|Basic legislation|Law No 124/1983
on fishing, aquatic life and the regulation of fish farms is the main body of legislation on fisheries. The Act contains a number of provisions on aquaculture. The Act is administered by the General Authority for Fisheries Resources Development (GAFRD), established by Presidential Decree No 190/1983, falling under the Ministry of Agriculture.
There is no legal definition of aquaculture
|Guidelines and codes of conduct|
There is no information on guidelines/codes of conduct on aquaculture.
Egypt is a member of:
- World Trade Organization (WTO).
Egypt is a party to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and to the Biosafety Protocol. Egypt is also a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
According to Law No 124/1983, to establish a fish farm a licence must be obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, which is issued after obtaining authorization of the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation. The licence must indicate the quantity of water permitted for water use, its source, inlet size and the method of drainage, as well as the authorization obtained from the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, including the conditions.
|Access to land and water|
According to Law No 124/1983, only brackish and marine water, and infertile land that is not suitable for agriculture, can be used in aquaculture. Water supply should be restricted to water from lakes and drains, and the use of fresh (i.e. irrigation) water is prohibited, although hatcheries established by the government are exempted from this rule. By Decree, the Ministry of Agriculture may specify areas for fish farming.
Presidential Decree No 465/1983 describes the powers and duties of GAFRD, including the right to lease all lands within 200 m of shorelines for aquaculture and fisheries activity. In addition, Decision No. 70/1986 deals with the renting of land allocated by the GAFRD for the establishment of fish culture and hatcheries. A Committee of the Authority is responsible for defining areas suitable for fish farming and hatcheries, and for dividing them into economic units for leasing. Rental value should take into account the capacity of production, location, and availability of public utilities. Land is to be rented by public auction unless:
- Rental is to government bodies, public companies or legal persons.
- Projects are large, and have been proved economically feasible.
- Where no bids are received, or bids are below the rentable value.
- Where existing leases are in operation at the introduction of the decision.
The period of lease is to be five years, with 20 percent of the annual rent paid as deposit, and non-refundable in case of breach of conditions. The GAFRD may revoke the lease with two weeks written notice.
Law No 4/1994
concerning the environment provides for the creation of the Egyptian Environment Affairs Agency (EEAA). The Act states that new establishments or projects as well as expansions or renovations of existing establishments must be subject to an EIA. The EIA should be submitted to the Competent Administrative Authority (CAA), under which jurisdiction the establishment or project falls. The CAA assesses the EIA and sends a copy to the EEAA for review. Subsequently, the CAA issues the licence. The Act is implemented by Executive Regulation No 338/1995
, which identifies the establishments and projects that must be subjected to an EIA based upon four basic standards, namely: the type of activity, location of the project, exploitation of natural resources and the type of energy used in the operation.
To address the demands of processing EIAs and creating a uniform structure for the submitted EIAs, the EEAA has developed Guidelines for Egyptian Environmental Impact Assessment , which describe in detail the procedures for the preparation of an EIA. The approach adopted in the Guidelines depends on the classification of projects into the following three categories reflecting increasing levels of EIA according to the severity of possible environmental impacts:
- White list projects with minor environmental impacts.
- Grey list projects which may have substantial impacts and may require a scoped EIA.
- Black list projects which require a full fledged EIA due to their potential severe impacts.
The Guidelines include two screening forms, form A for white list projects and form B for grey list projects. For grey list projects the EEAA may require a scoped EIA which scope is defined by the EEAA on the basis of the information presented in form B. The Guidelines include a general outline of the content of a full EIA report, as well as sectoral guidelines that define the content of EIA reports for establishments that need full EIA.
Reportedly, fisheries projects belong to the grey list, which requires fish farmers to fill in form B. However, fish farms situated in ecologically sensitive areas such as protected areas, or in urban areas, may be considered black list projects and require a full fledged EIA study.
Law No 48/1982
|Water and wastewater|
prohibits the discharge into the Nile River, irrigation canals, drains, lakes and groundwater without a licence issued by the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation. However, Law No 48/1982 is only applicable to inland waters. Law No 4/1994 concerning the environment deals with seawater pollution from ships and prohibits the discharge of materials that cause pollution into coastal water and seawater from land based sources, unless a licence has been issued by the EEAA.
Under both laws, licences can be issued only for the discharge of effluents that meet government standards and each licence should specify the allowed quantity and quality to be discharged. Licence holders should provide suitable and adequate units for waste treatment. Licences can be revoked under certain conditions. If, for example, the pollution level of a licenced discharge increases and the facility fails to install appropriate treatment within a certain period, the licence can be revoked. Law No 4/1994 may require an EIA to be carried out.
Law No 124/1983 generally prohibits to dispose any industrial wastes, insecticides, and other poisonous and radioactive materials in the Egyptian waters.
Act No 124/1983 prohibits the collection and removal from the sea, lakes or other water bodies of fish fry (i.e. young or newly hatched fishes) without a permit issued by GAFRD. In addition, it is not allowed to introduce non-indigenous species into the country, except with permission from GAFRD.
There is no information on specific provisions on fish disease control.
Law No 4/1994 generally prohibits the handling (including the collection and storage, transportation, treatment and disposal) of hazardous substances, which include pesticides, fertilizers and pharmaceutical substances, unless a permit has been issued by the competent body according to the type and use of hazardous substance and waste.
There is no information on specific provisions on the use of fish feed.
Provisions on food safety are related to the export of aquaculture products to the European Union (EU). Ministerial Decree No 1909/2001
addresses the conditions and measures for the export of fish and marine products to the EU. The Decree was amended by Joint Ministerial Decree No 2397/2002
, which cancels the possibility to use hyperchlorinated water in fish products. Decree No 1909/2001 includes some provisions on the establishment and implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system, veterinary drugs, potable water quality, cooking of bivalve molluscs and crustaceans, parasites control, on aquaculture and freshwater fisheries. In addition, Ministerial Decree 63/2002
states that all structures operating in fish export to the EU must obtain authorization of the General Authority for Veterinary Services (falling under the Ministry of Agriculture). The Authority carries out inspections and takes samples for laboratory analysis.
|Aquaculture investment |Law No 8/1997
on investment guarantees and incentives (as implemented by Decision No 2108/1997
, as amended in 1998 and 2000) outlines the purposes of investment projects in Egypt, both domestic and foreign in origin. The Law is applicable to all establishments whose activities include – inter alia – fish production. Decision No 2108/1997 specifies fish production into fishing activities and the development of fish breeding ponds. Establishments that wish to be eligible to the guarantees and incentives under the Law must apply to the General Authority for Investment and Free Zones (one-stop-shop regime). More information on investments in Egypt can be obtained at http://www.gafinet.org/
Decision No. 70/1986 (Copy not available)
Presidential Decree No 190/1983 (Copy not available)
Presidential Decree No 465/1983 (Copy not available)
El Gayar, Omar, F.Aquaculture in Egypt and Issues for Sustainable Development. Aquaculture Economics & Management (7/12) 2003Country profiles: Egypt