As stated by the Decree-Law providing for the Fisheries Regulation (Decreto Ley - Reglamento de Pesca) (1996), the Ministry for the Fishing Industry (Ministerio de la Industria Pesquera – MIP) is in charge of directing, implementing and controlling the government policy on investigation, conservation, capture, cultivation, processing and commercialization of fishery resources. The MIP prepared and implemented a five-year Aquaculture Development Programme (1996–2000), aiming towards food security, improvement of import-export balance, increase of employment opportunities and social development.
The Advisory Commission for Fisheries (Comisión Consultiva de Pesca) is the main consultative body to the Ministry on matters concerning the regulation and administration of marine and freshwater aquatic resources.
The Decree-Law on Inland Waters (Decreto-Ley – De las Aguas Terrestres) (1993), as implemented by the Resolution establishing Rules on Water Use Charges and Inland Water Provision Services (Resolución – Reglas para el Cobro del Derecho de Uso y el Servicio de Provisión de Aguas Terrestres) (1996) deals with the use of waters and sets the fees related thereto. Reference is made to the use of water for aquaculture purposes. In general, the use of inland surface and groundwater other than for domestic purposes is subject to the payment of charges to the National Institute for Water Resources (Instituto Nacional de Recurso Hidráulicos – INRH), unless water is delivered through a service provider. Volumes of water and applicable fees for water delivery and use are agreed in a formal contract between the INRH and the user, taking into account the service costs, whereas water use for aquaculture purposes is only charged according the amount of water consumed.
The Resolution, which specifies the procedural requirements of the EIA system, designates the Centre for Environmental Inspection and Control (Centro de Inspección y Control Ambiental) of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología y Medio Ambiente) as the responsible authority for the filing of applications and for the granting of environmental licences. Applications concerning projects or activities implying the manipulation of biological agents and organisms or parts thereof containing genetic information are submitted by the said authority to the National Centre for Biosecurity (Centro Nacional de Seguridad Biológica). The opinion of the latter is binding. Conversely, the introduction of exotic species, biological agents and organisms or parts thereof containing genetic information is subject to both the EIA system and the biosecurity approval system. Those interested must therefore respectively apply to the Centre for Environmental Inspection and Control and to the National Centre for Biosecurity (see § on fish movement below).
Applications for an environmental licence require the following information:
The decision whether to require the submission an EIA study or not shall be based, among others, on the criteria listed below:
Where an EIA study is required, the authority shall give its response no later than 60 working days from the application (30 days otherwise). Works shall commence within 1 year from the granting of the licence.
It is noteworthy to mention that the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment may submit fisheries development plans and policies to the EIA process. Needless to say, this option does not include the granting of a licence.
The Decree-Law on Inland Waters establishes four precautionary rules aiming at promoting the development of aquaculture in freshwater bodies, yet protecting the latter from contamination:
Whoever is willing to import or export aquatic species to and from Cuba shall apply to the Border Veterinary Services Department (Departamento de los Servicios Veterinarios de Fronteras) of the Veterinary Medicine Institute National Board (Dirección Nacional del Instituto de Medicina Veterinaria) for the required authorization, attaching the following information:
The Law on the Environment empowers the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment to make provision for the import or introduction of new species and species falling under specific regulations.
According to the Decree-Law on Biosecurity (Decreto Ley - De la Seguridad Biológica) (1999), the tasks of granting, suspending and revoking authorizations concerning activities related to GMOs shall be carried out by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, in coordination with the competent authority. The Resolution establishing the Regulation for the Granting of Biosecurity Authorizations (Resolución - Reglamento para el Otorgamiento de las Autorizaciones de Seguridad Biológica) (2000) regulates three types of authorizations, in proportion to the potential biological risk for the worker, the community and the environment: Biosecurity Licence (Licencia de Seguridad Biológica), Biosecurity Permit (Permiso de Seguridad Biológica) and Notification (Notificación).
The Fisheries Regulation states that the Ministry for the Fishing Industry, jointly with the Veterinary Medicine Institute, shall issue health regulations to prevent the introduction in the country of diseases that might affect aquatic resources, and establish animal health surveillance systems and other measures implementing the aquatic health programmes.
More specifically, the Resolution on Hygienical and Sanitary Regulations establishes the hygienical and sanitary measures to be complied with by any aquaculture facility, in order to prevent the occurrence and spread of diseases. Every establishment must do the following:
According to the Decree-Law on Veterinary Medicine, the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for the rational use of veterinary drugs and chemicals.
Resolutions No.222 and 223 of 1984 create and regulate the General Register for National and Imported Veterinary Drugs (Registro General de Medicamentos de Uso Veterinario, Nacionales y de Importación). Among other requirements, the resolutions provide that registration is subject to the approval of the Scientific Commission of the Register. The competent authority for restrictions on the use of chemicals and veterinary drugs is the Institute for Veterinary Medicine (Instituto de Medicina Veterinaria), attached to the Ministry of Agriculture.
Rules and procedures on the production and foreign trade of veterinary drugs are established by the Ministry of Agriculture. Several provisions are made on veterinary issues to regulate the production, conservation, trade, quality control and marketing of any type of veterinary drugs and biological stimulants for animal treatment. Applications concerning the import of animals, animal-based products and raw material, biological or pharmaceutical products used in veterinary medicine, as well as any other product likely to spread animal diseases must be supported by a certification to be issued by the competent authorities of the exporting country, and endorsed by the Cuban consular authority, when appropriate. The use of imported veterinary drugs within the country is subject to a quality certification issued by the producer.
Resolution No.339 on the Import of Biological Products, Animal Feed and Veterinary Drugs (Resolución No.339 - Importación de productos biológicos, preparaciones para alimentación animal y medicamentos para uso animal) (2001) makes provisions on the import of animal feed and drugs for human or animal use, aiming at protecting the country from Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).
However, it is worth mentioning that Resolution No.339 of 2001 only allows aquatic animal flour (fish, crustaceans, molluscs and other invertebrates) to be used in animal feedstuff (see § on drugs above).
Law No.41 on Public Health (Ley No.41 de la Salud Pública) (1983) provides that the production, processing, manipulation, conservation, packaging, storage, transport, trade and use of food and raw material must comply with the rules established by the Ministry of Public Health, and found in Decree-Law on Basic Health Provisions.
Resolution No. 64/97- MINSAP – Ministry of Public Health (Ministerio de Salud Pública) establishes that the movement and trade of any food product within the country is subject to registration in the Food Register, under penalty of retention and seizure as established in Decree-Law on Basic Health Provisions.
Similarly, companies or organizations that are willing to import food products must provide the Ministry of Public Health with the documentation certifying the origin, composition and organoleptic characteristics of the products, as well as with the quality certificates and those stating that they are fit for human consumption. Importers are also required to facilitate sampling for necessary tests prior to public distribution. With Resolution No. 167/92 – MINSAP, the Ministry of Public Health, being the competent authority on food matters, authorizes the Quality Control Bodies (Órganos de Control de Calidad) of the Ministry of Fisheries to grant the health certificates required by the international market for fish products intended for foreign trade.
No specific provisions.
Decree-Law establishing the Fisheries Regulation (Decreto Ley - Reglamento de Pesca) (1996)
Resolution on Hygienical and Sanitary Regulations applicable to Waterbodies intended for the Breeding, Maintenance and Cultivation of Aquatic Organisms in the National Territory (Resolución - Reglamentación Higiénico-Sanitaria para los Acuatorios dedicados a la Cría, Mantenimiento y/o Cultivo de Organismos Acuáticos en el Territorio Nacional) (1999)
Decree-Law No.54 on Basic Health Provisions (Decreto-Ley No.54 - Disposiciones Sanitarias Basicas) (1982)
Law No.41 on Public Health (Ley No.41 de la Salud Pública) (1983)
Decree-Law on Biosecurity (Decreto Ley - De la Seguridad Biológica) (1999)
Resolution establishing the Regulation for the Granting of Biosecurity Authorizations (Resolución - Reglamento para el Otorgamiento de las Autorizaciones de Seguridad Biológica) (2000)
Decree-Law on Coastal Zone Management (Decreto Ley - Gestión de la Zona Costera) (2000)
Decree-Law on Inland Waters (Decreto-Ley – De las Aguas Terrestres) (1993)
Resolution establishing Rules on Water Use Charges and Inland Water Provision Services (Resolución - Reglas para el Cobro del Derecho de Uso y el Servicio de Provisión de Aguas Terrestres) (1996)
Decree-Law on Veterinary Medicine (Decreto Ley - De la Medicina Veterinaria) (1993)
Resolution No.339 on the Import of Biological Products, Animal Feed and Veterinary Drugs (Resolución No.339 - Importación de productos biológicos, preparaciones para alimentación animal y medicamentos para uso animal) (2001)
Resolution No.222 creating the General Register for National and Imported Veterinary Drugs (Resolución No.222 que crea el Registro General de Medicamentos de Uso Veterinario, Nacionales y de Importación) (1984) (Gaceta Oficial No.18, Pag. 91-1984)
Resolution No.223 regulating the General Register for National and Imported Veterinary Drugs (Resolución No.223 que establece el Reglamento para el Registro General de Medicamentos de Uso Veterinario, Nacionales y de Importación) (1984) (Gaceta Oficial No.18, Pag. 91-1984)
Law on the Environment (Ley del Medio Ambiente) (1997)
Resolution establishing the Regulation on the Environmental Impact Assessment Process (Resolución - Reglamento del Proceso de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental) (1999)