The main piece of legislation regulating the fisheries sector in Costa Rica is the Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture, No. 8.436 of 2005 (Ley de Pesca y Acuicultura) promulgated by the Costa Rican Legislative Assembly, with the technical work contribution of its Ordinary Permanent Commission on Agriculture and Natural Resources (Comisión Permanente Ordinaria- Asuntos Agropecuarios y Recursos Naturales).
The objectives of the Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture are to encourage and regulate fisheries and aquaculture activities, of which catching, extracting, processing, transporting, marketing; and promote sustainable use of aquaculture species. Moreover, Costa Rica drew up a Programme for the Development of Fisheries and Aquaculture which aims at protecting effectively national interests related to fishery, using the fishing aquatic resources in a responsible manner, establishing an administrative regime on fishing resources that prevents from monopolies, creating organizations of fishery and aquaculture producers, promoting information and training programmes for the development of fisheries and aquaculture. Fishing and aquaculture activities must be led in a manner that does not cause irreparable damages to ecosystems, nor hinder navigation.
In July 2009, the Costa Rican government stated that the promotion of sustainable development of fisheries and aquaculture activities is of priority.
The national competent body for matters related to fisheries is the Costa Rican Institute for Fisheries and Aquaculture (Instituto Costarricense de Pesca y Acuacultura) (INCOPESCA), attached to the Ministry of Agriculture and created by Law No.7.384 of 1994. The Institute is responsible for the coordination, promotion and development of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors. It is also in charge of preparing the National Programme for the Development of Fisheries and Aquaculture, consistent with the National Development Plan, to be approved by the Minister of Agriculture. Furthermore, INCOPESCA is the executive authority of the above mentioned Law and Programme. In Decree No.35260-MAG of July 2009, the Ministry of Agriculture stated that strengthening the management of INCOPESCA is of national priority since INCOPESCA is the executive body of the Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture of 2005.
INCOPESCA has the power to coordinate the fisheries and aquaculture sector; promote and regulate the development of fisheries, maritime hunting, aquaculture and research; promote the conservation, exploitation and sustainable use of the ocean and aquaculture biological resources, based on technical and scientific criteria. INCOPESCA also elaborates, enforces and follows up the application of legislation, in order to regulate and avoid the pollution of marine and aquaculture resources, as a result of fishing, aquaculture and other polluting activities, which menaces the afore said resources; keeps the Register of Aquaculture Farmers; determines the marine and fresh water species that can be used in commercial aquaculture; grants aquaculture authorizations.
In that respect, for instance, INCOPESCA establishes closed fishing seasons, based on technical and scientific criteria, in order to ensure sustainable protection of the resources. During these closed fishing seasons, INCOPESCA with the partnership of the Mixed Institute for Social Help (Instituto Mixto de Ayuda Social) (IMAS), allocates poor fishermen temporary economic aid due to temporary unemployment after they have filled in the requirements of Decree No. 36.043/MAG/SP/MS of May 2010, issued by the Ministry of Agriculture (MAG), the Ministry of Public Security (SP) and the Ministry of Health (MS).
In performing its functions, INCOPESCA is assisted by several commissions, among which are found the National Advisory Commission for Fisheries and Aquaculture (Comisión Nacional Consultiva de Pesca y Acuacultura); the Commission for Trade (Comisión de Mercadeo); and the Commission for Scientific and Technical Coordination (Comisión de Coordinación Científico Técnica). Attached to the Institute is also the Commission for the Development and Conservation of the Nicoya Gulf (Comisión para el Desarrollo y Conservación del Golfo de Nicoya - CDCGN), created by Decree No.28.368/MAG/MINAE of 1999, issued by the Ministry of Agriculture (MAG) and the Ministry of Environment Energy and telecommunications (MINAET).
In May 2009, Decree No.35.188/MAG puts in place the Council of Experts in fishery and aquaculture competitiveness (Consejo de Expertos en Competitividad de Pesca y Acuicultura) . This Council is also attached to the Ministry of Agriculture but acts as a technical advisory body to the Executive power. The objectives of the Council are to debate, make substantial contributions and guide the Government authorities in developing policies, plans, agreements aiming at competitiveness of fisheries and aquaculture sector.
Besides the Ministry of Agriculture, the Costa Rican Ministry of Environment, Energy and Telecommunications (Ministerio del Ambiente, Energía y Telecomunicaciones) (MINAET) also plays a pillar role in fisheries and aquaculture. Indeed, the MINAET contributes to improve the quality of life of the inhabitants by the use, conservation and sustainable development of elements, goods and natural resources of the country, including fishing resources. Within the MINAET, the Hydric Resources Office (Dirección Recursos Hídricos) and the Water Department (Departamento de Aguas) can be found. In addition, the National Commission on Biodiversity Management (Comisión Nacional para la Gestión de la Biodiversidad), created by Law No.7.788 of 1998 as an autonomous body within the MINAET, includes a representative of INCOPESCA among its members, as specified by Decree Nº 29.680/MINAE of 2001 (Reglamenta el funcionamiento de la Comisión Nacional de Gestión para la biodiversidad).
The different Ministries are used to cooperating in order to achieve decisions that have received common approval. For instance, Decree No. 36.005/MP/MINAET/MAG/SP/MOPT/TUR/RE (inter institutional) created in February 2010 the National Council for the Sea (Consejo Naciónal del Mar) whose main function is to pass recommendations, agreements and guidelines that shall unify criteria between the different governmental institutions so as to reach a better use of the resources and services that the sea provides. The INCOPESCA Technical Director for fisheries is part of the technical secretariat of the National Council for the Sea.
It is also worth mentioning that the Law on Wildlife Conservation of 1992 (Ley de Conservación de la Vida Silvestre No.7.137) and its amendment of 2008 (Ley Nº 8.689 - Modifica la Ley Nº 7.317, Conservación de la vida Silvestre) prohibit hunting, fishing and extraction of endangered continental and insular fauna and flora.
The Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture is even more accurate, stating that aquaculture activities consist of the cultivation and production of aquatic organisms, both plants and animals, through methods and techniques allowing a controlled development, embracing all or part of their biological life-cycle, in a natural or artificial environment, either in marine or inland waters («la actividad acuícola consiste en el cultivo y la producción de organismos acuáticos, sea flora o fauna, mediante el empleo de métodos y técnicas para su desarrollo controlado, y abarca su ciclo biológico completo o parcial, en ambientes hídricos naturales o artificiales, en aguas tanto marinas como continentales»).
In addition, the above mentioned Law definies aquaculture as the comercial production in captitivity of animals and aquatic plants under controlled conditions. Comercial aquaculture implies individual or collective property of the cultivated organisms, as well as transportation, industrialization and marketing of these organisms («Acuicultura: producción comercial en cautividad de animales y de plantas acuáticas en condiciones controladas. La acuicultura comercial implica la propiedad individual o colectiva de los organismos cultivados, así como los procesos de transporte, industrialización y comercialización de esos organismos»).
Costa Rica is also a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002 and the Cartegena Protocol on Biosafety in 2007.
Aquaculture concessions are issued for the establishment of aquaculture farms in public lands, seabeds and marine and inland waters. In general, concession areas may not exceed 40 ha. However, the limit goes down to 10 ha. for sand, mud or rock seabeds, intended for the development of nurseries, without affecting free navigation. Concession holders are under an obligation to adequately and visibly identify the granted area.
Aquaculture authorizations are granted for the set up of commercial aquaculture facilities in private lands, requiring the use of public waters. authorization holders must avoid water contamination with all possible means. Additionally, both concession and authorizations holders are required to avoid with all possible means the contamination of the surrounding areas.
Regarding the recipients, concessions and authorizations may be granted to natural and legal Costa Rican or foreigner persons.
Regarding the duration, authorizations are granted for ten (10) years and may be extended for the same period than the one initially granted. The duration of the grant of the concession is decided according to particular circumstances, on a case by case basis; the maximum being thirty (30) years.
To request an authorization or a concession to use waters, interested persons have to present a project on aquaculture, together with an environmental impact study. The environmental impact assessment is under the responsibility of the National Technical Secretariat for the Environment of the MINAET (Secretaría Técnica Nacional Ambiental) (SETENA) which has to approve or disapprove it within a period of sixty (60) calendar days.
Concessions may end due to the following reasons:
Moreover, any person that has been granted a licence, permit, concession or authorization shall keep a book on which this person registers his/her activities.
Lastly, the Law on Biodiversity, as amended (Ley Nº 7.788 - Ley de Biodiversidad) (1998) provides that access to biodiversity resources is subject to an authorization to be issued by the Technical Office (Oficina Técnica) of the National Commission on Biodiversity Management.
Concessions for the use of waters in relation with aquaculture projects may be granted in the sea, inside or outside bays and gulfs; and authorizations of aquaculture to develop the activity in continental, natural or artificial waters may also be granted.
Concessions on the exploitation of waters and aquaculture projects in marine waters cannot restrict free access to beaches; nor throw waste that would contaminate, restrict this access or render it impossible.
The Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture (Ley de Pesca y Acuicultura) provides that the MINAET must set the rules and requirements applicable to that grant by first consulting the competent water authority (i.e. most likely the National Service for Groundwater, Irrigation and Drainage, Servicio Nacional de Aguas Subterráneas, Riego y Avenamiento – SENARA) and by taking into account its considerations. The parties and the INCOPESCA will be bound by the criteria emitted by the MINAET.
The Law on Biodiversity, as amended (Ley de Biodiversidad) (1998) and its Regulation ( Decree No. 34.433/MINAE of 2008 ) determine a protected area as a clearly-defined geographic space, officially declared and designated with a category of use in virtue of its natural, cultural and/or socio-economic importance to serve conservation and management objectives (“Área silvestre protegida: espacio geográfico definido, declarado oficialmente y designado con una categoría de manejo en virtud de su importancia natural, cultural y/o socioeconómica, para cumplir con determinados objetivos de conservación y de gestión”).
Decree No.34.433/MINAE creates the National Council for Protected Areas (Consejo Nacional de Áreas de Conservación) that approves the non- essential concessions of services to public institutions within the protected wild areas. In any case shall a concession be granted to third person nor to the construction of prívate buildings.
Concerning aquaculture, the Law on Fisheries and Aquaculture (Ley de Pesca y Acuicultura) subjects the granting of aquaculture authorization to the presentation of an environmental impact assessment. Indeed, in order to request an authorization or a concession to use waters, the interested persons have to present a project on aquaculture, together with an environmental impact assessment. The EIA system is under the responsibility of the SETENA, an autonomous body of the MINAET. Assessments must be carried out by authorized professionals and approved by a resolution issued by the Secretariat.
The EIA costs shall be borne by the applicant. In addition, the assessment ought to determine the deposit that must be made to ensure compliance to environmental measures. The amount of the deposit may go up to 1% of the project budget. Publicity and public participation to the EIA process are provided for.
However, the above mentioned regulation does not apply to domestic consumption aquaculture nor to small scale leisure aquaculture activities. In these cases, the interested persons must present an environmental commitment letter, in conformity with the technical rules established by the SETENA.
Basic provisions on the discharge of wastewater are set forth in the General Health Law (Ley General de Salud) (1973 and consolidated in 2006). Furthermore, a general prohibition to discharge wastewater in waterbodies is contained in the Wildlife Conservation Law , as amended (Ley de Conservación de la Vida Silvestre No.7.317) (1992), while effluents treatment is specifically regulated by Decree No. 33.601/MINAE/S of 2006 (Reglamento de vertido y reuso de aguas residuales), issued by the Ministry of Environment (MINAET) and the Ministry of Health (S).
In the area of the aquaculture project, only products and species that have expressly been authorized by INCOPESCA can be used. Producers have to make controls and resort to efficient means so that animals, species, especially exotic species, do not escape from the aquaculture facilities.
The import, export and transit of animals in the country are covered by the Ministry of Agriculture Regulation on Protection of Animal Health (Decree No.14.584/A of 1983, as amended) (Decreto No.14.584/A- Reglamento de defensa sanitaria animal) which makes additional provisions with regard to aquatic species; and also by the General Law on the National Service of Animal Health (Ley general del Servicio Nacional de Salud Animal, Nº 8.495) (2006).
Applications for the import and transit permit and for the export health certificate shall be addressed to the National Service of Animal Health (Servicio Nacional de Salud Animal) (SENASA) of the Ministry of Agriculture.
The import of animals and animal products requires the presentation of a health certificate, to be issued by the competent health authority of the country of origin. All the documentation provided for imports must be validated by the diplomatic or consular authority of the exporting country in Costa Rica.
In addition to meeting these requirements, importers of aquatic species must provide a health certificate stating that the specimens come from a safe cultivation centre and that they were not affected by major diseases, as specified in the Decree, during the previous year.
Import of any domestic, wild or aquatic animal and animal feed must possess a prior health certificate. The import, transit or displacement of domestic, wild or aquatic animal which can be potential carrier of infectious, parasitic or toxic agents, which threaten environment, public health or animal health is prohibited.
In case of illegal import, wild or aquatic animals will be either seized, immediately sent back to the country of origin or killed.
It is worth mentioning, finally, it is under the SENASA responsibility to establish a national programme to trace the origins of animals, including aquatic species.
The main pieces of legislation governing this matter are the General Law on the National Service of Animal Health (Ley general del Servicio Nacional de Salud Animal) (Law Nº 8.495) (2006) and Decree No.34.669/MAG of 2008 that lists the animal diseases of compulsory declaration (Decreto Nº 34.669/MAG - Listado de enfermedades animales de declaración obligatoria), which includes a list of fish, mollusc and shellfish diseases. The afore Decree sets the requirements and mechanisms for notification.
Any person is under the obligation to inform the SENASA of any doubt, sign, diagnosis or existence of the diseases listed in the Decree that are presented in their own or others’ animals, alive or dead, no later than twenty-four (24) hours after the person has had knowledge of the doubt, sign, diagnosis or existence of the disease.
Moreover, the General Law on the National Service of Animal Health sets in place SENASA’s official laboratory which is the National Laboratory of Veterinary Services (Laboratorio Nacional de Servicios Veterinarios). The analysis results of the Laboratory are binding and determine the cancellation of concessions, authorizations and permits.
Indeed, this Office of Veterinary Drugs is in charge of registering, controlling and regulating veterinary drugs so that they do not constitute any threat for veterinary public health, animal health and environment.
Decree No. 34.687/MAG of 2008 establishes the maximum thresholds of chemicals, veterinary drugs and pollutants allowed in fishery and aquaculture products (i.e mercury, dioxin are allowed in the extent they do not exceed the threshold whereas chloramphenicol is prohibited).
The SENASA may modify the lists of drugs for the use of aquaculture species as long as they are approved by the Department for Registration and Control of Veterinary Drugs of the SENASA.
Furthermore, the import of veterinary drugs is covered by Decree No.28.852/MAG of 2000, as amended.
The competent authority for setting restrictions on the use of feed is the Animal Feedstuff Office (Dirección de Alimentos para Animales) of the SENASA which is in charge of registering, controlling and regulating animal feedstuff so that they do not constitute any threat for veterinary public health, animal health and environment.
Prior to distribution in the country, feed products (including raw materials and mixes) must be entered in the Register of Animal Feedstuff, maintained by the Animal Feedstuff Office of the SENASA.
Finally, Decree No. 33.102/MAG of 2006 creates the Register for importers of animals, animal products, animal subproducts and products from animal origin (Decreto Nº 33.102/MAG - Crea el Registro de importadores de animales, productos, subproductos y derivados de origen animal). This Decree creates an obligation of registration for any legal or natural person that imports animals, animal products, animal sub-products and products from animal origin, fresh or frozen, without processing or scarcely processed intended for human consumption and/or industrial use.
However, no specific provisions are made on feedstuff for fish
The Regulation on Veterinary Inspection of Fish Products (Reglamento de Inspección Veterinaria de Productos Pesqueros) is set out in Decree No.18.696-MAG-S of 1988 , amended by Decree No.29.082-MAG-S (issued by both the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Health) of 2000.
In 2001, Decree No.30.083/S/MAG creates the Ministerial Council for Food Safety and the Intersectorial Commission for Food Safety; the latter including a representative of the National Chamber of Fish Products Exporters - (Crea el Consejo Ministerial para la Inocuidad de Alimentos y la Comisión Intersectorial para la Inocuidad de Alimentos).
In addition, as mentioned, Decree 34.687/MAG of 2008 establishes the maximum thresholds of chemicals, veterinary drugs and pollutants allowed in fishery and aquaculture products.
Furthermore, the inter institutional Decree No.35.485/COMEX/S/MEIC/MAG of 2009 inter institutional Decree No.35.485/COMEX/S/MEIC/MAG of 2009 publishes Resolution No.243-2008 (COMIECO-LX)-technical regulations on microbiological criteria for food safety (Decreto Nº 35.485/COMEX/S/MEIC/MAG - Publica la Resolución Nº 243-2008 (COMIECO-LX), Reglamento técnico sobre criterios microbiológicos para la inocuidad de alimentos). This Decree aims at establishing microbiological parameters for food safety and their limits of acceptation for registration and safety in retail points. It contains provisions dealing specifically with fish and marine products safety.
Then, as established in Decree No.26.559/MAG/S of 1997 (Control over Processing Plants adopting the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System (HACCP)- Control para Empresas de Transformación que adopten el Sistema de Análisis de Riesgo y Control de Puntos Críticos), animal products processing plants (including fish products) adopting the HACCP method are subject to the audit, inspection and control of the Ministry of Agriculture. These tasks are performed by the Department for International Animal Health Services of the SENASA (Departamento de Servicios Zoosanitarios Internacionales).
Lastly, in April 2010, Costa Rica launched a national policy on food safety through Decree Nº 35.960/S/MAG/MEIC/COMEX (Decreto Nº 35.960/S/MAG/MEIC/COMEX - Política Nacional de Inocuidad de los Alimentos). This Decree promotes a right to healthy food, ensures food transparency, including for fishery and aquaculture products.
The above mentioned Decree was soon after followed by Decree No. 35.966/MEIC creating the Codex Department among the Ministry of Economy, Industry and Trade. The Codex Department acts as a focal point between the food industry, the consumers and the Government. It promotes the creation of Codex regulations so as to ensure food safety, including for fishery and aquaculture products.
No specific provisions found.
Decree No.35260/MAG stating the national fisheries policy (Declaratoria de de política nacional de pesquera) (2009).
Decree No.36.043/MAG/SP/MS implementing temporary help for economic poverty in fishery sector due to closed seasons (Implementación de ayuda temporal por pobreza coyuntural en el sector pesquero por declaratorias de Vedas) (2010) (Gaceta Oficial Nº 115, 15 de junio de 2010).
Decree No.35.188/MAG creating the Council of experts in fishery and aquaculture competitiveness (Decreto No.35.188/MAG-Crea el Consejo de Expertos en Competitividad de Pesca y Acuicultura) (2009) (Gaceta Oficial No.99 de 25 mayo 2009).
Decree No. 36.005/MP/MINAET/MAG/SP/MOPT/TUR/RE creating the National Council for the Sea (Decreto Nº 36.005/MP/MINAET/MAG/SP/MOPT/TUR/RE - Crea el Consejo Nacional del Mar) (2010) (Gaceta Oficial Nº 91, 12 de mayo de 2010).
Decree No.18.696-MAG-S (as amended) establishing the Regulation on veterinary Inspection of Fish Products (Decreto No.18.696-MAG-S - Reglamento de Inspección Veterinaria de Productos Pesqueros) (1988).
Decree No.29.082-MAG-S modifying Decree No.18.696-MAG-S establishing the Regulation on veterinary Inspection of Fish Products (Decreto Nº 29.082/MAG/S - Modifica el Decreto Nº 18.696/MAG/S, Reglamento de inspección veterinaria de productos pesqueros) (2000).
Decree No.26.559/MAG/S – Control over Processing Plants adopting the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System (Decreto No.26.559/MAG/S - Control para Empresas de Transformación que adopten el Sistema de Análisis de Riesgo y Control de Puntos Críticos) (1997).
Decree No.30.083/S/MAG creating the Ministerial Council for Food Safety and the Intersectorial Commission for Food Safety ( Decreto No. 30.083/MAG que crea el Consejo Ministerial para la Inocuidad de Alimentos y la Comisión Intersectorial para la Inocuidad de Alimentos) (2001).
Decree No.31.595/S regulating the Notification of raw material, sanitary registration, import, unpacking and food surveillance (Reglamento de notificación de materias primas, registro sanitario, importación, desalmacenaje y vigilancia de alimentos) (2003).
Decree No.35.485/COMEX/S/MEIC/MAG that publishes Resolution No.243- 2008 (COMIECO-LX), technical regulations on microbiological criteria for food safety (Decreto Nº 35.485/COMEX/S/MEIC/MAG - Publica la ResoluciónNº 243-2008 (COMIECO-LX), Reglamento técnico sobre criterios microbiológicos para la inocuidad de alimentos) (2009).
Decree No. 16.726/MAG prohibiting the Export of Cockles Anadara Tuberculosa and Anadara Multicostata (Decreto No.16.726/MAG que prohíbe la Exportación de Piangua Anadara Tuberculosa y Anadara Multicostata) (1985).
Decree No.35.960/ S/MAG/MEIC/COMEX promoting a National policy on food safety (Decreto No.35.960/ S/MAG/MEIC/COMEX Política Nacional de Inocuidad de los Alimentos) (2010).
Decree No. 35.966/MEIC creating the Codex Department (Decreto No.35.966/MEIC- Crea el Departamento de Codex) (2010).
General Law on the National Service of Animal Health (Ley General del Servicio Nacional de Salud Animal) (2006).
Decree Nº 34.669/MAG listing animal diseases of compulsory declaration (Decreto Nº 34.669/MAG - Listado de enfermedades animales de declaración obligatoria) (2008).
Decree No. 34.687/MAG establishing the maximum thresholds of chemicals, veterinary drugs and pollutants allowed in fishery and aquaculture products (Reglamento de Límites Maximos Microbiológicos y de residuos de Medicamentos y Contaminantes para los Productos y Subproductos de la Pesca y de la Acuicultura destinados al Consumo Humano) (2008).
Decree Nº 36.001/MAG Organic Regulation for the National Service of Animal Health and implementing the General Law on the National Service of Animal Health (Reglamento organico del Servicio Nacional de Salud Animal) (2010).
Decree No.14.584/A establishing the Regulation on Animal Health (Decreto No.14.584/A - Reglamento de Defensa Sanitaria Animal) (1983 and as amended).
Decree No.28.861/MAG regulating the Registration and Control of Veterinary Drugs (Decreto No.28.861/MAG - Reglamento de Registro y Control de Medicamentos Veterinarios) (2000, as amended).
Law creating the Costa Rican Institute for Fisheries and Aquaculture (Ley Nº 7.384 - Crea el Instituto Costarricense de Pesca y Acuacultura - INCOPESCA) (1994).
Internal Regulation on Organization and Employment of the Costa Rican Institute for Fisheries and Aquaculture (Resolución Nº 759/97/AJDIP - Reglamento autónomo de organización y servicios del Instituto Costarricense de Pesca y Acuacultura - INCOPESCA) (1997).
Decree creating the Commission for the Development and Conservation of the Nicoya Gulf (Decreto No.28.368/MAG/MINAE - Crea la Comisión para el Desarrollo y Conservación del Golfo de Nicoya - CDCGN) (1999).
Acuerdo No.130/AJDIP - Reglamento General para Caha Recaudadora del Instituto Costarricense de Pesca y Acuacultura (2001).
Regulation on the Granting of Aquaculture Licences and Concessions (Reglamento para el Otorgamiento de Concesiones y Licencias Acuícolas - INCOPESCA) (1996).
Law on the Control of Processing and Distribution of Animal Feedstuff (Ley No.6.883 - Control de la Elaboración y Expendio de Alimentos para Animales) (1983).
Decree regulating the Processing and Distribution of Animal Feedstuff (Decreto No.16.899/MAG - Reglamento para el Elaboración y Expendio de Alimentos para Animales) (1985).
Decree regulating the Import of Registered Animal Feedstuff (Decreto No.28.852/MAG - Reglamento para la Importación de Insumos Agropecuarios y Alimentos para Animales Previamente Registrados) (2000).
Decree No. 33.102/MAG creating the Register for importers of animals, animal products, animal subproducts and products from animal- (Decreto Nº 33.102/MAG - Crea el Registro de importadores de animales, productos, subproductos y derivados de origen animal) (2006).
Law on Biodiversity (Ley No.7.788 - Ley de Biodiversidad) (1998).
Decree Nº 29.680/MINAE regulating the functioning of the National Commission on Biodiversity Management (Reglamenta el funcionamiento de la Comisión Nacional de Gestión para la biodiversidad) (2001).
Decree No. 34.433/MINAE - Regulation to the Law on Biodiversity (Reglamento a la Ley de Biodiversidad) (2008).
Law on Wildlife Conservation (Ley No.7.317 - Conservación de la Vida Silvestre) (1992).
Law No.8.689 that modifies the Law on Wildlife Conservation (Ley Nº 8.689 - Modifica la Ley Nº 7.317, Conservación de la vida Silvestre) (2008).
Decree No.33.601/MINAE/S - (Decreto No.33.601/MINAE/S - Reglamento de vertido y reuso de aguas residuales) (2006).
Organic Law on Environment (Ley No.7.554 - Ley Orgánica del Medio Ambiente) (1995).
Water Law (Ley No. 276 - Ley de Aguas) (1942).
Convention on Biological Diversity Website (Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica).
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (Convención sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora Silvestres).
Costa Rican System of Legal Information (SCIJ) (Sistema Costariccense de Información Jurídica).
Information System of the Agriculture Sector in Costa Rica (Sistema de Información del Sector Agropecuario Costarricense).
Kyoto Protocol (Protocolo de Kyoto).
Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderìa).
Ministry of Environment, Energy and Telecommunication (Ministerio de Ambiente, Energía y Telecomunicaciones).
National Service for Groundwater, Irrigation and Drainage (Servicio Nacional de Aguas Subterráneas, Riego y Avenamiento - SENARA).
National Service of Animal Health (Servicio Nacional de Salud Animal).
National Technical Secretariat for the Environment (Secretaría Técnica Nacional Ambiental).
National System of Protection Areas (Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación – SINAC).
Parliament’s official website (Asamblea Legislativa de Costa Rica).
World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) (Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal).
World Trade Organization (WTO) (Organización Mondial del Comercio).