This study only refers to federal legislation and institutions.
The Special Secretariat for Aquaculture and Fisheries (Secretaria Especial de Aqüicultura e Pesca – SEAP), attached to the Presidency of the Republic and created by Law No.10.683 of 2003 , is the main authority for the management and development of fisheries and aquaculture in Brazil. SEAP is, indeed, vested with advisory, promotional, supervisory and administrative functions. It assists the President in the drafting of policies and guidelines, promotes actions aiming at the construction of infrastructure for the development of fisheries, aquaculture and fish products trade, and implements programmes for the rational development of aquaculture, in cooperation with the Federal District, States and Municipal Authorities. SEAP is also responsible for the upkeep of the General Fisheries Register (Registro Geral da Pesca – RGP), the granting of licences, permits and authorizations for fisheries and aquaculture and shall transfer 50 percent of tax income and licence fees to the Brazilian Institute for the Environment (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente – IBAMA), attached to the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Ministério do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – MMA).
Within the activity of SEAP, a central role is played by the National Council for Aquaculture and Fisheries (Conselho Nacional de Aqüicultura e Pesca – CONAPE), which is vested with advisory and organizational functions, mainly concerning the matters listed above.
Another focal institution for the management of fisheries is the aforementioned IBAMA, which replaced the Superintendancy for Fisheries – Superintendência da Pesca – SUDEPE, in 1989 . Its responsibilities mainly concern environmental issues, such as natural resources conservation (including aquatic resources), environmental licences and water quality control. In fact, in 1998, part of the functions related to fisheries, and inherited from SUDEPE, were transferred to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento – MAPA), and more precisely to the newborn Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture (Departamento de Pesca e Aqüicultura – DPA - da Secretaria de Apoio Rural e Cooperativismo – SARC). Eventually, in 2003 said competencies were reassigned to SEAP.
From a legislative point of view, the federal framework of aquaculture is quite fragmented. The Fisheries Code – Decree-Law promoting and protecting Fishing Activity (Código de Pesca – Decreto-Lei sôbre a Proteção e Estímulos à Pesca) (1967, as amended), which is the main piece of legislation regulating the matter, only dedicates three articles to aquaculture development. Consequently, through the Working Group on the Revision of Aquaculture Legislation created in 2003, SEAP is currently fostering the promulgation of an Aquaculture Law (Código de Aqüicultura), which would recognize several rights to farmers. Proposals shall be handed in as of December 31st, 2004.
In 1995, the Executive Group for the Fisheries Sector – GESPE (Grupo-Executivo do Sector Pesqueiro – GESPE) was created, in order to promote the development of fisheries. The Group was in charge of proposing the National Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy to the Chamber for Natural Resources Policies (attached to the Presidency of the Republic), recommending legislative reforms for fisheries and aquaculture and implementing the directives issued by the Chamber with regard to fisheries. However, the National Plan for Fisheries and Aquaculture presented in 1998 never became operational. SEAP is now organizing the First Conference on Aquaculture and Fisheries in order to prepare a "democratic and integrated policy on aquaculture and fisheries", as stated by the Presidential Decree issued on August 18th, 2003. With Normative Instruction No.1 of 2004 , SEAP also created a Technical Working Group for the formulation of policies on aquaculture and fisheries cooperativism.
Lastly, fisheries and aquaculture research is carried out by the National Council for Research and Development – CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento) from the Ministry of Science and Technology – MCT (Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia). Since the creation of SEAP, MCT and CNPq undertake annual meetings to decide aquaculture research priorities and publish calls for research proposals. The National Information System on Fisheries and Aquaculture – SINPESQ (Sistema Nacional de Informações da Pesca e Aqüicultura – SINPESQ), established by Decree No.1.694 of 1995 and managed by the Brazilian Foundation Institute of Geography and Statistics, is not yet operational.
Although States' legislation exceeds the scope of the present study, it is worth mentioning that, according to the Saõ Paulo State Fisheries and Aquaculture Code (Código de Pesca e Aqüicultura do Estado de São Paulo) (2002), aquaculture is the cultivation of hydrobiological organisms having an economic interest and is considered as a farming activity ("aqüicultura é o cultivo de organismos hidróbios de interesse econômico e constitui uma atividade agropecuária"). Further, the same Law more specifically defines aquaculture as the breeding/growing and the reproduction of aquatic animals and plants ("define-se por aqüicultura as atividades de criação e de multiplicação de animais e plantas aquáticas").
Applicants shall file their applications with the SEAP Office of their State of residence, including the following supporting documentation:
The amount of the registration tax is calculated in proportion to the surface area occupied by the aquaculture units owned by the applicant. Aquaculture registration certificates must be renewed every year, with the apposition of an "Annual Visa" by the competent SEAP State Office, upon receipt of the annual registration tax.
Any change in the conditions or permanent data must be communicated within 60 days to the competent SEAP State Office, with the relevant documentation. Furthermore, when the change consists in the incorporation of a new aquaculture unit, the application shall be filed with the SEAP Office of the State where the activity is established. This procedure is required for verification purposes and to either update the original registration or issue a new registration certificate.
Access to public waters for fish farming in Brazil is covered by Decree No.4.895 of 2003 , regulating Authorizations to Use Federal Waterbodies for Aquaculture Purposes, and by Interministerial Normative Instruction No.6 of 2004 , jointly issued by SEAP, MMA, IBAMA, the Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management (Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão), the National Water Agency (Agência Nacional de Água – ANA) and the Maritime Authority.
Applications for the authorization to use federal waterbodies for aquaculture purposes must be filed with the Secretariat for Federal Heritage (Secretaria do Patrimônio da União – SPU), attached to the Ministry of Planning, through the SEAP Office of the State where the project will be carried out.
Submission forms include applications to SEAP for registration in RGP (see § on authorization system above), to ANA for water use authorizations, and to IBAMA for environmental licences (see § on EIA below). The whole process is managed by SEAP, although the authorization is issued by SPU. Authorizations may only be granted to natural or legal persons included in the category of aquaculture farmers and are not transferable.
Depending on the kind of project, applications may concern the development of aquaculture activities in three different environments:
It is important to note that ANA issues two types of water authorizations, as established by Law No.9.984 of 2000:
Applications concerning aquaculture parks and preference areas follow a slightly different procedure, since both parks and areas must be previously delimitated by SEAP, in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment (environmental licence), the Maritime Authority, the Ministry of Planning (final authorization to use public waters, issued by SPU) and ANA (preventive authorization for water availability). Interministerial Normative Instruction No.8 of 2003 establishes guidelines for the creation of aquaculture parks and areas.
Instruction No.6 also regulates the procedure to establish Research Units and Demonstration Units. The former aims at the development of technologies for aquaculture, while the latter is intended for training, capacity building and technology transfer.
The final step of the authorization process is the public selection process. After verifying competitiveness amongst applicants, the participation fee is determined and the selection process starts. The selection criteria are:
Lastly, Order (SUDEPE) No. N-1 of 1977 provides that the construction of dams and dykes implying the alteration of water courses must ensure the protection of the aquatic fauna. Construction projects (including aquaculture projects) are communicated to SUDEPE that shall:
The establishment of aquaculture facilities is subject to environmental licensing and to the presentation of an Environmental Impact Study (EIA/RIMA).
In fact, an environmental licence is required for the establishment of any activity that is likely to cause harm to the environment. As evinced by CONAMA Resolutions No.1 of 1986 and No.237 of 1997, the set up of aquaculture farms requires environmental licensing. In fact, aquaculture is unarguably an activity affecting human health, the biota (flora and fauna of a region), the environment and the quality of natural resources (i.e. water resources), as required by the former resolution. Additionally, to avoid all doubts, the latter explicitly mentions the management of living aquatic resources (manejo de recursos aquaticos vivos) and the breeding of animals (criação de animais).
Legislation provides for three different types of environmental licences according to the stage of development of the project:
CONAMA Resolution No.1 of 1986 provides for a legal presumption of significant harmfulness on certain activities, therefore requiring an Environmental Impact Study for their establishment. The list, which is obviously non exhaustive, explicitly includes aquaculture, adopting an unusual wording: «extração e cultivo de recursos hídricos» (art.2, XII - complexo e unidades agro-industriais).
The application procedure goes through the following steps:
On the other hand, Environmental Impact Reports (RIMAs) contains at least:
The former is Resolution No.10 of 1996, providing that environmental licences are issued by the competent environmental authority, upon approval and recommendations of IBAMA and with the advice of the Sea Turtles Centre (Centro de Tartarugas Marinhas – TAMAR). The SPU and the Ministry for Marine Affairs (Ministério da Marinha) must be heard as well.
Regarding shrimp farming, Resolution No.312 of 2002 defines three categories of aquaculture facilities according to the size of the inundated area:
In Brazil, aquaculture is included in animal breeding and is thus subject to the general rules established for this kind of activity. Water use is controlled by the national Council of Aquatic Resources – CNRH (Conselho Nacional de Recursos Hídricos). The CNRH objectives, as defined in Decree No.4.613 of 2003 , include:
Resolution (CONAMA) No.20 of 1986 provides a classification of fresh, brackish and marine waters, establishing quality standards according to the use they are intended for. Water use for aquaculture purposes is listed in classes 2 (freshwater), 5 (marine water) and 7 (brackish water). The resolution also gives directives to competent authorities for the definition of pollution control programmes and determines quality standards for effluents discharge into the water.
The introduction of aquatic exotic species and the transfer of species within the country are controlled by IBAMA, which is thus the competent authority for the granting of authorizations. In particular, Order (IBAMA) No.145 of 1998 regulates the introduction, reintroduction and transfer of fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic macrophytes for aquaculture purposes. The introduction of freshwater species and macrophytes is forbidden. On this subject, it is worth mentioning that, according to the Fisheries Code, the import or export of any aquatic species, as well as the introduction of native or exotic species in inland waters requires the authorization of SUDEPE (now, SEAP and IBAMA).
The first import of live exotic species requires the filing of an application of first import and experimental cultivation (Pedido de Introdução e Cultivo Experimental), providing the following information:
The introduction of live exotic species is subject to the filing of an application for reintroduction (Pedido de Reintrodução), containing the following details:
Normative Instruction No.53 also establishes the sanitary and security measure for the movement of aquatic animals in the country. Animals shall be accompanied by an Animal Transit Guide (Guia de Trânsito Animal – GTA) to be issued either by the State Agriculture Secretariat (Secreteria da Agricultura) or by authorized veterinary doctors. Procedures are established by the DDA.
The production and release of aquatic GMOs is subject to the specific legislation on biosafety, i.e. Act No.8.974 of 1995 and Decree No.1.752 of 1995, as amended. The National Technical Commission on Biosafety (Comissão Técnica Nacional de Biossegurança – CTNBio) is responsible for granting the Quality Certificate of Biosafety (Certificado de Qualidade em Biossegurança – CQB). Furthermore, CONAMA Resolution No.237 of 1997 requires an environmental licence for the introduction of exotic species and GMOs.
Normative Instruction No.3 of 2004 requires registration to the RGP of companies trading live aquatic organisms (Empresa que Comercia Organismos Aquáticos Vivos). Applications shall be accompanied by the following documentation:
Normative Instruction (MAPA) No.53 of 2003, approving the Technical Regulation to the National Programme for Aquatic Animal Health, is the main piece of legislation governing fish disease control. Decree No.24.548 of 1934 , regulating animal health in general, is applicable to aquatic animals regarding the elimination of infected specimens. Normative Instruction No.53 provides that, on matters related to aquatic animals, the DDA is assisted by the Advisory Committee for the National Programme on Aquatic Animal Health (Comitê Consultivo do Programa Nacional de Sanidade de Animais Aquáticos – CC/PNSAA) and, at State level, by the State Committees for Aquatic Animal Health (Comitês Estaduais de Sanidade de Animais Aquáticos – COESAAs).
Concerning animal health matters, aquaculture farms are classified as follows:
A mandatory notification to the Official Veterinary Service is required in case of suspicion of exotic disease outbreak, or when the disease is a menace to public economy, public health or the environment. Upon notification by the veterinary doctor, the owner, or any other person having knowledge or suspicion of the disease outbreak, the following measures must be taken:
The main principles on health in general and food safety are established by the Federal Sanitary Code (Act No.5.027 of 1966). More specifically, food safety is regulated by Decree-Law No.986 of 1969 , establishing basic rules on food products. Neither refers to fish products in particular. Furthermore, several Technical Regulations issued by MS and ANVISA establish health standards and good practices for food products derived from animals.
Decree No.55.871 of 1965, amending Decree No.50.040 of 1961 on the use of chemical additives in food products, establishes the maximum amounts of inorganic contaminants to be found in food, including fish products.
Lastly, to ensure the implementation of food safety measures, Law No.7.889 of 1989 establishes sanitary inspections to be carried out on food products derived from animals, whereas Law No.6.437 regulates violations to federal health legislation.
Law No.8.171 of 1991 on Agricultural Policy promotes the implementation of aquaculture development programmes, aiming towards food security and the conservation of species. In this direction, the Law includes commercial aquaculture establishments among the beneficiaries of rural credit.
Decree No.24.548 approving the Regulation on the Service for Animal Sanitary Defense (Decreto No.24.548 que aprova o Regulamento do Serviço de Defesa Sanitária Animal) (03.07.1934). (No copy available)
Normative Instruction (MAPA) No.53 approving the Technical Regulation to the National Programme for Aquatic Animal Health – PNSAA (Instrução Normativa (MAPA) No.53 que aprova o Regulamento Técnico do Programa Nacional de Sanidade de Animais Aquáticos PNSAA) (02.07.2003).
Decree No.1.694 creating the National System for Fishing and Aquaculture Information – SINPESQ (Decreto No.1.694 que cria o Sistema Nacional de Informações da Pesca e Aqüicultura – SINPESQ) (1995)
Decree No.1.697 creating the Executive Group of Fisheries Sector – GESPE (Decreto No.1.697 que cria o Grupo-Executivo do Sector Pesqueiro – GESPE) (1995)
Decree creating the Technical Working Group in charge of drafting Proposals for the Update and Revision of Aquaculture and Fisheries Legislation (Decreto que Cria o Grupo Tecnico de Trabalho com a Finalidade de Apresentar Propostas de Atualização e Revisão da Legislação do Setor de Aqüicultura e Pesca) (13.06.2003) (Deadline extended until December 31st, 2004, by Decree of 15.03.2004).
Decree calling the First National Conference on Aquaculture and Fisheries (Decreto que convoca a Primeira Conferência Nacional de Aqüicultura e Pesca) (18.08.2003).
Decree No.4.895 regulating Authorizations to Use Federal Water Bodies for Aquaculture Purposes (Decreto No.4.895 dispõe sobre a Autorização de Uso de Espaços Físicos de Corpos d'Água de Domínio da União para Fins de Aqüicultura) (25.11.2003). (1995)
Interministerial Normative Instruction No.8 (Ministry of Environment and SEAP) establishing Guidelines for the Installation of Aquaculture Facilities as required by Article 20, Decree No.2.869 of December 9th, 1998 (Instrução Normativa Interministerial No.8 que establece Directrizes para Implantação de Cultivos Aqüicolas de que trata o Artigo 20 do Decreto No.2.869 de 9 de Dezembro de 1998) (26.11.2003).
Interministerial Normative Instruction No.6 (SEAP, Ministry of Environment and others) establishing Complementary Rules on Authorizations for the Use of Federal Waterbodies for Aquaculture Purposes (Instrução Normativa Interministerial No.6 que estabelece as Normas Complementares para a Autorização de Uso dos Espaços Físicos em Corpos d'Água de Domínio da União para Fins de Aqüicultura) (28.05.2004).
Decree No. 99.274 regulating Act No. 6.938 (on environmental Policy) and Act No. 6.902 (creating protected areas) (06.06.1990)
Resolution (CONAMA) No.1 concerning Environmental Impact Assessment Requirements (Resolução (CONAMA) que dispõe sobre Critérios Básicos e Diretrizes Gerais para o Relatório de Impacto Ambiental – RIMA) (23.01.1986)
Resolution (CONAMA) No. 20 establishing a classification of fresh, brackish and marine waters (Resolução (CONAMA) No.20 que estabelece a Classificação das Águas Doces, Salobras e Salinas do Território Nacional) (18.06.1986)
Resolution (CONAMA) No.13 regulating the Area Situated within the Radius of 10 Km from Protected Areas (Resolução CONAMA No.13 que dispõe sobre a Área Circundante, num Raio de 10 (dez) Quilômetros, das Unidades de Conservação) (06.12.1990).
Resolution (CONAMA) No.10 regulating Environmental Licensing in Sea Turtles' Nesting BeachesResolution (CONAMA) (Resolução (CONAMA) No.10 que regulamenta o Licenciamento Ambiental em Praias onde ocorre a Desova de Tartarugas Marinhas) (24.10.1996)
Resolution (CONAMA) No.237 regulating the Licensing for Environmental ActivitiesResolution (CONAMA) (Resolução (CONAMA) No.237 que regulamenta os Aspectos de Licenciamento Ambiental estabelecidos na Política Nacional do Meio Ambiente) (19.12.1997)
Resolution (CONAMA) No.312 regulating the Environmental Licencing of Shrimp Aquaculture in Coastal Areas (Resolução (CONAMA) No.312 que dispõe sobre Licenciamento Ambiental dos Epreendimentos de Carcinicultura na Zona Costeira) (10.10.2002).
No. N-1 making Provisions on the Construction of Dams and Dykes diverting Watercourses Order (SUDEPE) (Portaria (SUDEPE) No. N-1 que dispõe sobre as Condições a serem observadas na Construção de Barragens que implicarem na Alteraçao de Cursos d'Água) (04.01.1977)Order (SUDEPE)
Order (IBAMA) No.145-N regulating the Introduction, Reintroduction and Transfer of Fish, Crustaceans, Molluscs and Aquatic Macrophytes for Aquaculture Purposes, excluding Ornamental Species (Portaria (IBAMA) No.145 que estabelece Normas para Introdução, Reintrodução e Transferência de Peixes, Crustáceos, Moluscos e Macrófitas Aquáticas para Fins de Aqüicultura, excluindo-se as Espécies Animais e Ornamentais) (29.10.1998).
Normative Instruction (SEAP) No.3 regulating the Functioning of the General Fisheries Register (Instrução Normativa (SEAP) No.3 que dispõe sobre Operacionalização do Registro Geral da Pesca) (12.05.2004). (Copy available at: Order (IBAMA) No.95-N regulating the registration for aquaculture activity)
Law No. 5.027 establishing Sanitary Code (Lei No.5.027 que institui o Código Sanitário do Distrito Federal) (14.06.1966)
Decree No.50.040 establishing the Special Technical Rules on the Use of Chemical Additives in Food Products (Decreto No.50.040 que dispõe sôbre as Normas Técnicas Especiais Reguladoras do Emprego de Aditivos Químicos a Alimentos) (24.01.1961, as amended, in particular by Decree No. 55.871 of 26.03.1965).
Decree-Law No.986 establishing Basic Rules on Food Products (Decreto-Lei No.986 que institui Normas Básicas sobre Alimentos) (21.10.1969).
Portaria (MS) No.1428 que aprova, na forma dos textos anexos, o "Regulamento Técnico para Inspeção Sanitária de Alimentos", as "Diretrizes para o Estabelecimento de Boas Práticas de Produção e de Prestação de Serviços na Área de Alimentos" e o "Regulamento Técnico para o Estabelecimento de Padrão de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ's) para Serviços e Produtos na Área de Alimentos"; determina que os estabelecimentos relacionados à área de alimentos adotem, sob responsabilidade técnica, as suas próprias Boas Práticas de Produção e/ou Prestação de Serviços, seus Programas de Qualidade, e atendam aos PIQ\'s para Produtos e Serviços na Área de Alimentos (26.11.1993).
Portaria (MS) No.326 que aprova o Regulamento Técnico sobre "Condições Higiênico-Sanitárias e de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para Estabelecimentos Produtores/Industrializadores de Alimentos" (30.07.1997).
Resolução RDC (ANVISA) No.12 que aprova o Regulamento Técnico sobre Padrões Microbiológicos para Alimentos (02.01.2001).
Law No. 6.198 establishing Sanitary Controls to be carried out on Animal Feedstuff (Lei No.6.198 que dispõe sobre a Inspeção e a Fiscalização Obrigatórias dos Produtos Destinados à Alimentação Animal) (26.12.1974)
Decree No. 76.986 regulating Law No. 6.198 of 1974, establishing Sanitary Controls to be carried out on Animal Feedstuff (Decreto No.76.986 que regulamenta a Lei No.6.198, de 26 de dezembro de 1974, que dispõe sobre a Inspeção e a Fiscalização Obrigatórias dos Produtos Destinados à Alimentação Animal) (06.01.1976).
Law No.6.437 regulating Violations to Federal Health Legislation and establishing Santions (Lei No.6.437 que configura Infrações à Legislação Sanitária Federal, estabelece as Sanções Respectivas) (20.08.1977).
Law No.7.661 establishing the National Costal Management Plan (Lei No.7.661 que institui o Plano Nacional de Gerenciamento Costeiro) (16.05.1988)
Resolution CONAMA No.10 creating the Technical Chamber for Matters related to Coastal Management (Resolução CONAMA No.10 que cria Câmara Técnica para Assuntos de Gerenciamento Costeiro, com prazo indeterminado) (04.05.1994).
Law No.7.889 establishing Sanitary Measures to be carried out on Animal Products (Lei No.7.889 que dispõe sobre Inspeção Sanitária e Industrial dos Produtos de Origem Animal) (23.11.1989)
Law No.8.171 on Agricultural Policy (Lei No.8.171 que dispõe sobre a Política Agrícola) (17.01.1991)
Law No.9.605 regulating Criminal and Administrative Penalties relating to Behaviour and Activities Harmful to the Environment (Lei de Crimes Ambientais) (12.02.1998)
Decree No. 3.179 defining Penalties applying to Behaviour and Activities Harmful to the Environment (21.09.1999)
Law No.9.984 establishing the National Water Agency – ANA (Lei No.9.984 que dispõe sobre a Criação de Agência Nacional de Água – ANA) (17.07.2000)
Law No.9.985 establishing the National System of Protected Areas Management – SNUC (Lei No 9.985 que institui o Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação da Natureza – SNUC) (18.07.2000)
Law No.10.683 establishing the Organization of the Presidency of the Republic and the Ministries (converting Medida Provisória No.103, 01.01.2003) (Lei No.10.683 que dispõe sobre a Organização da Presidência da República e dos Ministérios) (28.05.2003).
Decree No.4.661 regulating the Execution of the Functions mentioned in Subsection I of Paragraph 1, Article 23 of the Temporary Measure No.103 of January 1st, 2003 on the Organization of the Presidency of the Republic and the Ministries (Decreto No.4.661 que disciplina o Exercicio das Atribuições de que Trata o Inciso I do Paragrafo 1 do Artigo 23 da Medida Provisoria 103, de 1 de Janeiro de 2003, que dispõe sobre a Organização da Presidência da República e dos Ministérios) (02.04.2003).
Decree No.4.670 approving the Structure and Functions of the Special Secretariat for Aquaculture and Fisheries, Organ of the Presidency of the Republic (Decreto No.4.670 que aprova a Estrutura Regimental e o Quadro Demonstrativo dos Cargos em Comissão e das Funções Gratificadas da Secretaria Especial de Aquicultura e Pesca, Orgão Integrante da Presidencia da Republica) (10.04.2003).
Decree No. 5.069 establishing the Composition, Structure, Competences and Functioning of the National Council for Aquaculture and Fisheries – CONAPE (Decreto No.5.069 que dispõe Sobre a Composição, Estruturação, Competencias e Funcionamento do Conselho Nacional de Aquicultura e Pesca – CONAPE) (05.05.2004).
Normative Instruction (SEAP) No.1 creating the Technical Working Group to draft and propose Policies on Aquaculture and Fisheries Cooperativism (Instrução Normativa (SEAP) No.1 que cría o Grupo Técnico de Trabalho para discutir, elaborar e propor polìticas para o Cooperativismo Aqüícola e Pesqueiro – GT/CAP) (22.03.2004).
Saõ Paulo State Fisheries and Aquaculture Code (Código de Pesca e Aqüicultura do Estado de São Paulo) (27.06.2002).
Water Policy Act No. 9.433 (Lei No.9.433 que institui a Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos) (08.01.1997)
Water Code – Decree No.24.643 (Código de Águas – Decreto No.24.643) (10.07.1934, as amended)
Decree No. 4.613 regulating the National Council for Aquatic Resources (Decreto No. 4.613 que regulamenta o Conselho Nacional de Recursos Hídricos) (11.03.2003).
Brazilian Shrimp Growers Association (Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Camarão - ABCC)
Código de Conduta e de Boas Práticas de Manejo para uma Carcinicultura Ambientalmente Sustentável e Socialmente Responsável (January 2004)
Código de Conduta e de Boas Práticas de Fabricação para Fabricantes de Rações para Camarão (January 2004)
Código de Conduta e de Boas Práticas de Manejo para Laboratórios de Larvicultura de Camarão Marinho (May 2004)
Special Secretariat of Aquaculture and Fisheries (Secretaria Especial de Aqüicultura e Pesca - SEAP)
Draft – Versão preliminar – Código de Conduta para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Responsável da Ranicultura Brasileira (June 2004)
Draft – Versão preliminar – Código de Conduta para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Responsável da Malacocultura Brasileira (June 2004)
Draft – Versão preliminar – Código de Conduta para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Responsável da Piscicultura Brasileira (June 2004)
Special Secretariat of Aquaculture and Fisheries (Secretaria Especial de Aqüicultura e Pesca – SEAP) (offers a comprehensive list of the fisheries legislation in Brazil)
Web portal of the 1st National Conference on Aquaculture and Fisheries (Portal da 1º Conferência Nacional de Aqüicultura e Pesca)
Brazilian Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis)
Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (Ministério do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis)
Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento)
Presidency of the Republic of Brazil (Presidência da República)
Federal Senate (Senado Federal)
Fisheries Institute of the São Paulo State (Instituto de Pesca do Estado de São Paulo)
National Council for Scientific and Technological Research and Development (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnológico)
Aquaculture Association of the Santa Catarina State (Asociação Catarinense de Aqüicultura)
Brazilian Aquaculture Review (Revista Panorama da Aqüicultura)