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  1. Profile
    1. Basic legislation
    2. Legal definition
    3. Guidelines and codes of conduct
    4. International arrangements
  2. Planning
    1. Authorization system
    2. Access to land and water
    3. EIA
  3. Operation
    1. Water and wastewater
    2. Fish movement
    3. Disease control
    4. Drugs
    5. Feed
  4. Food safety
    1. Miscellaneous
      1. References
        1. Legislation
        2. Related resources
      2. Related links
        Profile
        Basic legislation
        As stated by the Decree-Law providing for the Fisheries Regulation (Decreto Ley - Reglamento de Pesca) (1996), the Ministry for the Fishing Industry (Ministerio de la Industria Pesquera – MIP) is in charge of directing, implementing and controlling the government policy on investigation, conservation, capture, cultivation, processing and commercialization of fishery resources. The MIP prepared and implemented a five-year Aquaculture Development Programme (1996–2000), aiming towards food security, improvement of import-export balance, increase of employment opportunities and social development.

        The Advisory Commission for Fisheries (Comisión Consultiva de Pesca) is the main consultative body to the Ministry on matters concerning the regulation and administration of marine and freshwater aquatic resources.
        Legal definition
        There is no legal definition of aquaculture. It is worth noting that the Fisheries Regulation provides for a definition of "fishing" which includes "culture" (Pesca: El acto de extraer, capturar, colectar, o cultivar por cualquier procedimiento, en medio acuático, especies o elementos biogenéticos cuyo medio de vida parcial, total o temporal sea el agua así como los actos previos y posteriores relacionados con ella. – Fishing: The act of taking, capturing, collecting, or cultivating in an aquatic environment, with any method, species or biogenetic elements, whose natural environment is partially, totally or temporarily water as well as any act undertaken previous or after the act [of fishing]).
        Guidelines and codes of conduct
        There are no guidelines or codes of conduct on aquaculture.
        International arrangements
        Cuba is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Cuba has also ratified both the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Biosafety Protocol.
        Planning
        Authorization system
        The authorization system to engage in fisheries activities, as outlined in the Fisheries Regulation, unfolds into three different tools:
        • Concessions to set up fisheries and aquaculture activities, granted for at least five years.
        • Licences for recreational and commercial fisheries, granted for one year (renewable).
        • Permits issued for temporary and specific purposes.
        While applications for authorizations to fish or to conduct aquaculture are to be filed with the Provincial Offices (Oficinas Provinciales de Inspección Pesquera), the authorizations are issued by the Ministry for the Fishing Industry. The latter sets also the procedural requirements for obtaining such authorizations. Zones with limited or forbidden access are identified by the said Ministry, jointly with the Ministry of the Revolutionary Armed Forces (Ministerio de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias), the Ministry of Domestic Affairs (Ministerio del Interior) and the National Institute for State Reserves (Instituto Nacional de las Reservas Estatales).
        Access to land and water
        Under the Decree-Law on Coastal Zone Management (Decreto Ley – Gestión de la Zona Costera) (2000), only activities which may not be established elsewhere (including mariculture) may be authorized in coastal areas.

        The Decree-Law on Inland Waters (Decreto-Ley – De las Aguas Terrestres) (1993), as implemented by the Resolution establishing Rules on Water Use Charges and Inland Water Provision Services (Resolución – Reglas para el Cobro del Derecho de Uso y el Servicio de Provisión de Aguas Terrestres) (1996) deals with the use of waters and sets the fees related thereto. Reference is made to the use of water for aquaculture purposes. In general, the use of inland surface and groundwater other than for domestic purposes is subject to the payment of charges to the National Institute for Water Resources (Instituto Nacional de Recurso Hidráulicos – INRH), unless water is delivered through a service provider. Volumes of water and applicable fees for water delivery and use are agreed in a formal contract between the INRH and the user, taking into account the service costs, whereas water use for aquaculture purposes is only charged according the amount of water consumed.
        EIA
        The Law on the Environment (Ley del Medio Ambiente) (1997) and the Resolution establishing the Regulation on the Environmental Impact Assessment Process (Resolución - Reglamento del Proceso de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental) (1999) represents the core of the Cuban EIA system, which leads to the granting of an environmental licence. Aquaculture is explicitly mentioned among the activities that are subject the EIA process.

        The Resolution, which specifies the procedural requirements of the EIA system, designates the Centre for Environmental Inspection and Control (Centro de Inspección y Control Ambiental) of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología y Medio Ambiente) as the responsible authority for the filing of applications and for the granting of environmental licences. Applications concerning projects or activities implying the manipulation of biological agents and organisms or parts thereof containing genetic information are submitted by the said authority to the National Centre for Biosecurity (Centro Nacional de Seguridad Biológica). The opinion of the latter is binding. Conversely, the introduction of exotic species, biological agents and organisms or parts thereof containing genetic information is subject to both the EIA system and the biosecurity approval system. Those interested must therefore respectively apply to the Centre for Environmental Inspection and Control and to the National Centre for Biosecurity (see § on fish movement below).

        Applications for an environmental licence require the following information:
        • Name of project.
        • Identification of applicant.
        • Identification of project representative.
        • Macrolocalization, including certificate issued by the Institute for Physical Planning (Instituto de Planificación Física), when appropriate.
        • Microlocalization, including a copy of the localization report by the Institute for Physical Planning.
        • Plane coordinates of the project area.
        • Detailed budget.
        • General description of the natural and socioeconomic environment.
        • Quantitative and qualitative characterization of the air, water, soil and biota.
        • Description of the feasible alternatives.
        • Description of the effluents and indicators of contamination.
        • Connection of the sanitary network to existing waste treatment system.
        • Technologies to be used and their contribution to clean production.
        • Specify whether the activity produces toxic chemical products or other dangerous waste.
        • Identification and description of the potential positive and negative environmental impact.
        • Prevention and mitigation measures for the negative environmental effects.
        • Precautionary measure for possible persisting effects at the end of the project.
        • Prevention of accidents or contingencies.
        • Documentation reporting the public hearing held to inform the community of the possible effects of the project.
        • Monitoring programme.
        Within 10 working days, the authority shall either accept the application - requiring or not the presentation of an EIA study within the following year, or reject it. Applicants may request to be exempted from the submission of the study, for specific reasons.

        The decision whether to require the submission an EIA study or not shall be based, among others, on the criteria listed below:
        • Risks for the health of the community (effluents, waste and noise).
        • Negative effects on the quantity and quality of natural resources and on the integrity of the ecosystem.
        • Relocation of human communities, alteration of their life system or practices.
        • Project location close to human communities, resources or protected areas that might be affected, and environmental value of the area.
        • Alteration of the scenic or tourism value of the area.
        • Alteration of monuments, sites with anthropological, archaeological or historical value, and in general the cultural heritage.
        • Results of the public hearings.
        • Environmental solutions set forth by the project.
        A minimum content pattern is required for each EIA study:
        • Purpose of the project.
        • Feasible alternative projects and no project option.
        • Relationship between financial costs and environmental effects for each option.
        • Characteristics and duration of the potential effects on environment, health and life quality of the community.
        • Prevention, mitigation and negative impact correction plan.
        • Characterization of the environment of the project area.
        • Conditions to ensure the sustainability of the natural resources involved in the project.
        • Qualitative and quantitative description of the natural resources and other raw materials, as well as an estimate on effluents and emissions.
        • Technologies to be used and their contribution to clean production.
        • Detailed description of the energy sources and an estimate of the consumption costs.
        • Detailed programme of environmental surveillance and monitoring.
        • Certification of the parameters by authorized entities.
        • Evaluation of any possible negative impact exceeding the project area.
        • Description of contingency and risk assessment plans.
        • Measures established for the end of the project.
        • Results of the public hearings held with local authorities and the community.
        • Any other requirement as agreed.
        • The uncertainty degree of the identified impacts and consequent measures.
        Only authorized entities may prepare EIA studies and costs shall be borne by the applicant. However, subject to the approval of the Ministry of Finance, it shall exceptionally be included in the national budget.
        Where an EIA study is required, the authority shall give its response no later than 60 working days from the application (30 days otherwise). Works shall commence within 1 year from the granting of the licence.

        It is noteworthy to mention that the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment may submit fisheries development plans and policies to the EIA process. Needless to say, this option does not include the granting of a licence.
        Operation
        Water and wastewater
        The general principles relating to appropriate effluents treatment, reduction of water contamination and wastewater recycling are announced in the Environmental Law.

        The Decree-Law on Inland Waters establishes four precautionary rules aiming at promoting the development of aquaculture in freshwater bodies, yet protecting the latter from contamination:
        • Extensive culture and capture of fish shall comply with the provisions made by the National Institute of Water Resources (Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidráulicos) and the Ministry of Public Health (Ministerio de Salud Pública).
        • Intensive and semi-intensive breeding of fish are not allowed in water supply reservoirs for domestic use.
        • The establishment of intensive and semi-intensive breeding facilities is subject to the approval of the National Institute of Water Resources and of the Ministry of Public Health.
        • The total or partial extraction of water from a reservoir for the capture of existing species requires the approval of both the National Institute of Water Resources and the manager of the reservoir.
        Fish movement
        The Resolution on Hygienical and Sanitary Regulations applicable to Waterbodies intended for the Breeding, Maintenance and Cultivation of Aquatic Organisms in the National Territory (Reglamentación Higiénico-Sanitaria para los Acuatorios dedicados a la Cría, Mantenimiento y/o Cultivo de Organismos Acuáticos en el Territorio Nacional) (1999) establishes the authorization procedure and the requirements for the import and export of aquatic species.

        Whoever is willing to import or export aquatic species to and from Cuba shall apply to the Border Veterinary Services Department (Departamento de los Servicios Veterinarios de Fronteras) of the Veterinary Medicine Institute National Board (Dirección Nacional del Instituto de Medicina Veterinaria) for the required authorization, attaching the following information:
        • Species to be introduced.
        • Quantity.
        • Origin (establishment and country).
        • Exporter.
        • Destination.
        • Purpose of the introduction.
        • Conditions and location of the quarantine.
        • Representative of the Ministry for the Fishing Industry, responsible for the quarantine.
        An additional document, mainly tackling ecological, genetical and health issues, shall be submitted to the Board of the Ministry for the Fishing Industry and to the Environmental Agency (Agencia de Medio Ambiente). The Resolution details its content, specifies the accompanying certificates and establishes requirements and conditions for quarantine.
        The Law on the Environment empowers the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment to make provision for the import or introduction of new species and species falling under specific regulations.

        According to the Decree-Law on Biosecurity (Decreto Ley - De la Seguridad Biológica) (1999), the tasks of granting, suspending and revoking authorizations concerning activities related to GMOs shall be carried out by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, in coordination with the competent authority. The Resolution establishing the Regulation for the Granting of Biosecurity Authorizations (Resolución - Reglamento para el Otorgamiento de las Autorizaciones de Seguridad Biológica) (2000) regulates three types of authorizations, in proportion to the potential biological risk for the worker, the community and the environment: Biosecurity Licence (Licencia de Seguridad Biológica), Biosecurity Permit (Permiso de Seguridad Biológica) and Notification (Notificación).
        Disease control
        The matter is regulated by two main pieces of legislation, namely the Decree-Law No.54 on Basic Health Provisions  (Decreto Ley - Disposiciones Sanitarias Basicas) (1982) and the Decree-Law on Veterinary Medicine  (Decreto Ley - De la Medicina Veterinaria) (1993). None of them makes any specific reference to aquatic animals.

        The Fisheries Regulation states that the Ministry for the Fishing Industry, jointly with the Veterinary Medicine Institute, shall issue health regulations to prevent the introduction in the country of diseases that might affect aquatic resources, and establish animal health surveillance systems and other measures implementing the aquatic health programmes.

        More specifically, the Resolution on Hygienical and Sanitary Regulations establishes the hygienical and sanitary measures to be complied with by any aquaculture facility, in order to prevent the occurrence and spread of diseases. Every establishment must do the following:
        • Apply for import and export authorizations (see § on fish movement).
        • Comply with the specific technical rules (Procedimientos Técnicos Operativos) to prevent the introduction and proliferation of diseases.
        • Systematically monitor the aquatic population to check the possible activity of pathogens.
        • Hold the required health certificates issued by the concerned Laboratory of Aquaculture Health of the Fisheries Investigation Centre (Centro de Investigaciones Pesqueras) or by any authorized laboratory.
        • Comply with the OIE Code (International Animal Health Organization – Office International de Epizooties).
        • Ensure the enforcement of the Animal Health Surveillance System of the Veterinary Medicine Institute.
        • Ensure the appointment of permanent qualified staff to certify the compliance with health measures and perform any veterinary task.
        More specific measures are specified in the Annexes to the Resolution.
        Drugs
        No specific provisions are made on aquaculture.

        According to the Decree-Law on Veterinary Medicine, the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for the rational use of veterinary drugs and chemicals.

        Resolutions No.222 and 223 of 1984 create and regulate the General Register for National and Imported Veterinary Drugs (Registro General de Medicamentos de Uso Veterinario, Nacionales y de Importación). Among other requirements, the resolutions provide that registration is subject to the approval of the Scientific Commission of the Register. The competent authority for restrictions on the use of chemicals and veterinary drugs is the Institute for Veterinary Medicine (Instituto de Medicina Veterinaria), attached to the Ministry of Agriculture.

        Rules and procedures on the production and foreign trade of veterinary drugs are established by the Ministry of Agriculture. Several provisions are made on veterinary issues to regulate the production, conservation, trade, quality control and marketing of any type of veterinary drugs and biological stimulants for animal treatment. Applications concerning the import of animals, animal-based products and raw material, biological or pharmaceutical products used in veterinary medicine, as well as any other product likely to spread animal diseases must be supported by a certification to be issued by the competent authorities of the exporting country, and endorsed by the Cuban consular authority, when appropriate. The use of imported veterinary drugs within the country is subject to a quality certification issued by the producer.

        Resolution No.339 on the Import of Biological Products, Animal Feed and Veterinary Drugs (Resolución No.339 - Importación de productos biológicos, preparaciones para alimentación animal y medicamentos para uso animal) (2001) makes provisions on the import of animal feed and drugs for human or animal use, aiming at protecting the country from Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).
        Feed
        No specific provisions are made concerning the use of feed for aquaculture purposes.

        However, it is worth mentioning that Resolution No.339 of 2001 only allows aquatic animal flour (fish, crustaceans, molluscs and other invertebrates) to be used in animal feedstuff (see § on drugs above).
        Food safety
        Resolution No. 344/DAC 96- MIP – Ministry of Fisheries (Ministerio de la Industria Pesquera) introduces the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System (HACCP) as a mandatory measure to be implemented in the fisheries sector, including capture, processing, transport, distribution and trade of fish products.

        Law No.41 on Public Health  (Ley No.41 de la Salud Pública) (1983) provides that the production, processing, manipulation, conservation, packaging, storage, transport, trade and use of food and raw material must comply with the rules established by the Ministry of Public Health, and found in Decree-Law on Basic Health Provisions.

        Resolution No. 64/97- MINSAP – Ministry of Public Health (Ministerio de Salud Pública) establishes that the movement and trade of any food product within the country is subject to registration in the Food Register, under penalty of retention and seizure as established in Decree-Law on Basic Health Provisions.

        Similarly, companies or organizations that are willing to import food products must provide the Ministry of Public Health with the documentation certifying the origin, composition and organoleptic characteristics of the products, as well as with the quality certificates and those stating that they are fit for human consumption. Importers are also required to facilitate sampling for necessary tests prior to public distribution. With Resolution No. 167/92 – MINSAP, the Ministry of Public Health, being the competent authority on food matters, authorizes the Quality Control Bodies (Órganos de Control de Calidad) of the Ministry of Fisheries to grant the health certificates required by the international market for fish products intended for foreign trade.
        Miscellaneous
        Aquaculture investment 
        No specific provisions.
        References
        Legislation
        Decree-Law establishing the Fisheries Regulation (Decreto Ley - Reglamento de Pesca) (1996)
        Resolution on Hygienical and Sanitary Regulations applicable to Waterbodies intended for the Breeding, Maintenance and Cultivation of Aquatic Organisms in the National Territory (Resolución - Reglamentación Higiénico-Sanitaria para los Acuatorios dedicados a la Cría, Mantenimiento y/o Cultivo de Organismos Acuáticos en el Territorio Nacional) (1999)
        Decree-Law No.54 on Basic Health Provisions (Decreto-Ley No.54 - Disposiciones Sanitarias Basicas) (1982)
        Law No.41 on Public Health (Ley No.41 de la Salud Pública) (1983)
        Decree-Law on Biosecurity (Decreto Ley - De la Seguridad Biológica) (1999)
        Resolution establishing the Regulation for the Granting of Biosecurity Authorizations (Resolución - Reglamento para el Otorgamiento de las Autorizaciones de Seguridad Biológica) (2000)
        Decree-Law on Coastal Zone Management (Decreto Ley - Gestión de la Zona Costera) (2000)
        Decree-Law on Inland Waters (Decreto-Ley – De las Aguas Terrestres) (1993)
        Resolution establishing Rules on Water Use Charges and Inland Water Provision Services (Resolución - Reglas para el Cobro del Derecho de Uso y el Servicio de Provisión de Aguas Terrestres) (1996)
        Decree-Law on Veterinary Medicine (Decreto Ley - De la Medicina Veterinaria) (1993)
        Resolution No.339 on the Import of Biological Products, Animal Feed and Veterinary Drugs (Resolución No.339 - Importación de productos biológicos, preparaciones para alimentación animal y medicamentos para uso animal) (2001)
        Resolution No.222 creating the General Register for National and Imported Veterinary Drugs (Resolución No.222 que crea el Registro General de Medicamentos de Uso Veterinario, Nacionales y de Importación) (1984) (Gaceta Oficial No.18, Pag. 91-1984)
        Resolution No.223 regulating the General Register for National and Imported Veterinary Drugs (Resolución No.223 que establece el Reglamento para el Registro General de Medicamentos de Uso Veterinario, Nacionales y de Importación) (1984) (Gaceta Oficial No.18, Pag. 91-1984)
        Law on the Environment (Ley del Medio Ambiente) (1997)
        Resolution establishing the Regulation on the Environmental Impact Assessment Process (Resolución - Reglamento del Proceso de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental) (1999)
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