The main authority in the field of fisheries and aquaculture is the Ministry of Agriculture and Forest Policies (Ministero delle Politiche Agricole e Forestali), Directorate-General for Fisheries and Aquaculture (Direzione Generale per la Pesca e l'Acquacoltura – PESC). The responsibilities of the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport (Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti) in this matter are limited to the granting of concessions for the establishment of aquaculture facilities on maritime and inland State property, in particular via the Directorate-General for Maritime and Inland Navigation Infrastructures (Direzione Generale per le Infrastrutture della Navigazione Marittima e Interna), operating within the Department of Navigation and Maritime Transport (Dipartimento per la Navigazione e il Trasporto Marittimo e Aereo).
In the context of the agricultural sector reform, initiated in 2001 as required by Law No.57 in 2001, Law No.154 of 2003 on the Modernization of the Fishery and Aquaculture Sector establishes the so-called "Blue Table" (Tavolo Azzurro), in charge of outlining the National Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy. The "Blue Table", which is coordinated by the Minister of Agriculture and Forest Policies, is composed of the following institutional and social parties:
From a constitutional point of view, fisheries and aquaculture, as well as agriculture in general, are considered as matters of regional legislative competence, whereas navigation, land management and environmental resources are topics of concurrent legislative competence, between Regions and Central Government. Consequently, State legislation ought to establish guidelines and basic principles only on the latter, while leaving the former to the regional autonomy. However, the recent reform process of the fisheries and aquaculture legislation is being carried out by the Central Government, as required by the Parliament with Law No.57 of 2001 on the Opening and Regulation of Markets (Legge 5 marzo 2001, No.57 recante Disposizioni in Materia di Apertura e Regolazione dei Mercati) and Law No.38 of 2003 on Agriculture (Legge 7 marzo 2003, No.38 recante Disposizioni in Materia di Agricoltura). Although the 2001 Law only concerns the establishment of guidelines for the modernization of the sector, the 2003 Law goes further, delegating the Government to reorganize the whole matter "possibly" in a single Code on Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture, within two years.
As a result, with reference to the 2001 Law, the Government issued Legislative Decree No.226 of 2001 laying down Guidelines on the Modernization of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector (Decreto Legislativo 18 maggio 2001, No.226 – Orientamento e Modernizzazione del Settore della Pesca e dell'Acquacoltura, a norma dell'articolo 7 della Legge 5 marzo 2001, No.57) and Legislative Decree No.228 of 2001 laying down Guidelines on the Modernization of the Agricultural Sector, (Decreto Legislativo 18 maggio 2001, No.228 – Orientamento e Modernizzazione del Settore Agricolo, a norma dell'articolo 7 della Legge 5 marzo 2001, No.57).
With regard to the 2003 Law, the Government issued Legislative Decree No.154 of 2004 on the Modernization of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector (Decreto Legislativo 26 maggio 2004, No.54 Modernizzazione del Settore Pesca e dell'Acquacoltura, a norma dell'articolo 1, comma 2, della legge 7 marzo 2003, No.38) and Legislative Decree No.153 of 2004 on Marine Fisheries (Decreto Legislativo 26 maggio 2004, No.154 – Attuazione della Legge 7 marzo 2003, No.38, in Materia di Pesca Marittima), which also amend certain provisions of the previous set of Legislative Decrees.
One of the main changes made by the above mentioned legislation concern the definition of rural entrepreneur, which also include side activities (attività connesse) of the entrepreneur, such as the processing, conservation and trade of fish products, as well as the associations and consortia of rural entrepreneurs. Aquaculture farmers and fishery entrepreneurs are considered as rural entrepreneurs as explained in the next paragraph. This approach follows the path set by the Common Agriculture Policy and the Common Fisheries Policy of the EU. Concerning the latter, a reform is currently underway, which should draw the attention on three main aspects of aquaculture: employment, products quality and animal health, and environment.
Lastly, it is worth mentioning that, Italy may become the leading country in Europe for the development of organic aquaculture. Indeed, two draft laws, aiming to establish a national quality trademark, a system of certification authorities and control regulations, are currently being discussed in Parliament. The first draft law S.2483 (Disciplina dell' Acquacoltura Biologica – S.2483) was proposed on September 17th, 2003, whereas the second one C.5217 (Norme in Materia di Acquacoltura Biologica – C.5217) was presented on July 31st, 2004.
At Community level, organic agriculture is regulated by Council Regulation (EEC) No.2092/91 of 24 June 1991 on organic production of agricultural products and indications referring thereto on agricultural products and foodstuffs and Council Regulation (EC) No.1804/1999 of 19 July 1999 supplementing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 to include livestock production, which do not apply to aquaculture production and products. In fact, harmonization is not feasible until States actually develop national legislation on the matter, as required by the "Whereas" clauses of the 1999 Regulation.
The Law further considers aquaculture as a rural entrepreneurship when its yield is higher than that produced by other commercial activities carried out by the same person («[l]'attività di acquacoltura è considerata a tutti gli effetti attività imprenditoriale agricola quando i redditi che ne derivano sono prevalenti rispetto a quelli di altre attività economiche non agricole svolte dallo stesso soggetto»). This provision subjects aquaculture farmers to the legislation on rural entrepreneurship. Indeed, the Law provides that natural or legal persons, individuals or associations, conducting aquaculture and carrying out connected capture activities in fresh or brackish and marine waters are rural entrepreneurs, as defined in section 2135 of the Civil Code («[s]ono imprenditori agricoli, ai sensi dell'articolo 2135 del codice civile, i soggetti, persone fisiche o giuridiche, singoli o associati, che esercitano l'acquacoltura e le connesse attività di prelievo sia in acque dolci sia in acque salmastre e marine»).
Similarly, Legislative Decree No.226 of 2001 on the Modernization of the Fishery and Aquaculture Sector, as amended by Legislative Decree No.154 of 2004, gives a definition of fishery entrepreneur which includes him in the category of rural entrepreneur.
One of the most striking differences between commercial and rural entrepreneurs is that the latter is exempt from bankruptcy. However, due to a substantial enlargement of the category, consistent with the European integrated vision of agriculture that now includes activities from the secondary or tertiary sectors (attività connesse), this rule will very likely be amended .
For the sake of completeness, it is worth reporting the sections of the Italian Civil Code defining the categories of ordinary and rural entrepreneurship:
As reported in Commission Communication establishing a Strategy for the Sustainable Development of European Aquaculture (COM (2002) 511), «[r]egistration in the scheme requires an organisation to adopt an environmental policy containing commitments both to achieve continuous improvements in environmental performance and to comply with all relevant environmental legislation».
In addition, the Italian aquaculture sector is organized in several professional associations and cooperatives, putting forth the interests of aquaculture farmers in the political debate. The most important organizations at national level are:
Italy is also a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and has ratified both the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Biosafety Protocol.
It is worth noting that Italy and the EU are both parties to the Barcelona Convention of 1976 for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean. Although it does not explicitly cover aquaculture, said Convention is likely to allow the development of regulatory instruments, through the adoption of a Code of Conduct or the definition of Best Environmental Practices.
The Maritime Fisheries Law used to regulate maritime fisheries, including aquaculture, as stated in section 10 of the Regulation, where aquaculture is considered as professional fisheries. («Impianti di pesca: Pesca professionale è anche quella esercitata mediante lo stabilimento di apprestamenti fissi o mobili, temporanei o permanenti, destinati alla cattura di specie migratorie, alla pescicoltura e alla molluschicoltura ed allo sfruttamento di banchi sottomarini».) It seems therefore legitimate to still consider aquaculture as professional fisheries under the new law, at least until specific provisions are issued for aquaculture.
Thus, the procedures to obtain an authorization for the conduct of aquaculture accrue from the rules established for fishing. In particular, the Law provides that any person engaging in aquaculture – i.e. intending to establish an aquaculture plant (impianto di pesca) – is subject to registration in section 1 of the register of maritime fishermen (registro dei pescatori marittimi), and in section 5 of the register of fishery companies (imprese di pesca), both held by the Port Captainry (Capitaneria di Porto) where the person or company resides. Only professional fishermen that are registered at least in level 3 of the sea people roll (matricole della gente di mare) , kept by the same port administration, may be entered in the register of maritime fishermen, as aquaculture farmers.
Additionally, the Law requires a fishing permit (permesso di pesca) for the operation of vessels or aquaculture facilities, to be granted by the authority where the vessel or facility is registered. Indeed, prior to the application, vessels and other floating facilities (navi e galleggianti) must be registered with the competent office of the marittime compartment (uffici di compartimento marittimo) or with other authorities as established by the Minister of Infrastructure and Transport (Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti), and must be respectively qualified for navigation through the granting of a nationality document (atto di nazionalità) or a licence (licenza di navigazione).
Applications for the fishing permit must include the following:
In particular, access to the maritime State property (demanio marittimo) – which includes coasts, beaches, ports, lagoons, estuaries, brackish waters connected to the sea and public maritime canals – is managed by the maritime State administration (Direzioni Marittime, Compartimenti and Circondari), while access to inland waterbodies, especially to areas around ports serving inland navigation (zone portuali della navigazione interna), is managed by the inland waters State administration (Direzione Compartimentale della motorizzazione civile e dei trasporti in concessione, Ispettorati di Porto and Delegazioni di Approdo). In areas where no port authority (Ispettorato di Porto) is established, the Minister of Transport may confer the administration of inland navigation to the local Municipal Authority (Autorità Comunale).
State property concessions (concessioni demaniali) concerning the above mentioned areas for over 15 years are granted by decree of the Minister of Transport, whereas those not exceeding four years and not implying the construction of permanent or semi-permanent facilities (impianti di difficile sgombero) are issued by licence of the Chief of the Maritime Compartment (Capo del Compartimento Marittimo) – or of the Compartment Director (Direttore Compartimentale) for inland waters. Concessions lasting more than four years but less than 15, or less than four years, implying the construction of permanent or semi-permanent facilities, must be approved by decree of the Maritime Director (Direttore Marittimo) – or by the Chief of the Port Authority (Capo dell’Ispettorato di Porto) for inland waters. Maritime Compartments shall keep track of concessions granted in the area under their jurisdiction, in an ad hoc register. The annual concession fees (canoni) are established by the law.
According to the Regulation, applications, which must declare the intended use and duration of the concession, are to be lodged with the Chief of the competent Maritime Compartment. The following documentation shall be provided (exceptions can be made for licence applications):
Applications concerning major projects must be published in the town hall and might not be processed before the deadline for the presentation of comments by opponents. Oppositions are decided by the Minister of Transport.
Concessions shall contain the following information:
Concerning inland water areas where no Port Authority is established, for the management of which the Minister of Transport has empowered the local Municipal Authority, other kinds of authorizations may be required.
At local level, the establishment of on-shore facilities generally requires a construction concession (concessione edilizia), to be issued by the concerned Municipal Authority. Establishing an aquaculture farm in a State property area is hence subject to both the State property and the local construction concessions. In the region of Tuscany, which has among the most complex procedures for the granting of construction concessions, aquaculture facilities are considered as rural constructions (annessi agricoli), and concessions must be consistent with the regional and municipal land management plans (piani regolatori e urbanistici) .
Lastly, Royal Decree No.1604 of 1931 approving the Consolidated Text of the Fisheries Legislation empowers the Provincial Authority to grant concessions for the setting up of aquaculture facilities in areas surrounding public freshwater bodies, where the commercially valuable fish population is scarce or absent. Moreover, the conduct of aquaculture in rice field areas is subject to an annual authorization to be issued by the competent Provincial Authority. Unfortunately, a copy of Ministerial Decree of December 7th, 1957 regulating the Conduct of Aquaculture in Rice Field Areas (Decreto Ministeriale 7 dicembre 1957 recante la Disciplina per l'Esercizio dell'Industria della Piscicoltura Agricola nelle Zone di Risaia) could not be obtained.
Access to water is regulated by Law No.36 on Water Resources, 1994 (Legge Galli – Legge 5 gennaio 1994, No.36 recante Disposizioni in Materia di Risorse Idriche). The Law enacts a deep reform of water supply and sewerage services. The integrated water supply service is organized in Optimal Territorial Areas (Ambiti Territoriali Ottimali), to be identified by Regional Authorities according to geographical, demographic and administrative parameters, with a view to preserving river basins unity. The actual service is managed by Provincial and Municipal Authorities and may be provided by private entities. Charges for the use of water are determined by Local Authorities, according to the rules established by the Central Government. Concerning aquaculture, the Law provides for the annual water fee that shall be updated on a three-year basis.
Unfortunately, a copy of Ministerial Decree of January 14th, 1949 on the Concession of Public Waters for Aquaculture Purposes (Decreto Ministeriale 14 gennaio 1949 sulle Concessioni di Acque Pubbliche a Scopo di Piscicoltura) could not be obtained.
Hence, the main piece of legislation concerning this matter is Law No.349 of 1986 establishing the Ministry of Environment and regulating Environmental Damage (Legge 8 luglio 1986 n. 349 – Istituzione del Ministero dell'Ambiente e Norme in materia di Danno Ambientale), which provides for transitional procedural rules for the assessment of projects that are likely to significantly affect the environment. These shall be identified by Decree of the President of the Republic, upon proposition of the Ministry of Environment. The competent authority for the assessment at national level is the Ministry of Environment (Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio), Directorate-General for Environmental Protection (Direzione Generale per la Salvaguardia Ambientale). However, the procedure requires the opinion of the Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities (Ministero dei Beni e delle Attività Culturali) and of the concerned Regional Authority.
Moreover, Law No.67 of 1988 (Legge Finanziaria 11 marzo 1988, No.67) establishes an EIA Commission (Commissione VIA) with advisory and investigative functions, operating within the Service for Environmental Impact Assessment (Servizio Valutazione dell’Impatto Ambientale) of the Ministry.
Under the terms of Directive (EEC) No.337/1985, which allows Member States to designate the competent authority or authorities as responsible for the EIA process, the assessment of certain categories of projects may be carried out by Regional Authorities. By establishing guidelines for the regulation of EIA procedures by Regional Authorities, Decree of the President of the Republic of 12 April, 1996 has substantially implemented the Directive and made it applicable within said guidelines. Concerning aquaculture, the Decree provides that only projects of farms over 5 ha to be established, totally or partially, in a protected area are subject to EIA. However, projects to be developed outside protected areas are subject to a verification procedure, in order to determine whether an assessment is actually needed. Applications must be filed with the competent Regional Authority, jointly with a copy of the project and an environmental impact study. The latter shall provide at least the following information:
Regarding the environmental impact of plans and programmes (not policies), which are likely to have significant effects on the environment, European Parliament and Council Directive (EC) No.42/2001 on the Assessment of the Effects of Certain Plans and Programmes on the Environment provides for a specific procedure named Strategic Environmental Assessment (Valutazione Ambientale Strategica) in the Italian terminology. Fisheries and aquaculture plans and programmes are subject to the procedure. The directive has not yet been implemented in Italy.
The Decree sets minimum environmental quality objectives for main waterbodies, and quality objectives for waterbodies intended for specific purposes, including fish and molluscs life, to be met by 2016. In particular, it provides for the quality parameters and the methods of analysis concerning freshwaters for fish and coastal and brackish waters for shellfish. Deadlines are established for Regional Authorities to identify and classify waterbodies under their jurisdiction, according to the water quality classification defined in the Decree. This implies the identification of natural and artificial waterbodies suitable for fish and shellfish farming and those needing treatment to match the standards.
In order to meet the quality objectives set forth by the Decree and those more specifically identified by national and inter-regional Basin Authorities, Regional Authorities shall prepare a Water Protection Plan, as a part of the Basin Plan to be adopted under the terms of Law No.183 regulating the Organization and Management of Land Protection (Legge 18 maggio 1989, No.183 – Norme per il Riassetto Organizzativo e Funzionale della Difesa del Suolo) (1989, as amended). Water Protection plans must include:
Wastewater discharge and treatment in general is also mentioned by Law No.36 on Water Resources (1994), which provides that the owners of plants lacking a centralized treatment system are charged for the public sewerage and treatment service. Rates are generally determined according to the volume of water provided to the user, except for industrial plants that are charged in proportion to the quality and quantity of wastewater discharged. No specific provision is made with regard to aquaculture.
Under the terms of Legislative Decree No.530 of 1992, the movement within the country of live shellfish intended for direct human consumption, originating from national or Community producers, requires the indication on a health stamp (bollo sanitario) of the following information:
At Community level, the import of aquaculture animals and products from third countries (as stated by Decree of the President of the Republic No.555 of 1992) is only authorized from countries listed in Commission Decision (EC) No.296/1997, as amended . The list shall be published in the Italian Official Gazette by the Ministry of Health. Moreover, the EU has recently published Commission Decision (EC) No.858/2003 laying down the animal health conditions and certification requirements for imports of live fish, their eggs and gametes intended for farming, and live fish of aquaculture origin and products thereof intended for human consumption.
Legislative Decree No.530 of 1992 provides that the import of live shellfish from third countries is only allowed for the marine areas included in the list drafted and updated by the Ministry of Health (Ministero della Salute) and published in Ministerial Decree February 11th, 1987 as regularly amended . The Decree must contain the list of authorized countries; the specific import conditions for each country; the list of authorized aquaculture farms. To be included in the list, countries must provide the Ministry with the documentation attesting that the marine areas where shellfish is produced meet the Italian health standards, as established in the Regulation to the Legislative Decree No.530 of 1992.
Furthermore, Italian companies willing to import live shellfish produced in the above mentioned marine areas must be authorized to do so by the Ministry of Health. Applications must provide the following:
Both decrees make reference to the fish diseases listed in Annex A to the above mentioned Decree of the President of the Republic No.555 of 1992 (hereinafter referred to as Annex A).
Decree of the President of the Republic No.263 of 1997 provides that fish farms breeding species that are sensitive to any of the diseases mentioned in list I or II of Annex A must be registered with the official veterinary service and keep record of all the live fish, eggs and gametes entering or leaving the farm and of the ascertained mortality.
Decree of the President of the Republic No.263 of 1997 provides that fish farms breeding species that are sensitive to any of the diseases mentioned in list I or II of Annex A must be registered with the official veterinary service and keep record of all the live fish, eggs and gametes entering or leaving the farm and of the ascertained mortality.
The suspicion or knowledge of a disease outbreak concerning any of the above mentioned diseases must be immediately reported to the official veterinary service, following the procedures defined in Decree of the President of the Republic No.320 of 1954 establishing the Regulation on Animal Health (Regolamento di Polizia Veterinaria). Upon report of the suspicion of a disease outbreak, prevention measures are taken to avoid further spreading of the disease, such as:
Decree of the President of the Republic No.263 of 1997 gives a list of the official national and Community laboratories for fish diseases in order to allow cooperation for the diagnosis and tests.
Decree of the President of the Republic No.395 of 1998 establishes similar procedures for the detection and eradication of shellfish diseases. In this case, the first measures taken upon report of a disease outbreak are the following:
At national level, Italy has implemented the EU legislation on veterinary drugs with frequent amendments to Legislative Decree No.119 of 1992 implementing Directives No.81/851/CEE, No.81/852/CEE, No.87/20/CEE and No.90/676/CEE on Veterinary Drugs. The marketing of veterinary drugs by pharmaceutical companies must be authorized by the Ministry of Health or by the European Commission, according to the procedures established by Council Regulation (EEC) No.2309/1993 laying down Community Procedures for the Authorization and Supervision of Medicinal Products for Human and Veterinary Use and establishing a European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Authorizations can only be issued for those drugs containing active substances that have already been authorized by the Ministry of Health or are included in Annexes I, II and III of Regulation (EEC) No. 2377/1990.
Law No.281 of 1963, which is explicitly applicable to fish feed, regulates four main types of animal feed and the correspondent authorization procedure for their production:
The composition of animal feed is regulated by Legislative Decree No.149 of 2004, which establishes the maximum level of undesirable substances in any kind of feedstuff, including dioxins levels in fish feed. The competent authority for the matter is the Ministry of Health.
The main piece of legislation regulating the labelling and packaging of food products, including fish products, is Legislative Decree No.109 of 1992, as amended, implementing EEC Directives 89/395/CEE and 89/396/CEE concerning the Labelling, Packaging and Advertising of Foodstuffs. A generic “fish” label is required when fish is an ingredient of other food products, unless the name or presentation of the product refers to a specific fish species. Furthermore, with specific regard to fish products, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forest Policies has issued Decree of 27 March, 2002 concerning the Labelling of Fishery and Aquaculture Products as well as Control Systems, which provides for additional labelling and packaging information, in line with EU Regulations No.2065/2001 and No.2031/2001.
In retail trade, fish products' labels must now indicate:
With specific regard to fish products, the Ministry of Health has also enacted two Decrees establishing the sampling and testing methods concerning biotoxins and mercury in fish products and shellfish:
Aquaculture investment receives financial support from the European Union, especially through capital grant contributions within the framework of structural funds. The FIFG – Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (SFOP – Strumento Finanziario di Orientamento della Pesca) 2000–2006 operates under the co-financing principle and is regulated by Council Regulation (EC) No.2792/1999 laying down the Detailed Rules and Arrangements regarding Community Structural Assistance in the Fisheries Sector.Development/restoration fund
The Regulation provides that Member States may take measures to encourage capital investment in aquaculture and in the processing of aquaculture products and further states that, in general, financial assistance from the FIFG may be granted only for projects which:
Applications must be lodged with the Directorate General for Fisheries and Aquaculture of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forest Policies.
In Italy, Ministerial Circular No.2003 of 2003 implementing article 15 of Regulation (EC) No.2792/1999 and articles 1 and 2 of Regulation (EC) No.2318/2001 to encourage the creation and recognition of Producers Organizations in order to obtain financial aids from the FIFG.
During the Council of Ministers of Agriculture and Fisheries held on July 19th, 2004 in Bruxelles, the European Commission proposed the adoption of a European Fisheries Fund (EEF) that would replace the FIFG for 2007–2013 and would give priority to small aquaculture farms.
As required by Law No.38 of 2003, Legislative Decree No.154 of 2004 creates the National Solidarity Fund for Fisheries and Aquaculture (Fondo di Solidarietà Nazionale della Pesca e dell’Acquacoltura) for the backing of fisheries and aquaculture companies affected by natural disasters or exceptional marine and meteorological conditions. The fund is managed by the Directorate General for Fisheries and Aquaculture of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forest Policies.
Draft Law C.445 regulating Environmental Impact Assessment (2001) (Progetto di legge C.445 – Disciplina della Valutazione dell'Impatto Ambientale)
Draft Law S.198 regulating Environmental Impact Assessment (Progetto di legge S.198 – Disciplina della Valutazione dell'Impatto Ambientale) (2001)
Draft Law S.602 regulating Environmental Impact Assessment (Progetto di legge S.602 – Disciplina della Valutazione dell'Impatto Ambientale) (2001)
Draft Law S.2483 on Organic Aquaculture (2003) (Progetto di legge S.2483 – Disciplina dell' Acquacoltura Biologica – S.2483)
Draft Law C.5217 on Organic Aquaculture (2004) (Progetto di legge C.5217 – Norme in Materia di Acquacoltura Biologica – C.5217)
Decree of the President of the Republic No.320 establishing the Regulation on Animal Health (1954) (Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 8 febbraio 1954, No.320 – Regolamento di Polizia Veterinaria)
Decree of the President of the Republic No.555 establishing Animal Health Rules for Aquaculture Products (1992, as amended)(D.P.R. 30 dicembre 1992, n. 555 – Regolamento per l'Attuazione della Direttiva 91/67/CEE che stabilisce Norme di Polizia Sanitaria per i Prodotti di Acquacoltura)
Decree of the President of the Republic No.263 on Minimum Community Measures against certain Fish Diseases (1997, as amended) (D.P.R. 3 luglio 1997, No.263 – Regolamento di attuazione della Direttiva 93/53/CEE recante Misure Comunitarie Minime di Lotta contro talune Malattie dei Pesci)
Decree of the President of the Republic No.395 establishing Minimum Measures against some Bivalve Mollusc Diseases (1998, as amended) (D.P.R. 20 ottobre 1998, n. 395 – Regolamento recante Norme di Attuazione della Direttiva 95/70/CE in materia di Misure Minime di Lotta contro talune Malattie dei Molluschi Bivalvi)
Law No.281 regulating the Preparation of and Trade in Animal Feeds (1963, as amended)(Legge 15 febbraio 1963, No.281 – Disciplina della Preparazione e del Commercio dei Mangimi)
Law No.349 establishing the Ministry of Environment and regulating Environmental Damage (1986) (Legge 8 luglio 1986 n. 349 – Istituzione del Ministero dell'Ambiente e Norme in materia di Danno Ambientale)
Decree of the President of the Republic of 12 April 1996 establishing Criteria for the Implementation of Article 40, paragraph 1, of Act of 22 February 1994, No.146 on the Environmental Impact Assessment (D.P.R. 12 aprile 1996 – Atto di indirizzo e coordinamento per l'attuazione dell'art. 40, comma 1, della L. 22 febbraio 1994, n. 146 (2), concernente disposizioni in materia di valutazione di impatto ambientale)
Financial Law – Law No.67 regulating the Preparation of the Annual and Multi-year State Budget (1988) (Legge Finanziaria – Legge 11 marzo 1988, No.67 – Disposizioni per la Formazione del Bilancio Annuale e Pluriennale dello Stato)
Law No. 36 on Water Resources, 1994 (Legge Galli – Legge 5 gennaio 1994, n. 36 recante Disposizioni in Materia di Risorse Idriche)
Law No.183 regulating the Organization and Management of Land Protection (1989, as amended) (Legge 18 maggio 1989, No.183 – Norme per il Riassetto Organizzativo e Funzionale della Difesa del Suolo)
Law No.102 on Aquaculture Law No.102 on Aquaculture (1992)(Legge No.102 – Norme concernenti l'Attività di Acquacoltura)
Law No.57 on the Opening and Regulation of Markets (2001)(Legge 5 marzo 2001, No.57 recante Disposizioni in Materia di Apertura e Regolazione dei Mercati)
Legislative Decree No.226 of 2001 laying down Guidelines on the Modernization of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector (Decreto Legislativo 18 maggio 2001, No.226 – Orientamento e Modernizzazione del Settore della Pesca e dell'Acquacoltura, a norma dell'articolo 7 della Legge 5 marzo 2001, No.57)
Legislative Decree No.228 of 2001 laying down Guidelines on the Modernization of the Agricultural Sector (Decreto Legislativo 18 maggio 2001, No.228 – Orientamento e Modernizzazione del Settore Agricolo, a norma dell'articolo 7 della Legge 5 marzo 2001, No.57)
Law No.38 on Agriculture Law No.38 on Agriculture (2003)(Legge 7 marzo 2003, No.38 recante Disposizioni in Materia di Agricoltura)
Legislative Decree No.154 on the Modernization of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector (2004)(Decreto Legislativo 26 maggio 2004, No.54 – Modernizzazione del Settore Pesca e dell'Acquacoltura, a norma dell'articolo 1, comma 2, della legge 7 marzo 2003, No.38)
Legislative Decree No.153 of 2004 on Marine Fisheries (2004)(Decreto Legislativo 26 maggio 2004, No.154 – Attuazione della legge 7 marzo 2003, n. 38, in Materia di Pesca Marittima)
Legislative Decree No.374 reforming Customs Rules and Procedures (Decreto Legislativo 8 novembre 1990, No.374, in materia di Riordino degli Istituti Doganali e Revisione delle Procedure di Accertamento) (1990, as amended) (text not available)
Legislative Decree No.530 on Health Provisions concerning the Production and Trade of Live Bivalve Molluscs (1992)(Decreto Legislativo 30 dicembre 1992, No.530 – Attuazione della direttiva 91/492/CEE che stabilisce le norme sanitarie applicabili alla produzione e commercializzazione dei molluschi bivalvi vivi)
Legislative Decree No.109 on the Labelling, Packaging and Advertising of Food Products (1992, as amended) (Decreto Legislativo 27 gennaio 1992, No.109 – Attuazione delle direttive 89/395/CEE e 89/396 CEE concernenti l'Etichettatura, la Presentazione e la Pubblicità dei Prodotti Alimentari)
Ministerial Decree of 27 March, 2002 concerning the Labelling of Fishery and Aquaculture Products as well as Control Systems (2002)(Decreto Ministeriale 27 Marzo 2002 – Etichettatura dei Prodotti Ittici e Sistema di Controllo)
Ministerial Circular No.21329 laying down Clarifications for the Interpretation of Commission Regulation 2065/2001/EC and of Ministerial Decree of 27 March 2002 (2002) (Circolare 27 maggio 2002, n.1329 recante chiarimenti sull’applicazione del Regolamento (CE) No.2065/2001 della Commissione, recante modalita' di applicazione del Regolamento (CE) No.104/2000, relativamente all'informazione ai consumatori nel settore dei prodotti della pesca e dell'acquacoltura e sull’applicazione del Decreto Ministeriale 27 marzo 2002)
Legislative Decree No.119 implementing Directives No.81/851/CEE, No.81/852/CEE, No.87/20/CEE and No.90/676/CEE on Veterinary Drugs (1992, as amended)(Decreto Legislativo 27 gennaio 1992, No.119 - Attuazione delle Direttive No.81/852/CEE, No.87/20/CEE e No.90/676/CEE relative ai Medicinali Veterinari)
Legislative Decree No.508 implementing Council Directive (EEC) No.667/1990, making sanitary provisions for the disposal, processing and placing on the market of waste of animal origin and for the protection against pathogenic agents of feedstuffs of animal origin or fish-based feedstuffs and amending Directive (EEC) No.425/1990 (1992)(Decreto Legislativo 14 dicembre 1992, No.508 – Attuazione della Direttiva 90/667/CEE del Consiglio del 27 novembre 1990, che stabilisce le norme sanitarie per l'eliminazione, la trasformazione e l'immissione sul mercato di rifiuti di origine animale e la protezione dagli agenti patogeni degli alimenti per animali di origine animale o a base di pesce e che modifica la direttiva 90/425/CEE)
Legislative Decree No.93 on Veterinary Checks on Products and Animals originating from Third Countries and Introduced into the European Community (1993) (Decreto Legislativo 3 marzo 1993, No.93 – Attuazione delle Direttive 90/675/CEE e 91/496/CEE relative all'Organizzazione dei Controlli Veterinari su Prodotti e Animali in Provenienza da Paesi Terzi e Introdotti nella Comunità Europea)
Legislative Decree No.143 on the Transfer to Regional Authorities of the Administrative Functions concerning Agriculture and Fisheries, and on the Riorganization of the Central Administration (1997) (Decreto Legislativo 4 giugno 1997, No.143 – Conferimento alle Regioni delle Funzioni Amministrative in Materia di Agricoltura e Pesca e Riorganizzazione dell'Amministrazione Centrale)
Legislative Decree No.155 implementing Directives No.93/43/EEC and No.96/3/EEC on Food Hygiene (1997)(Decreto Legislativo 26 maggio 1997, No.155 Attuazione delle Direttive 93/43/CEE e 96/3/CE concernenti l'Igiene dei Prodotti Alimentari)
Legislative Decree No. 152 concerning the Protection of Waters from Pollution (1999, as amended in 2000) (Decreto Legislativo 11 maggio 1999, n. 152, recante Disposizioni sulla Tutela delle Acque dall'Inquinamento e Recepimento della Direttiva 91/271/CEE concernente il Trattamento delle Acque Reflue Urbane e della Direttiva 91/676/CEE relativa alla Protezione delle Acque dall'Inquinamento Provocato dai Nitrati Provenienti da Fonti Agricole)
Legislative Decree No.80 implementing Directives 97/78/EC and 97/79/EC on the Organization of Veterinary Checks on Products entering the Community from Third Countries (Decreto Legislativo 25 febbraio 2000, No.80 – Attuazione delle Direttive 97/78/CE e 97/79/CE in materia di Organizzazione dei Controlli Veterinari sui Prodotti provenienti da Paesi Terzi) (2000)
Legislative Decree No.149 concerning Undesirable Substances and Products in Animal Feed (Decreto Legislativo 10 Maggio 2004, No.149 – Attuazione delle Direttive 2001/102/CE, 2002/32/CE, 2003/57/CE e 2003/100/CE, relative alle Sostanze ed ai Prodotti Indesiderabili nell'Alimentazione degli Animali) (2004)
Ministerial Circular No.2003 implementing article 15 of Regulation (EC) No.2792/1999 and articles 1 and 2 of Regulation (EC) No.2318/2001 (Circolare Ministeriale 20 maggio 2003, No.2003 – Applicazione della normativa CE in materia di OO.PP. e Associazioni di OO.PP., art. 15 del Regolamento CE n. 2792/1999 e articoli 1 e 2, Regolamento CE n. 2318/2001) (2003)
Ministerial Decree of 22 March, 1991 concerning provisions in matter of live spat for rearing and repopulation purposes (Decreto Ministeriale 22 marzo 1991 – Disposizioni in materia di novellame allo stato vivo destinato agli allevamenti ed ai ripopolamenti) (1991)
Ministerial Decree of 9 December, 1993 concerning methods of analysis, sampling plans and levels of mercury to be observed in the fish products (Decreto Ministeriale 9 dicembre 1993 – Metodi di Analisi, Piani di Campionamento e Livelli da Rispettare per il Mercurio nei Prodotti della Pesca) (1993)
Ministerial Decree of 31 July, 1995 establishing the Methodologies for the Analysis of Faecal Coliforms, PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poison) Biotoxins, DSP (Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison) Toxins, Mercury and Lead in Bivalve Molluscs (1995)
Ministerial Decree on the Restructuring of Fisheries and Aquaculture Cooperatives (1998)(Decreto Ministeriale 10 febbraio 1998 concernente la Ristrutturazione delle Cooperative di Pesca e Acquacoltura)
Ministerial Decree adopting the VI National Plan for Fisheries and Aquaculture 2000–2002 (2000) (Decreto Ministeriale 25 maggio 2000 recante l’Adozione del VI Piano Nazionale della pesca e dell’acquacoltura 2000–2002)
Ministerial Decree establishing the National Fisheries and Aquaculture Plan for 2004 (Decreto Ministeriale 7 maggio 2004 recante il Piano Nazionale della Pesca e dell’Acquacoltura per l’Anno 2004) (2004)
Navigation Code (1942, as amended) (Codice della Navigazione – Regio Decreto 30 marzo 1942, No.327)
Regulation on Inland Navigation (1949) (Regolamento per la Navigazione Interna – Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 28 giugno 1949, No.631)
Regulation implementing the Navigation Code (1952, as amended) (Regolamento di Esecuzione del Codice della Navigazione – Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 15 febbraio 1952, No.328)
Regulation to the Maritime Fisheries Law No.963 of 1965 (Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 2 ottobre 1968, No.1639, recante il Regolamento per l'esecuzione della Legge 14 luglio 1965, No.963, concernente la Disciplina della Pesca Marittima) (1968, as amended)
Royal Decree No.1604 approving the Consolidated Text of the Fisheries Legislation (Regio Decreto 8 ottobre 1931, No.1604 – Approvazione del Testo Unico delle Leggi sulla Pesca) (1931)
Ministerial Decree of January 14th, 1949 on the Concession of Public Waters for Aquaculture Purposes (Decreto Ministeriale 14 gennaio 1949 sulle Concessioni di Acque Pubbliche a Scopo di Piscicoltura) (1949) (in Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 148, 1 luglio 1949) (text not available)
Ministerial Decree of December 7th, 1957 regulating the conduct of Aquaculture in Rice Field Areas (Decreto Ministeriale 7 dicembre 1957 recante la Disciplina per l'Esercizio dell'Industria della Piscicoltura Agricola nelle Zone di Risaia) (1957) (in Gazzetta Ufficiale, No.308, 13 dicembre 1957) (text not available)
Royal Decree No.1265 approving the Consolidated Text of Health Legislation (Regio Decreto 27 luglio 1934, No.1265 recante il Testo Unico delle Leggi Sanitarie) (1934, as amended) (text not available)
Tuscany – Regional Law No.33, establishing Rules for the Development of Aquaculture and Fish Production (Toscana – Legge Regionale 20 marzo 2000 No.33 Norme per lo Sviluppo dell’Acquacoltura e della Produzione Ittica) (2000)
Tuscany – Regional Law No.64 regulating Construction Works in Rural Areas (Toscana – Legge Regionale 14 aprile 1995 No.64 Disciplina degli Interventi di Trasformazione Urbanistica ed Edilizia nelle Zone con Prevalente Funzione Agricola) (1995)
Council Directive (EEC) No. 659/1978 on the quality of Fresh Waters needing Protection or Improvement in order to Support Fish Life
Council Directive (EEC) No.337/1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment
Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2377/1990 laying down a Community procedure for the establishment of maximum residue limits of veterinary medicinal products in foodstuffs of animal origin (1990, as amended)
Council Directive (EEC) No.492/1991 laying down the health conditions for the production and the placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs
Council Directive (EEC) No.676/1991 concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources
Council Regulation (EEC) No.2092/1991 on Organic Production of Agricultural Products and Indications referring thereto on Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs
Council Regulation (EC) No.1093/1994 setting the terms under which Fishing Vessels of a Third Country may Land Directly and Market their Catches at Community Ports
Commission Decision (EC) No.296/1997 drawing up the list of third countries from which the import of fishery products is authorized for human consumption
Council Regulation (EC) No.1804/1999 of 19 July 1999 supplementing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91 on Organic Production of Agricultural Products and Indications referring thereto on Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs to include Livestock Production
Council Regulation (EC) No.2792/1999 laying down the detailed rules and arrangements regarding Community structural assistance in the fisheries sector
Parliament and Council Directive (EC) No.2000/60 establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Water Policy
Council Directive (EC) No.42/2001 on the Assessment of the Effects of Certain Plans and Programmes on the Environment
Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No.761/2001 allowing Voluntary Participation by Organisations in a Community Eco-Management and Audit Scheme
Commission Decision (EC) No.858/2003 laying down the animal health conditions and certification requirements for imports of live fish, their eggs and gametes intended for farming, and live fish of aquaculture origin and products thereof intended for human consumption
Presidency of the Council of Ministers – Modernization of the fisheries and aquaculture sector (Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri – Modernizzazione del settore pesca e dell'acquacoltura)
Presidency of the Council of Ministers – Urgent provisions on agriculture and fisheries (Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri - Disposizioni urgenti per l'agricoltura e la pesca)
Water resources management in Italy APAT – Agenzia per la Protezione dell’Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici
Alesii, L. & Panunzio, P. [a cura di] – Disciplina giuridico-amministrativa inerente la realizzazione di impianti di acquacoltura: realtà e problematiche – Quaderni ICRAM/15, Roma, 1994
Iandoli, C. & Bianco, R. – Stato dell’acquacoltura in Italia e ruolo della politica comunitaria di supporto – Quaderni ICRAM/4, Roma, 1992
Iandoli, C., Alaio, E. & Bianco, R. [a cura di] – L’imprenditorialità nel settore dell’acquacoltura in Italia – Quaderni ICRAM/10, Roma, 1994
Sbroglia M., Cecchini S. & Sbroglia-Terova, G. Review of regulations and monitoring of Italian marine aquaculture, 2000 Journal of Applied Ichtiology, 16 (2000), 182-186
EIFAC (European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission – FAO) – Report on market perspectives for European freshwater aquaculture (2001)
European Commission – Communication on the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy ("Roadmap") (COM (2002) 181).
European Commission – Communication establishing a Strategy for the Sustainable Development of European Aquaculture (COM (2002) 511)
European Commission – Communication laying down a Community Action Plan for the Conservation and Sustainable Exploitation of Fisheries Resources in the Mediterranean Sea under the Common Fisheries Policy (COM (2002) 535)
European Commission – Communication setting out a Community Action Plan to integrate Environmental Protection Requirements into the Common Fisheries Policy (COM (2002) 186)