminar – Código de Conduta para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Responsável da Piscicultura Brasileira (June 2004)
        Related resources
        Special Secretariat of Aquaculture and Fisheries (Secretaria Especial de Aqüicultura e Pesca – SEAP) (offers a comprehensive list of the fisheries legislation in Brazil)
        Web portal of the 1st National Conference on Aquaculture and Fisheries (Portal da 1º Conferência Nacional de Aqüicultura e Pesca)
        Brazilian Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis)
        Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Ministério do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis)
        Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento)
        Presidency of the Republic of Brazil (Presidência da República)
        Federal Senate (Senado Federal)
        Fisheries Institute of the São Paulo State (Instituto de Pesca do Estado de São Paulo)
        National Council for Scientific and Technological Research and Development (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnológico)
        Aquaculture Association of the Santa Catarina State (Asociação Catarinense de Aqüicultura)
        Brazilian Aquaculture Review (Revista Panorama da Aqüicultura)
        Related links
        Country profiles: Brazil
         
        Powered by FIGIS