The basic statutes governing the fisheries sector are the Fisheries (Consolidation) Act (1959) and the Fisheries Act (1980). Both statutes have been substantially amended over the years and implemented by numerous regulations. The main legal instrument governing the licensing and control of the aquaculture industry is the Fisheries (Amendment) Act (1997), which prohibits persons from engaging in aquaculture unless a license has been obtained, establishes a procedure for the granting, renewal, amendment and revocation of licenses, and allows for appeals against decisions relating to licenses. The Fisheries (Amendment) Act (1997) has been further amended by the Fisheries (Amendment) Act (2001). Also relevant to aquaculture are the Foreshore Act (1933) , the Foreshore (Amendment) Act (1992) and the Fisheries and Foreshore (Amendment) Act (1998) , which require aquaculture project developers to obtain a foreshore licence before occupying or undertaking any works or placing structures on state-owned foreshore for the purpose of, inter alia, aquaculture. The foreshore is defined as the seabed and shore below the line of high water of ordinary or medium tides and extends outwards to the limit of 12 nautical miles.
Responsibility for the regulation of aquaculture at the national level is divided among a number of government departments and their executive agencies. The principal responsibility lies with the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources (DCMNR). Within DCMNR, the Aquaculture Policy Division is responsible for the strategic, economic and sustainable development of the aquaculture sector, as well as the broad regulation of it, within the framework of the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union (EU) and the Fisheries (Amendment) Act (1997). Key functions include policy formulation and targeted investment support for aquaculture under both the Operational Program for Fisheries (1994–1999) and more recently, the National Development Plan (2000–2006), the establishment of a national fish health policy framework and the pursuit of measures and action at EU and national level beneficial to the sector. The Inland Fisheries Division is responsible for the formulation and implementation of policy in relation to the conservation, protection, management and development of inland fisheries. The aquaculture policy and development functions are exercised separately from the licensing, monitoring and enforcement of aquaculture activities, which are handled by the Coastal Zone Management Division (CZMD). The CZMD, the Aquaculture Policy Division and the Inland Fisheries Division consult and advise each other regularly on matters relating to their respective remits.
The Central Fisheries Board (CFB), established under the Fisheries Act (1980), is a statutory body, operating under the aegis of DCMNR, responsible for inland fisheries. The composition and functions of the CFB, as well as the regional boards, have been amended by the Fisheries (Amendment) Act (1999). Principal functions of the CFB include, inter alia, the provision of coordination, specialist and support services to or for regional boards as are necessary for the efficient performance by the regional boards of their functions, the coordination and consultation with the regional boards on the preparation and regular review of national inland fisheries development plans and undertaking the efficient and effective management, conservation, protection, development and improvement of any fishery, hatchery or fish farm in its possession or occupation in accordance with the directions, if any, of the Minister. The Fisheries (Amendment) Act (2000) allows the CFB, for so long and subject to such conditions as it shall determine, to place any fishery, hatchery or fish farm under the management of a regional board.
The Irish Sea Fisheries Board (BIM), established under the Sea Fisheries Act (1952), is the state agency with responsibility for developing the sea fishing and aquaculture industries. The policies and programmes to pursue this mission are determined by the Board of BIM and are set out within the framework of the National Development Plan (2000–2006), EU policies and available resources. A primary objective of BIM policy is to expand the volume, quality and value of output from the sea fishing and aquaculture sectors. BIM provides a range of services including advisory, financial, technical, marketing and training supports to all sectors of the Irish seafood industry. Finally, the Marine Institute, established under the Marine Institute Act (1991), undertakes, coordinates, promotes and assists in marine research and development and provides services related to marine research and development. The Institute is directly involved in aquaculture in both a monitoring and advisory role.
On behalf of FSA, DCMNR and the Marine Institute implement the Shellfish Biotoxin Monitoring Programme in accordance with Council Directive 91/492/EEC to monitor shellfish harvesting areas for the presence of toxins produced by some species of marine phytoplankton. The details of the Programme are outlined in a Code of Practice on Marine Biotoxins , which includes information on how shellfish samples are to be collected, analysed, reported and the procedures for opening/closing production areas.
Ireland is a member country of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). In particular relevant to the aquaculture sector is the ICES Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms . This Code sets forth recommended procedures and practices to diminish the risks of detrimental effects from the intentional introduction and transfer of marine (including brackishwater) organisms. It applies to public (commercial and governmental), private, and scientific interests including introductions into closed containment. ICES member countries contemplating new introductions are requested to present to the ICES Council a detailed prospectus on the rationale and plan for any new introduction of a marine (brackish) species. The contents of the prospectus are detailed in Appendix A to the Code. If any introduction or transfer proceeds following approval, ICES requests member countries to keep the Council informed about it.
In addition, the EU is a member of the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO). Particularly relevant to the aquaculture sector is the Resolution by the Parties to the Convention for the Conservation of Salmon in the North Atlantic Ocean to Minimise Impacts from Aquaculture, Introductions and Transfers, and Transgenic on Wild Salmon Stocks (2003). It is also a party to the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention), which has direct implications for marine aquaculture. Under the Convention, the Paris Commission (PARCOM) issued Recommendation 94/6 on Best Environmental Practice (BEP) for the Reduction of Inputs of Potentially Toxic Chemicals from Aquaculture .
Finally, Ireland is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It ratified both the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Biosafety Protocol.
The official application form, including the abovementioned documents, must be submitted to CZMD, which will acknowledge receipt in writing and instruct the applicant to publish in a local newspaper a notice of the application as prescribed in the Aquaculture (License Application) Regulations (1998). Applicants will be informed as soon as possible in writing by CZMD of the decision to grant or refuse the application. Any person aggrieved by a decision made by CZMD in relation to an application for an aquaculture licence or the review or renewal or revocation of an aquaculture licence may appeal the decision to the Aquaculture Licences Appeals Board as established by the Fisheries (Amendment) Act (1997). An appeal must be made within one month after the date of publication of the decision. The appeal procedures do not cover applications for trial licences or foreshore licences. The Aquaculture Licensing Appeals (Fees) Regulations (1998) prescribe the fees payable to the Board in relation to appeals. The Fisheries (Amendment) Act, 1997 (Section 23) Regulations (1998) prescribe the organisations from whom the Minister may appoint members to the Board.
The Fisheries (Amendment) Act (1997) specifies the following criteria to be taken into account by CZMD in making licensing decisions, as may be appropriate in the circumstances of the particular case:
Aquaculture licenses are valid for the period specified in the license, which cannot exceed 20 years, and may be renewed upon expiration of that period. Trial licenses are valid for the period specified in the license, which, in the case of salmon farming, cannot exceed one year, and, in all other cases, three years. Trial licenses cannot be renewed. CZMD has developed "Guidance Notes for applicants for Aquaculture Licenses and Foreshore Licenses " that provide assistance in the application process.
The act requires permission of the planning authority in respect of any development of land that is not specifically exempted under the law. The development of land for the purpose of aquaculture is not exempted and thus requires permission (as opposed to the development of land for the purpose of agriculture). When making its decision in relation to an application for permission, the planning authority shall be restricted to considering the proper planning and sustainable development of the area and take into account, inter alia, the provisions of the development plan and, where relevant, the policy of the Government, the Minister or any other Minister of the Government. The act further requires that permission be obtained from a planning authority in relation to development on the foreshore in circumstances where, were such development carried out, it would adjoin the functional area of a planning authority, or any reclaimed land adjoining such functional area. Such permission is in addition to that required under the Foreshore Acts.
Also having significant implications for aquaculture operations is the selection of areas of terrestrial and aquatic environments which merit legal protection under various EU Directives and national statutes. Responsible for the selection and the monitoring of the conservation status of protected areas and species is National Parks and Wildlife (NPW), being a division within DEHLG. The most important conservation legislation concerning aquaculture are the Wildlife Act (1967), as amended by the Wildlife (Amendment) Act (2000), the European Communities (Conservation of Wild Birds) Regulations (1985) and the European Communities (Natural Habitats) Regulations (1997), as amended by the European Communities (Natural Habitats) (Amendment) Regulations (1998). These pieces of legislation provide for the designation of Natural Heritage Areas (NHAs), Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Special Protected Areas (SPAs). All these areas include significant amounts of foreshore and freshwater bodies and are of direct interest to aquaculture operations.
NHAs are areas that are important to the conservation of wildlife and nature. Some NHAs are in coastal areas where aquaculture operations already exist, or in areas suitable for future development of aquaculture. Their importance is widely recognized and many are listed for protection in local development plans. SACs are a selection of those parts of NHAs that meet the criteria listed in the Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (Habitats Directive). SACs are protected sites for certain natural habitats and listed species of flora and fauna. SPAs are another group of sites which are protected in order to comply with Council Directive 79/409/EEC on the conservation of wild birds (Wild Birds Directive), which provides for the protection of listed rare/vulnerable species and regularly occurring migratory birds.
The management plans that have been or are being developed for designated SPAs with existing aquaculture or potential for future aquaculture development contain specific Aquaculture Zone Management Plans (AZMPs). These AZMPs, which may also be applied to SACs, are subject to public consultation and divide the relevant areas into four sub-zones. Highly Sensitive Zones (Zone W) are the most sensitive areas within SPAs relevant to the species for which the area was designated. Aquaculture will not be allowed to develop in these areas. Sensitive Zones (Zone X) are areas where aquaculture and wildlife may co-exist subject to conditions. Expansion of existing operations or new aquaculture applications will be considered on a case by case basis. Less Sensitive Zones (Zone Y) are areas that are included inside an SPA/SAC and which have low usage by the species for which it was designated. In such areas the regulation of aquaculture will be in line with the licensing legislation of DCMNR. Finally, External Influence Zones (Zone Z) relate to areas that are on the edge of designated SACs/SPAs but where aquaculture activity may still have an effect on the designated area through noise levels or access routes etc. Some regulations may apply to these areas. They will be considered on a case by case basis.
The requirement of an EIS in respect of seawater salmonid breeding installations stems from the European Communities (Environmental Impact Assessment) Regulations (1989) , which seek to implement Council Directive 85/337/EEC on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. However, the Regulations of 1989 have been amended by the European Communities (Environmental Impact Assessment) (Amendment) Regulations (1999) , which implement Council Directive 97/11/EC (amending Directive 85/337/EEC). Among other things, the Regulations (1999) re-state and extend the provisions relating to the classes of development which require an EIS. With regard to aquaculture (First Schedule, Part II), an EIS is required for all seawater fish breeding installations with an output which would exceed 100 tonnes per annum, all fish breeding installations consisting of cage rearing in lakes, all fish breeding installations upstream of drinking water intakes and other freshwater fish breeding installations which would exceed one million smolts and with less than one cubic metre per second per one million smolts low flow diluting water. Additionally, an EIS is required for installations for packing and canning of animal products, where the capacity for processing raw materials would exceed 100 tonnes per day, and for all fish-meal and fish-oil factories.
Council Directive 79/923/EEC on the quality required of shellfish waters requires member states to designate certain areas as needing protection or improvement in order to contribute to a high quality of shellfish products. Member states must establish programmes for reducing pollution to ensure that designated waters comply with defined standards. The Directive has been implemented by the Quality of Shellfish Waters Regulations (1994) , which prescribe quality standards for shellfish waters and designate the waters to which they apply, together with sampling and analysis procedures to be used to determine compliance with the standards. The Regulations have been amended by the Quality of Shellfish Waters (Amendment) Regulations (2001) , which require the preparation and implementation of action programmes in respect of all designated shellfish waters.
Under the Environmental Protection Agency Act (1992), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) exercises general supervision over the monitoring activities of local authorities and other public bodies. The act also introduced the Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) system, whereby the licensing function became a duty of EPA for certain classes of industrial, process and agricultural activities, while others remained within the remit of the local authorities. Recently, the IPC system was replaced by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) system in order to implement Council Directive 96/61/EC concerning integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC Directive). This Directive has been transposed into Irish law with the enactment of the Protection of the Environment Act (2003). One of the most significant changes to the licensing system is the number of additional activities that have been added to the list of activities that require a licence from EPA. These activities include the treatment and processing of animal products and food production but do not include aquaculture operations.
Council Directive 76/464/EEC on pollution caused by certain dangerous substances discharged into the aquatic environment of the Community is a framework directive that defines principles to protect the aquatic environment from pollution caused by substances that are persistent, toxic and/or accumulate in aquatic biota. The groups and families of substances of concern are listed in an Annex to the Directive. Member States are required to take appropriate action to eliminate pollution by List I substances considered to be the most pernicious and to reduce pollution by List II substances. Some chemicals used in marine fish farming fall within the List II definition. The Directive is implemented by a series of Regulations under the Local Government (Water Pollution) Acts, prescribing water quality standards in relation to certain substances in surface waters such as rivers, lakes, tidal waters.
EPA is also the authority responsible for granting and enforcing licences for significant waste disposal under the Waste Management Act (1996), as amended by the Waste Management (Amendment) Act (2001). The acts have been implemented by the Waste Management (Licensing) Regulations (2004) , which set out procedures for the making of waste licence applications to EPA. Waste facilities not licensable by EPA may be subject to other regulatory control, which may include approval of a Local Authority.
The Marine Environment Division, being part of the Maritime Safety Directorate within DCMNR, is responsible for the preservation and protection of the quality of the marine environment through prevention of marine pollution from vessels and ensuring efficient and effective response to marine pollution incidents. The Sea Pollution Act (1991), as amended by the Sea Pollution (Amendment) Act (1999), aims to prevent the pollution of the sea by oil and other substances. Additionally, the Dumping at Sea Act (1996) places restrictions at dumping at sea of, inter alia, substances or materials in the maritime area.
Finally, Ireland is in the process of implementing Council Directive 2000/60/EC establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (Water Framework Directive). The purpose of this Directive is, inter alia, to establish a framework for the protection of inland surface waters, transitional (estuarial) waters, coastal waters and groundwater in order to prevent further deterioration and to protect and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems. The Water Framework Directive will also replace several existing Directives. Among others, in 2013 Directives 79/923/EEC and 76/464/EEC will be repealed.
The Aquaculture Policy Division within DCMNR is responsible for the issuance of movement documents. It also requires aquaculture operators to record the incidence of escape reared salmon or trout from freshwater (hatcheries, lake cages, ponds etc.) and marine holding facilities and to report escapees which occur during transport or transfer between installations as well as losses of fish during harvesting and cage maintenance.
The Regulations require the Minister to establish and maintain a register of all farms rearing or keeping fish susceptible to List I or List II diseases. The farms are obliged to keep records containing all information relating to the delivery of aquaculture animals and products, including their number or weight, their size, their source and their suppliers, as well as all information relating to aquaculture animals and products leaving the farm, including information relating to their dispatch, their number or weight, their size and their destination. Information should also be recorded on observed mortalities. Records shall be kept for a period of four years. In addition, several Schedules to the Regulations prescribe detailed steps to be taken by the farms and by the Minister as soon as fish on a farm are suspected or officially confirmed of being infected with a disease. They include, inter alia, the placing under surveillance of suspected or infected farms, carrying out investigations, the destruction of aquaculture animals and products where necessary, and cleaning and disinfection operations. Health inspections may also be required in relation to other farms situated in the water catchment area or in the coastal zone in which the infected farm is situated.
The competent authority for approval of medicines is the Irish Medicines Board (except for vaccines where the Minister for Agriculture and Food is the competent authority) under the Irish Medicines Board Act (1995) . All animal remedies are required to be authorised by either the Irish Medicines Board or by the Minister for Agriculture and Food as appropriate. Animal remedies may only be used in accordance with the conditions attached to the product authorisation. All premises involved in the wholesale or retail sale require to be licensed by the Minister for Agriculture and Food (with the exception of pharmacies and veterinary surgeons professional practices).
The Pesticide Control Service (PCS) of the Department of Agriculture and Food is responsible for implementing the regulatory system for plant protection products under the European Communities (Prohibition of Certain Active Substances in Plant Protection Products) Regulations (1981, as amended) as well as biocidal products (including disinfectants, preservatives, pest control products, anti-foulants etc.) under the European Communities (Authorization, Placing on the Market, Use and Control of Biocidal Products) Regulations (2001). PCS is also responsible for the classification, packaging and labelling of plant protection and biocidal products under the European Communities (Classification, Packaging and Labelling of Plant Protection Products and Biocidal Products) Regulations (2001).
The European Communities (Animal Remedies and Medicated Feeding stuffs) Regulations (1994) implement Council Directive 90/167/EEC laying down conditions governing the preparation, placing on the Market and use of medicated feeding stuffs in the Community. The regulations provide for the control of the manufacture, availability and use of medicated feeding stuffs. The activities of manufacture, distribution and sale of medicated feeding stuffs and intermediate products for the manufacture thereof is subject to licensing by the Minister of Agriculture and Food. The use of medicated feeding stuffs is prohibited save under and in accordance with the terms of a veterinary written direction.
The European Communities (Approval and Registration of Establishments and Intermediaries operating in the Animal Feed Sector) Regulations (1999) lay down the conditions and arrangements for approving and registering certain establishments and intermediaries in the animal feed sector. They implement Council Directive 95/69/EC laying down the conditions and arrangements for approving and registering certain establishments and intermediaries operating in the animal feed sector (as amended). In addition, the European Communities (Animal Nutrition Inspections) Regulations (2003) lay down conditions and arrangements for official inspections in the field of animal nutrition. These Regulations give effect to Council Directive 95/53/EC fixing the principles governing the organization of official inspections in the field of animal nutrition (as amended).
The Service Contract with DCMNR, which shall be in force for a period from the commencement date until 31 December 2005, stipulates that DCMNR shall carry out in its functional area on behalf of and as an agent for the FSA:
Furthermore, a person shall not operate a dispatch centre or a purification centre unless the centre has been approved by the Minister of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources under the process set out in the Regulations. Provision is made for the designation of production areas and their approval, the operation of laboratories and their official approval. Under the Regulations a person shall not operate a laboratory for use by a person operating a dispatch centre or a purification centre unless the laboratory has been approved by the Minister. The Regulations (2000) allow the Minister to prohibit the production or harvesting of live bivalve molluscs from a designated area or any other area of the sea which the Minister considers is unsuitable for these activities for health reasons.
The European Communities (Fishery Products) (Health Conditions and Hygiene Rules for Production and Placing on the Market) Regulations (1996) give effect to Council Directive 91/493/EEC laying down the health conditions for the production and placing on the market of fishery products (as amended by Council Directive 95/71/EC and 97/79/EC). A person may not engage in activities associated with the placing on the market of fishery products for human consumption unless the premises from which the activities are undertaken consist of an establishment or factory vessel approved or an auction market or wholesale market registered pursuant to the Regulations. The conditions for official approval are set out in the Regulations. A person responsible for an establishment must carry out a system of own checks (HACCP). Conditions applicable to factory vessels, requirements during and after landing, conditions for establishments on land, handling fishery products on shore, health control and monitoring of production conditions, packaging, identification marks, storage and transport are set out in Annex 1 of the Directive.
The labelling of aquaculture products is regulated by the European Communities (Labelling of Fishery and Aquaculture Products) Regulations (2003) , which give effect to Council Regulation (EC) 104/2000 on the common organisation of the markets in fishery and aquaculture products and Commission Regulation (EC) 2065/2001, which lays down the conditions for informing consumers about fishery and aquaculture products. The Regulations set out specific information which must be included on the label of, inter alia, aquaculture products offered for retail sale to the final consumer. Details such as the common or commercial name, the production method and the catch area must be indicated. A list of the commercial designations of fish and fishery products which may be sold in Ireland is included in a Schedule to the Regulations. Fish that is exported from Ireland must be labelled with the common name of the fish in the country to which the fish is exported. The Regulations apply to live or raw shellfish, such as oysters or mussels, raw or cooked whole prawns and shrimps, live fish, fresh, chilled or frozen fish, fillets of fish, smoked fish, salted and dried products. Processed products such as breaded fillets, crab sticks or ready-to-eat dishes are not covered by the Regulations. Fish purchased directly from a fisherman or fish farmer in small quantities, up to a value of €20 are not subject to the Regulations. The FSA has published a "Guidance Note on the Labelling of Fish and Aquaculture Products ", which explains the details of the Regulations on the labelling of fishery and aquaculture products.
A multitude of regulations at both Community level and national level regulate the control of residues of chemicals, veterinary drugs and other undesirable substances in animal products. The permitted residue levels for veterinary medicinal products in foodstuffs of animal origin are set out in Council Regulation (EEC) 2377/90 establishing community procedures for fixing maximum limits for veterinary drug residues in foodstuffs of animal origin (as amended on numerous occasions). The Control of Animal Remedies and their Residues Regulations (1998) stipulate that animals or foods which have been treated, either with a prohibited substance or illegally treated with an authorised product are deemed to be unfit for human consumption. The Regulations provide for the destruction of animals in such cases. The Regulations also provide for the registration of persons engaged in trade in animals and for measures to be taken by processors to assure consumers that animals and meat are free of illegal residues. As part of a service contract with the FSA, the Department of Agriculture and Food administers a national residues monitoring plan as required by the Regulations. The Plan is designed to safeguard consumers from illegal residues and therefore the samples are generally taken in accordance with criteria designed to target animals or products which are more likely to contain illegal residues.
Finally, the Pesticides Control Service (PCS) of the Department of Agriculture and Food is responsible for the control of pesticide residues in food, inter alia, under the European Communities (Pesticide Residues) (Foodstuffs of Animal Origin) Regulations (1999) . As part of a service contract with the FSA, PCS implements a national monitoring programme to control pesticide residues.
The Irish aquaculture industry receives aid from the EU under the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG). FIFG operates under Council Regulation (EC) 2792/1999 laying down the detailed rules and arrangements regarding Community structural assistance in the fisheries sector. FIFG supports investments in the fisheries sector, including aquaculture private production projects. A financial participation from the private investor is generally requested, which can range between 40 percent and 60 percent of the total investment according to the area. FIFG also allows for the financing of measures which aim to create a favourable environment for the industry to develop itself. For instance, pilot projects aiming to establish and distribute technical and economic knowledge on new species or technologies may be eligible for aid. FIFG also finances measures to find and promote new markets for aquaculture products. This may include, inter alia, operations associated with quality certification, product labelling, and product standardization and promotion campaigns. In Ireland, most FIFG actions are carried out within the framework of the National Development Plan (2000–2006).GMOs
The financial programme under FIFG covers the period 2000 to 2006. It is currently expected that FIFG will be succeeded by the European Fisheries Fund (EFF) to provide aid to fisheries from 2007 to 2013. EFF will target four priority areas, aquaculture, processing and marketing being one of them. Shellfish farmers, temporarily unable to harvest their production due to unforeseen circumstances, will be eligible for EFF aid. The development and application of methods and practices that lessen the impact of aquaculture on the environment, the implementation of measures to promote hygiene and protect public health as well as initiatives to enhance marketing conditions of aquaculture products will be eligible for EFF aid. Priority will be given in these areas to projects that boost employment without encouraging over-investment. The focus will be on support for small enterprises. These objectives will also guide funding to the processing and marketing of fisheries and aquaculture products.
There are presently two main areas of potential application of GMO technologies in aquaculture. The first is the use of GMO vegetable products in fish feed and the use of Gomes in medicines and pharmaceuticals, and the second application is the use of GMO technologies (more specifically, transgenic) in breeding fish for commercial aquaculture use. Although there are currently no fish farming projects known that involve the use of GMOs, reportedly research on genetic material to be inserted in transgenic salmon has been carried out. DEHLG, along with EPA, is responsible for the environmental aspects of GM technology. The animal feed section of the Department of Agriculture and Food regulates GM feed and the use of GMOs in medicines and pharmaceuticals is the responsibility of the Irish Medicines Board. FSA is the competent authority for GM foods. Existing legislation on Gomes includes the Genetically Modified Organisms Regulations (1994), as amended by the Genetically Modified Organisms (Amendment) Regulations (1997) and the Genetically Modified Organisms (Contained Use) Regulations (2001) . The Regulations provide for various procedural matters in relation to the contained use, deliberate release and placing on the market of GMOs.
At Community level, recent legislation on Gomes and GM food and feed includes Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms, and Regulation (EC) 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on genetically modified food and feed. The latter provides for the assessment, authorisation and marketing of GM food and feed. Authorisation requires the preparation of a dossier setting out the reports of studies undertaken to demonstrate the efficacy of the product and its safety for animals, humans and the environment. The assessment of the dossier is then undertaken by the European Food Safety Authority. Products considered acceptable for both food and feed use are authorised under a Community procedure involving all Member States subject if necessary to specified conditions of use. The labelling provisions are intended to provide harmonized, objective information for the consumer. A threshold has also been set below which food and feed containing adventitious or technically unavoidable traces of genetically modified material are not subject to the labelling provisions. Provision is made for the establishment of a register, to which the public will have access, containing non-confidential information on GM foods marketed in the Community.
Also relevant is Regulation (EC) 1830/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the traceability and labelling of genetically modified organisms and the traceability of food and feed products produced from genetically modified organisms. The Regulation aims to harmonize Community labelling procedures and risk management measures. Each operator within the chain must implement a system for recording the operators from whom they purchased GMO products and the operators to whom they supplied such products. However, when adventitious or unintentional contamination occurs in a food or feed below the thresholds established in Regulation 1829/2003 or Directive 2001/18, notification of each operator in the supply chain will not be necessary.
European Communities (Approval and Registration of Establishments and Intermediaries operating in the Animal Feed Sector) Regulations (1999)
European Communities (Aquaculture Animals and Fish) (Placing on the Market and Control of Certain Diseases) Regulations (1996)
European Communities (Aquaculture Animals and Fish) (Placing on the Market and Control of Certain Diseases) Regulations (2000)
European Communities (Authorization, Placing on the Market, Use and Control of Biocide Products) Regulations (2001)
European Communities (Classification, Packaging and Labelling of Plant Protection Products and Biocide Products) Regulations (2001)
European Communities (Fishery Products) (Health Conditions and Hygiene Rules for Production and Placing on the Market) Regulations (1996)
European Communities (Live Bivalve Molluscs) (Health Conditions for Production and Placing on the Market) Regulations (1996)
European Communities (Live Bivalve Molluscs) (Health Conditions for Production and placing on the market) (Amendment) Regulations (2000)
European Communities (Prohibition of Certain Active Substances in Plant Protection Products) Regulations (1981)
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 76/464/EEC of 4 May 1976 on pollution caused by certain dangerous substances discharged into the aquatic environment of the Community
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 79/409/EEC of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 79/923/EEC of 30 October 1979 on the quality required of shellfish waters
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 85/337/EEC of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 90/167/EEC of 26 March 1990 laying down the conditions governing the preparation, placing on the market and use of medicated feeding stuffs in the Community
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 91/67/EEC of 28 January 1991 concerning the animal health conditions governing the placing on the market of aquaculture animals and products
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 91/492/EEC of 15 July 1991 laying down the health conditions for the production and the placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 91/493/EEC of 22 July 1991 laying down the health conditions for the production and placing on the market of fishery products
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/53/EEC of 24 June 1993 introducing minimum Community measures for the control of certain fish diseases
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/54/EC of 24 June 1993 amending Directive 91/67/EEC concerning the animal health conditions governing the placing on the market of aquaculture animals and products
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 95/22/EC of 22 June 1995 amending Directive 91/67/EEC concerning the animal health conditions governing the placing on the market of aquaculture animals and products
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 95/53/EC of 25 October 1995 fixing the principles governing the organization of official inspections in the field of animal nutrition
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 95/69/EC of 22 December 1995 laying down the conditions and arrangements for approving and registering certain establishments and intermediaries operating in the animal feed sector and amending Directives 70/524/EEC, 74/63/EEC, 79/373/EEC and 82/471/EEC
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 95/71/EC of 22 December 1995 amending the Annex to Directive 91/493/EEC laying down the health conditions for the production and the placing on the market of fishery products
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 96/61/EC of 24 September 1996 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 97/11/EC of 3 March 1997 amending DIRECTIVE 85/337/EEC of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 97/61/EC of 20 October 1997 amending the Annex to Directive 91/492/EEC of 15 July 1991 laying down the health conditions for the production and the placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 97/79/EC of 18 December 1997 amending Directives 71/118/EEC, 72/462/EEC, 85/73/EEC, 91/67/EEC, 91/492/EEC, 91/493/EEC, 92/45/EEC and 92/118/EEC as regards the organisation of veterinary checks on products entering the Community from third countries
COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 98/45/EC of 24 June 1998 amending Directive 91/67/EEC concerning the animal health conditions governing the placing on the market of aquaculture animals and products
DIRECTIVE 2001/18/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 12 March 2001 on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms and repealing Council Directive 90/220/EEC
DIRECTIVE 2002/32/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 7 May 2002 on undesirable substances in animal feed
DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy
COUNCIL REGULATION (EEC) 2377/90 of 26 June 1993 establishing community procedures for fixing maximum limits for veterinary drug residues in foodstuffs of animal origin
COUNCIL REGULATION 2309/93/EEC of 22 July 1993 laying down Community procedures for the authorisation and supervision of medicinal products for human and veterinary use and establishing a European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products
COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) 2792/1999 of 17 December 1999 laying down the detailed rules and arrangements regarding Community structural assistance in the fisheries sector
COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) 104/2000 of 17 December 1999 on the common organisation of the markets in fishery and aquaculture products
REGULATION (EC) 1829/2003 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 22 September 2003 on genetically modified food and feed
REGULATION (EC) 1830/2003 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 22 September 2003 concerning the traceability and labelling of genetically modified organisms and the traceability of food and feed products produced from genetically modified organisms and amending Directive 2001/18/EC
COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) 2065/2001 of 22 October 2001 laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) 104/2000 as regards informing consumers about fishery and aquaculture products
Irish Salmon Growers Association (ISGA)
Irish Shellfish Association (ISA)
Irish Trout Growers Group (ITGG)
McMahon, T. 2000. Regulation and monitoring of marine aquaculture in Ireland. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 16(4-5): 177-181.