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  1. Profile
    1. Basic legislation
    2. Legal definition
    3. Guidelines and codes of conduct
    4. International arrangements
  2. Planning
    1. Authorization system
    2. Access to land and water
    3. EIA
  3. Operation
    1. Water and wastewater
    2. Fish movement
    3. Disease control
    4. Drugs
    5. Feed
  4. Food safety
    1. Miscellaneous
      1. References
        1. Legislation
        2. Related resources
      2. Related links
        Profile
        Basic legislation
        The Aquaculture Act (2005) (the Act) regulates the management, control and development of aquaculture in both inland waters and marine waters (internal waters, territorial waters, the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf), as well as land based aquaculture. The Act covers aquaculture of any aquatic organism - from broodstock and hatchery production, to table fish production, as well as sea ranching.

        The purpose of the Act is "to promote the profitability and competitiveness of the aquaculture industry within the framework of a sustainable development and contribute to the creation of value on the coast." The Act regulates both commercial aquaculture, as well as aquaculture carried out for scientific or educational purposes.

        The Act establishes a licensing system, and broadly applies to issues like environmental standards, land utilisation, registration, transfer and mortgaging of licences, as well as control and enforcement.

        The Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs (the Ministry) is the institution in charge of the administration of the act, and may prescribe, by regulations, detailed provisions relating to the provisions of the Act. The Directorate of Fisheries, an executive administrative body within the Ministry, is assigned the responsibility for coordination, administration and execution of surveillance and control of the aquaculture sector, including granting aquaculture licences and enforcing the Act.

        The Act Relative to Food Production and Food Safety Act (The Food Safety Act 2003) is the main act regulating animal health and food safety and quality, and addresses the production, processing and distribution of foodstuffs, including aquaculture production and fish processing. The Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs is the institution in charge of the administration of the act as regards aquatic animals, with the power to make regulations regarding all matters of the act. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority, a governmental body, is given management and enforcement powers pursuant to the act.

        The Act Relative to Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (1974, as amended in 2003) is also of importance for the aquaculture sector, by prescribing basic principles for the keeping and treatment of animals, including fish and crustaceans.

        The Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA) imposes several obligations on Norwegian legislation. Of particular interest here is the implementation of EC legislation on veterinary inspection, aquatic animal health and food hygiene.
        Legal definition
        The Aquaculture Act (2005) does not include a definition of "aquaculture" as such. Instead the act provides as follows:

        "The Act applies to the production of aquatic organisms (aquaculture). Aquatic organisms are defined as animals and plants that live in, on, or near water. Any measures to influence the weight, size, number, characteristics or quality of living aquatic organisms are regarded as production. In cases of doubt, the Ministry may determine what is to be regarded as aquaculture by an administrative decision or regulations."

        The Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of salmon, trout and rainbow trout (Salmon Allocation Decree) (2004) and the Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of other species than salmon, trout and rainbow (2004), adopted under the Act, defines aquaculture as follows:

        "Aquaculture: Production of aquatic organisms. Production is understood as any measure to alter the weight, size, number, characteristics and quality of living aquatic organisms."

        The Regulation relative to Sea Ranching (2003), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005), defines sea ranching as the aquaculture of crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms through the conduct of bottom culture without keeping the animals in captivity.
        Guidelines and codes of conduct
        There are no aquaculture guidelines/codes of conduct.
        International arrangements
        Norway is a member of the following international organizations of relevance to aquaculture:
        • World Trade Organization (WTO).
        • The European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
        • The Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA).
        • North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO).
        • World Organisation of Animal Health (OIE).
        • Codex Alimentarius Commission.
        Norway is a party to the following international agreements with implications for the regulation of aquaculture:
        • The Convention on Biological Diversity.
        • The Biosafety Protocol.
        • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
        Planning
        Authorization system
        Allocation of licences:

        The Aquaculture Act (2005) (the Act) establishes a licensing system for aquaculture, and provides that the Ministry may, through regulations, prescribe limitation in the number of licences for aquaculture of salmon, trout and rainbow trout that are allocated. Accordingly, the Ministry may prescribe:
        • The number of licences to be allocated.
        • Geographic distribution of licenses.
        • Prioritisation criteria.
        • Selection of qualified applications in accordance with the prioritisation criteria in c), including the drawing of lots etc.
        • Licence fees.
        Being by far the most important aquaculture industry in Norway, the Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of salmon, trout and rainbow trout (Salmon Allocation Decree) (2004), adopted under the Act, provides for the allocation of licences to farm these species. Pursuant to the Regulation, the Directorate of Fisheries shall decide when licences for marine aquaculture of table fish shall be allocated and the geographical distribution of these, the latter being facultative in the case of broodstock. The Directorate shall make a public announcement when the licences are being allocated. The announcement shall include basic criteria for the allocation, the deadline for application, requirements as regards the application, the licence fee, and a call on women to apply.

        Regarding fresh water aquaculture of table fish of salmon, trout and rainbow trout, the Directorate can limit the number of licences that are allocated in a watercourse, or allocate licences within the total breeding biomass that is set for a watercourse.

        As regards aquaculture of broodstock, the Directorate shall decide if licences are to be allocated, and, if appropriate, the geographical distribution of these.

        The Regulation relative to Sea Ranching (2003), adopted under the Act, provides that the Directorate of Fisheries can limit the number of allocated licences at the national, regional or local level, in order to ensure that the industry develops in a controlled manner, taking into consideration environmental consequences, the public right of access to and right to passage through the countryside (public right of access), as well as the interests of other industries. Sea ranching licences shall be allocated in a coordinated manner and the Directorate shall determine the time for the allocation of the licences.

        Granting of licences:

        Pursuant to the Act, aquaculture cannot be carried out without a licence. The power to grant aquaculture licences (including sea ranching) is vested in the Ministry, who has delegated this power to the Directorate of Fisheries.

        Under the Act, an aquaculture licence may be granted if:
        • It is environmentally responsible.
        • The requirements concerning land use plans (section 15) and conservation measures (section 16) have been met.
        • The land use interests have been weighed.
        • Any licences required pursuant to the following acts have been granted:
          • Act of 19 December 2003 no. 124 relating to food production, food safety, etc.
          • Act of 13 March 1981 no. 6 relating to protection against pollution and relating to waste.
          • Act of 8 June 1984 no. 51 relating to harbours, fairways, etc.
          • Act of 24 November 2000 no. 82 relating to watercourses and ground water.
        An application for an aquaculture licence is to be filed with the appropriate regional office of the Directorate of Fisheries, who acts as a one-stop-shop, and who will forward the application to the applicable authorities in order to obtain required licences according to the mentioned acts. These authorities are: The Food Safety Authority, the County Governor, the National Coastal Administration and the Water Resources and Energy Directorate. The specific requirements pursuant to these acts will be dealt with under the sections "Access to land and water," "Water and wastewater" and "Disease control." In addition, the Directorate of Fisheries will forward an application to the relevant Municipality, who is the planning and construction authority.

        The Act prescribes that the different authorities administrating the different Acts, as well as the municipality, are obligated to undertake an efficient and coordinated processing of applications.

        As regards fresh water aquaculture (with water supplies from, and emissions to fresh water sources) in inland counties where the Directorate of Fisheries does not have a regional office, the Licensing Regulations (2004) (see under) provide that the application shall be filed with the County Governor. The County Governor will play the same coordinating role as the one described for the Directorate of Fisheries above.

        Pursuant to the Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of salmon, trout and rainbow trout (Salmon Allocation Decree) (2004) and the Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of other species than salmon, trout and rainbow (2004), (hereafter the Licensing Regulations (2004), as well as the Regulation relative to sea ranching (2003), the applicant is obliged to make the application available for public scrutiny in the municipality where the aquaculture activity is sought commenced. The application shall also be made public in the Gazette and two newspapers that are read in the region.

        Pursuant to the Food Safety Act (2003), Regulation relative to the establishment and expansion of aquaculture installations and the registration of ornamental dams (2004), has been adopted. Under the regulation, no person can establish an aquaculture facility, or expand the production volume in an existing one, without obtaining an authorization from the Food Safety Authority. Before granting an authorization, a risk assessment of disease spread in the aquaculture facility and the surrounding environment has to be conducted. When conducting the assessment, the following aspects are of relevance: distance to watercourses and other aquaculture facilities; the type of species to be produced; the farming system and production volume.

        Licence requirements:

        The Aquaculture Act (2005) includes a general clause related to professional competence, stating that persons engaged in aquaculture activities shall have the necessary professional background. Under the Regulation relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (2004), adopted pursuant to the Act, persons in charge of an aquaculture facility shall have an aquaculture education, or two years of working experience as in charge of an aquaculture facility. In addition, this person shall have the necessary knowledge about how to prevent, detect and limit the escape of fish. Furthermore, the facility shall be sufficiently staffed with persons capable of ensuring the welfare of the fish. The latter shall be documented through practical and theoretical training. The training, which shall be approved by the Food Safety Authority, shall be repeated every five years.

        As regards licences for aquaculture in Finnmark County, the northernmost county in Norway, there are specific rules that apply for the application and the applicant. The Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of salmon, trout and rainbow trout (Salmon Allocation Decree) (2004), provides that the application shall include documentation verifying that the applicant has minimum NOK 2 millions (US$ 331 260) as start-up capital.

        Pursuant to the Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of other species than salmon, trout and rainbow trout (2004), an applicant wanting to breed blue mussels needs to document that he has paid a deposit of NOK 2 500 (US$ 415),- for each acre where aquaculture will be carried out, or that he has taken out an insurance of the equivalent amount. The deposit or insurance shall serve as a security that the site(s) will be restored when the production is discontinued. This requirement is also imposed on the new licensee in case a license is transferred.

        Under the Regulation relative to Sea Ranching (2003), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005), any person engaging in sea ranching activities shall have the necessary professional qualifications.

        The application for a sea ranching licence shall include:
        • Receipt for paid processing fees.
        • The coordinates and a map of the site.
        • Information about making the site ready for production, if applicable.
        • Plan for the clearing up of the site upon the discontinuation of the activities.
        • Information about the activities, including an operational plan (see below) and access to sea ranching animals.
        • Information about environmental conditions on the site and documentation of the origin of the animals.
        • Information about relevant land use plans, including coastal zone plans, that have been adopted for the area; distance to water courses, protected areas, other sites and activities in the area, as well as the relationship to the public right of access.
        • Information about to what extent the activity possibly will conflict with other user interests in the area.
        When granting licences for sea ranching, the authorities are obliged to consider the social benefits, as well as the harmful effects of the activity. Factors to be considered in this regard includes: To what extent the activity will contribute to realisation of the potential in the sea ranching industry; what other economic activities the applicant has planned in the region, including activities done in cooperation with other players; to what extent the activity will limit the exercise of the common/public rights in the area, in particular with regard to traditional capture fisheries.

        The Directorate of Fisheries can request that the applicant provides an economic guarantee for repairing any listed damage as a consequence of the sea ranching.

        The content of the licence:

        The aquaculture license permits the production of specific species in limited geographic areas (sites), subject to the prescribed terms. The Ministry may prescribe detailed provisions regarding the content of the aquaculture licences, including the scope, time limitations, etc. by administrative decision or regulations.

        The rules for the approval of the use of the site for aquaculture are found in the section "access to land and water".

        The Licensing Regulations (2004) establish a maximum breeding biomass for each licence.

        The following limitations in biomass apply for aquaculture of salmon, trout and rainbow trout:
        • Fresh water aquaculture of table fish: maximum 325 tonnes.
        • Marine aquaculture of table fish: maximum 780 tonnes, except in the northern counties of Troms and Finnmark, where the maximum is 900 tonnes.
        • Marine aquaculture of broodstock: 780 tonnes.
        The following limitations in biomass apply for aquaculture of other species than salmon, trout and rainbow trout:
        • Fresh water aquaculture of table fish and broodstock: maximum 325 tonnes.
        • Marine aquaculture of table fish in cages: maximum 780 tonnes.
        • Marine aquaculture of wild fish: maximum 195 tonnes.
        • Marine aquaculture of table fish and broodstock: maximum biomass decided in each individual case.
        • Aquaculture of crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms: the volume is set individually.
        According to the Regulation relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (2004), adopted under the Act, the maximum production of fry is 2,5 million per separated entity. The weight of each individual shall not exceed 250 grams.

        Under the Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of salmon, trout and rainbow trout (Salmon Allocation Decree) (2004), a licence can cover aquaculture operations on maximum four sites. Two or more licences (maximum six) can cover aquaculture operations on the same site.

        Under the Aquaculture Act (2005), a person who holds an aquaculture licence has exclusive rights to the withdrawal and recapture of the released species at the site. The Ministry may regulate the withdrawal and recapture of the individual species on the site, regardless of the provisions in the Act of 3 June 1983 no. 40 relating to saltwater fisheries.

        The Ministry may limit or ban, by regulations, any traffic on or other use of the sites and adjoining areas, including fishing for species other than the released species, if this is necessary due to aquaculture production considerations.

        Under the Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of salmon, trout and rainbow trout (Salmon Allocation Decree) (2004), a site cannot be approved for:
        • Hatchery production in fresh water cages or marine waters.
        • Hatchery production if the applicant has not made probable that the production has sufficient quantities of quality water, including sufficient water flow.
        • Broodstock production, if there is other aquaculture production on the site. (The Directorate of Fisheries can in special cases make an exemption to this rule).
        Under the Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of other species than salmon, trout and rainbow trout (2004), a licence for hatchery production in fresh water shall not be granted for production in cages. Nor shall it be granted if the applicant has not made probable that the production has sufficient quantities of quality water, including sufficient water flow.

        Under the Regulation relative to sea ranching (2003), the sea ranching licence should be given for a defined period of time. An application for an extension of the licence has to be submitted six months before the current licences expires. The licence will be given for a specific geographical area (site(s)) and the size of the site will be specified in each licence.

        The licensee has the exclusive right to recapture the species released into the site. The recapture shall be conducted in such a way as to minimize adverse effects on wild stocks. The use of bottom trawl and bottom scraper is prohibited for this purpose. This exclusive right does only materialize from the moment animals have been released in to the site. The licence can include further conditions related to the recapture and catch of predators.

        Activities on the site that can harm the animals or obstruct the recapture of the released animals are prohibited. The use of nets, beach seine, purse seine, fish traps, fish pots and shell scraper are prohibited unless they are part of the sea ranching activity. The Directorate of Fisheries can, however, make exceptions to this if the activity does not harm the animals or the recapture.

        Amendment or revocation of permits:

        Under the Act, the Ministry may amend or revoke aquaculture licences, including for sea ranching:
        • If this is necessary due to environmental considerations.
        • If there are changes in any material assumptions underlying the licence.
        • In the event of gross or repeated contravention of the provisions prescribed in or pursuant to this Act.
        • If the licence is not used, or only used to a limited extent.
        • If one or more of the licences required pursuant to the acts listed in Section 6, first paragraph, letter d, has lapsed.
        The amendment or revocation of licences may be time-limited, and may be made contingent on specific rectifications.

        Under the Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of other species than salmon, trout and rainbow trout (2004), the Directorate of Fisheries can revoke a licence if, within two years, activities have not commenced or only one third of the allowed activities have commenced. Exceptions from this are made if the activities were not started due to that the site was ordered to be left dormant.

        Pursuant to the Food Safety Act, the Food Safety Authority has the authority to amend or revoke the permit issued in accordance with the Regulation relative to the establishment and expansion of aquaculture installations and the registration of ornamental dams (2004). This can be in the following cases:
        • In case of serious breach of the permit conditions or requirements pursuant to the Food Safety Act and regulations.
        • It appears that disease status, or knowledge about disease and hygiene matters, have changed since the permit was issued.
        • It appears that a different site, production technique or production volume can improve the health conditions in the facility or the surroundings.
        • It appears that a different site or production technique is necessary for the products from the aquaculture facility to fill the requirements pursuant to the Food Safety Act and regulations.
        If the permit is revoked, or the aquaculture facility is closed down due to other reasons, the Food Safety Authority shall give the facility a deadline for closing down and removing all installations.

        Furthermore, the Regulation prescribes limitations to regional ownership, stating that one owner cannot control more than 50 percent of the total licensed biomass in one region. The Regulation prescribes that the Ministry can make exceptions from the Regulation's provisions under special circumstances.

        License fees:

        The Act provides that the Ministry can charge a licence fee for salmon, trout and rainbow trout aquaculture licences. Under the Regulation relative to authorizations for the breeding of salmon, trout and rainbow trout (Salmon Allocation Decree) (2004), such fees are levied on marine aquaculture of table fish of these species. The level of the fee will be fixed whenever the Directorate of Fisheries allocates licences. For aquaculture of other species than salmon, trout and rainbow, no fee is levied on the licence.

        As regards licences for salmon, trout and rainbow trout aquaculture in Finnmark County, no fixed fee is levied on the licence. In stead, the Regulation provides that the allocation of aquaculture licences is based on bids, where the applicants with the highest bids will be granted the licences.

        Processing fees:

        According to the Regulation relative to aquaculture fees (2001), adopted under the Act, applicants for an aquaculture licence have to pay NOK 12 000 (US$ 1 987), - for getting the application processed. Applicants, who are not granted a licence, will get the fee reimbursed.

        For sites where fish or broodstock are bred, the holder of the licence shall pay a yearly fee of NOK 3 500 (US$ 580),- for inspections and control, with the exception of fresh water aquaculture for scientific or formation purposes.

        Transfer of licences/changes in ownership:

        An aquaculture licences may be transferred under the Aquaculture Act (2005). The leasing of aquaculture licences is not permitted, but the Ministry may grant exemptions this in exceptional cases.

        Aquaculture licences may also be mortgaged under the Act. The mortgage will be afforded legal protection when it has been registered on the licence's record in the aquaculture register. The State's mortgage takes precedence over any other encumbrances on licences for claims for enforcement damages, claims for the reimbursement of execution expenses, and for violation fines pursuant to the Act.

        The Regulation relative to changes in ownership of companies that possess a permit for the breeding of salmon and trout for consumption purposes (2004), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005), imposes limitations on the control by one owner on the total licensed biomass of salmon and trout. The Regulation prescribes that an authorization for acquisition has to be obtained from the Ministry if changes in ownership means that the buyer will control more than 15 percent of the total biomass allocated at the national level. An authorization cannot be granted for acquisitions if this means that one owner will control more than 25 percent of the total licensed biomass. "Control" is defined as direct or indirect ownership in more than half of the company's shares. When deciding whether to give an authorization, the Ministry shall consider to what extent the acquisition will contribute to achieving national objectives for aquaculture, like increased export, increased economic growth and maintaining a profitable and vital costal industry.

        Aquaculture register:

        The Act prescribes that a register of the aquaculture licences shall be kept. Each individual licence shall have a separate record in the register. A journal shall be kept of all the legal rights that are to be registered. Under the Act, the Regulation relative to the aquaculture register (2005) has been adopted, which details out the modalities for the registration scheme, the registration of title, the register authority, journal keeping, etc.
        Access to land and water
        Access to and use of land:

        The Aquaculture Act (2005) regulates the access to and use of land for aquaculture. Pursuant to the Act, an aquaculture licence (including sea ranching licences), may not be granted in contravention of adopted land use plans pursuant to the Act relative to planning and construction (1985).

        Pursuant to the latter Act, the municipalities shall adopt a "land use plan," which can also include a coastal zone plan designating specific areas to specific uses within the internal waters bordering the municipality. As a component of the coastal zone plan, an aquaculture zone can be identified. Under the Aquaculture Act (2005), the Directorate of Fisheries are obliged to localize aquaculture production within the aquaculture zones of the municipalities if these have been identified. An aquaculture licence may be granted for production outside this zone if the Municipal Council gives its consent.

        Furthermore, the Aquaculture Act (2005) provides that an aquaculture licence may not be granted in contravention of the following Acts unless the relevant conservation authority gives its consent:
        • adopted conservation measures pursuant to the Act relating to nature conservation (1970).
        • adopted conservation measures pursuant to the Act relating to cultural heritage (1978).
        The Aquaculture Act (2005) provides that when determining sites for aquaculture, the Ministry (delegated to the Directorate of Fisheries) shall weigh the land use interests and particular importance shall be attached to:
        • Applicant's land use requirements for the planned aquaculture production.
        • Alternative use of the area for other aquaculture.
        • Other use of the area.
        • conservation interests that are not encompassed by Section 15, letters b and c.
        The Licence Regulations specifies that the latter can be conservation interests as provided for in the Act relating to wildlife and wildlife habitats (1981).

        Pursuant to the Regulation relative to the Processing and Control in Construction Matters (2003), adopted under the Act relative to planning and construction, land based aquaculture need a construction permit from the municipality before constructions can commence. This application will however, be forwarded by the Directorate of Fisheries.

        The Aquaculture Act (2005) also provides for the protection of specific areas against the impact of aquaculture. The Ministry may establish a ban, order relocation or place other conditions on activities if such actions are necessary to protect areas of special value to aquatic organisms.

        Access to and use of water:

        As regards access to and use of water for aquaculture, the Aquaculture Act (2005) prescribes that before being granted an aquaculture licence, the applicant will need, as appropriate, to get a permit pursuant to the Act relating to harbours, fairways, etc. (1984) and the Act relating to watercourses and ground water (2000).

        Pursuant to the Act relating to harbours, fairways, etc., the following measures will require a permit from the National Coastal Administration:
        • Any measures which may alter the course of a river or fairway, or the flow of the current, or may restrict the waters in depth, breadth or height in such a way as to impede traffic.
        • Any construction or other measures which may be of importance to installations, facilities or activities of the Defence Forces or the National Coastal Administration.
        The permission of the municipality might be required for measures that do not fall within the latter provisions.

        As regards the Act relating to watercourses and ground water, a permit for abstraction of water from a watercourse may be required from the Water Resources and Energy Directorate. This is primarily relevant for land based hatchery production.

        Out of environmental considerations, the Licensing Regulations (2004) prescribes that the Directorate of Fisheries can limit the number of licences that are granted for table fish and broodstock farming in a specific watercourse. The Directorate can also allocate licences within the total breeding biomass that is set for a specific watercourse. These limitations do not apply to fresh water broodstock aquaculture of salmon, trout and rainbow trout.

        The Norwegian Parliament has established several protected areas for wild salmon. Within these protected areas the establishment of new salmon and trout farms is prohibited, while already existing fish farms are allowed to continue operating till 2011.

        Under the Aquaculture Act (2005), any person who engages in aquaculture activities shall restore the site and adjoining areas if the production is discontinued in full or in part, including the removal of organisms, installations, equipment, etc.

        Under the Regulation relative to sea ranching (2003), persons engaging in sea ranching have a duty, to the extent possible, to restore the environment back to its original state upon the closing-down of activities. This duty includes the removal of installations and equipment, as well as the recapturing of the remaining animals.
        EIA
        Environmental considerations are relevant both prior to, and after the granting of an aquaculture licence. Pursuant to the Aquaculture Act (2005), an aquaculture licence (including sea ranching licences) may, as a general rule, only be granted if it is "environmentally responsible". The whole of chapter III of the Aquaculture Act (2005) is dedicated to environmental considerations, and establishes an environmental standard for aquaculture operations in Norway, by providing that aquaculture facilities shall be established, operated and abandoned in an environmentally responsible manner.

        Furthermore, the Act provides that the Ministry may require, by administrative decision or regulations, that any person who holds or applies for an aquaculture licence shall conduct the necessary environmental surveys and document the environmental condition of the site at the time of the establishment, operation and abandonment of aquaculture facilities.

        The Licensing Regulations (2004), adopted under the Act, provides that the application for a licence should include the following:
        • Information regarding the currents in the site.
        • For marine aquaculture: A map documentation as prescribed in the standard NS 9410 - "Environmental survey of marine fish farms", or as prescribed in equivalent international standards.
        • For marine aquaculture: The results from an environmental survey of the sea bottom of the site as prescribed in the standard NS 9410, or as prescribed in equivalent international standards.
        As regards the aquaculture of salmon, trot and rainbow trout, the Directorate of Fisheries can, in collaboration with the County Governor, decide that environmental surveys also should be conducted in fresh water sites.

        The Regulation relative to impact assessment (2005), adopted under the Act relative to planning and construction (1985), includes requirements related to the carrying out of environmental impact assessments. According to the regulation, an EIA is to be carried out for large aquaculture installations and hatcheries licensed for 5 million fry or more, if these activities may have significant effects on the environment, natural resources or community. The regulation includes a provision detailing out the activities that can be considered as having these effects.

        Pursuant to the Regulation relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (2004), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005), environmental surveys of marine fish farm sites shall also be carried out as part of the operation of the aquaculture facility. A trend analysis of the sea bottom of the site shall be carried out in accordance with the Norwegian standard NS 9410 - "Environmental survey of marine fish farms" - or equivalent.

        For aquaculture of salmon, trout and rainbow trout, an environmental survey shall be carried out for the first time when the biomass or the density is at its biggest during a production cycle. For other species, the first survey shall be carried out when the production level has reached one third of the approved maximum biomass.

        The results shall be reported to the regional office of the Directorate of Fisheries. Where environmental surveys show that the conditions are unacceptable, new surveys shall be carried out. If the surveys still show unacceptable conditions, the Directorate of Fisheries can order the sites left dormant. This decision will not be annulled before a new survey shows that the environmental conditions are acceptable.

        Out of environmental considerations, the Aquaculture Act (2005) furthermore provides that installations and equipment used for aquaculture activities shall be properly designed, have proper characteristics, and be used with necessary caution.
        Operation
        Water and wastewater
        According to the Pollution Control Act (1981), the discharge or disposal of waste into the environment is prohibited unless permitted by law or through a permit given by the County Governor. An applicant for an aquaculture licence is required to obtain a permit to discharge wastewater in order to obtain a licence under the Aquaculture Act (2005). The applicant does not have to send a separate emission application as the application will be forwarded by the Directorate of Fisheries.

        Permits to discharge waste water are given or declined based on the documented environmental status of the receiving water body of the site. The result from a test taken in accordance with the Norwegian standard NS 9410 - "Environmental survey of marine fish farms", or equivalent, will be the basis for granting a permit. The permit will indicate the permitted level of discharge of wastewater and chemicals into water and air.

        The Regulation relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (2004), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005), includes several provision related to water quality. As a general rule, fish shall have sufficient access to quality water which allows them to live under good conditions, and preventing them from suffering from unnecessary pain or damages. The water quality shall be monitored as appropriate, and measures shall be at disposal in case there is a danger of unnecessary pain or damages to the fish. The values of metabolic residues shall stay within acceptable limits.

        Both marine and land based aquaculture facilities shall be designed and maintained in a way that assures that there is good circulation of clean water.

        In marine aquaculture facilities, surveys of oxygen saturation and temperature shall be carried out as appropriate.

        Land based facilities shall have a back up of supplies of oxygen and metabolites in case of system failure. Systematic surveys of the oxygen values, pH value and temperature in the facility, as well as of salinity, shall be carried out. Regarding the latter, surveys do not have to be carried out when the water comes from a fresh water source. Surveys of the pH shall not be carried out when the only source of water is the sea.

        As to fish that are being cultivated in hatcheries and aquaculture facilities for the purpose of being released in the wilderness ("culture based fisheries"), the Regulations prescribes restrictions related to the inlet (influx) of water, as well as the source of water, with a view to prevent wild fish from entering the facility.

        Specific requirements as to the disinfection of inlet water and waste water are prescribed pursuant to the Regulation relative to disinfection and cleaning aquaculture facilities (1997), adopted under the Food Safety Act (2003). The Regulation does also include provisions related to the validations of testing methods and technical equipment.
        Fish movement
        Foreign species:

        Pursuant to the Regulation relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (2004), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005) and the Food Safety Act (2003), it is prohibited to breed alien species unless a specific permit has been granted for this purpose.

        Pursuant to the Regulation relative to sea ranching (2003), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005), a licence for sea ranching can be granted for indigenous animals only.

        Measures related to escapes:

        Pursuant to the Regulation relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (2004), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005), particular care shall be taken to prevent fish from escaping the aquaculture facility. Risk analysis shall be carried out with a view to minimise the risk of future escapes. The analysis shall form the basis for systematic measures to be put in place aiming at detecting escapes as fast as possible and minimizing them once they occur. Land based aquaculture facilities shall have a particular device that prevents fish from escaping through the drain or in other ways.

        Furthermore, the Regulation prescribes that the Directorate of Fisheries shall be duly notified when it has been detected that fish are escaping, or upon suspicion that fish are escaping. Immediately upon the detection of fish escaping, the fish shall be recaptured. There is a duty to recapture escaped fish staying within 500 meters from the facility. Action taken in this regard shall be notified to the Directorate of Fisheries and the Country Council. This duty can be extended to a larger area or limited to a smaller area depending on the probability that the fish will be recaptured. The licensee has a duty to receive fish recaptured by others. Release of fish from an aquaculture facility is prohibited.

        The Regulation relative to technical standard requirements for plants and equipment to be used in aquaculture (2003), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005), lays down measures aiming at limiting the escapes from floating aquaculture installations, with the exception of aquaculture of crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms. Pursuant to the Regulation, floating aquaculture installations need to be certified by an authorized certifying body in compliance with Norwegian Standard NS 9415 or equivalent international standards. The Regulation does furthermore include criteria for being authorized as a certifying body, as well as measures related to the maintenance of aquaculture installations.

        Zoning and movement:

        Pursuant to the Food Safety Act (2003), aquatic animals shall not be moved or set out when there is a reason to suspect a contagious animal disease that can have considerable social impact.

        Pursuant to the Regulation relative to the prevention, limitation and eradication of Diseases among Aquatic Organisms (1991), adopted under the Food Safety Act, the Food Safety Authority establish geographical zones where specific measures for combating the spread of "A and B disease" and salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) are introduced. These measures can include the ban on the transportation of live aquaculture organisms between zones and aquaculture facilities, the ban on the introduction of aquaculture organisms, as well as hygiene requirements for transport and vehicles.

        The Regulation on the prevention, limitation and eradication of Gyrodactylus salaris (1997), adopted under the Food Safety Act (2003), prescribes that it is prohibited to move live or dead aquatic organisms or water from water courses where Gyrodactylus salaries has been confirmed, or where there is suspicion of the existence of such, to other water courses or to other parts of the same water course. Similarly, the movement of fishing gear, boats and other equipment can only take place after having been disinfected.

        Pursuant to the Food Safety Act (2003), the Regulation relative to animal health requirements related to trade in and import of aquaculture animals and products (f) has been adopted.   The Regulation bans or restricts the import of certain aquatic species and prescribes health conditions for trade in and transport of aquaculture animals within the European Economic Area (EEA). A system of approved disease free zones and aquaculture facilities is established, whereby specific criteria and procedures for the granting, maintenance, and withdrawal of approval of such zones and facilities apply, as well as the movement between different zones and facilities. Annexed to the Regulation is a list of diseases, as well as of aquatic animals that are susceptible to diseases.

        The Regulation defines an approved zone as a zone that is free from VHS disease and/or IHN disease in fish and free from Bonamia Ostreae and/or Marteilia Refringens disease in crustaceans, molluscs and gastropods. The Regulation spells out the areas of Norway that are approved zones and which that are not.

        In order for an approved zone to retain its status as such, the following conditions have to be fulfilled:
        • The aquaculture facilities in the zone must ensure that aquaculture animals that enter the zone comes from approved zones or facilities.
        • Aquaculture facilities must be subject to inspections and control of the Food Safety Authority.
        • The non-occurrence of certain listed diseases.
        • The person in charge of the aquaculture facility shall keep a register that includes detailed information regarding the health of the fish.
        Any occurrence of abnormal mortality or symptoms of certain listed diseases shall be reported as soon as possible to the Food Safety Authority. The status as an approved zone will be withdrawn on a temporary or permanent basis upon an outbreak of disease or suspicions of such. Detailed rules regarding the withdrawal of status as approved zone, as well as how a zone can get the status back is included in the Regulation.

        The Regulation furthermore details out the conditions for being granted status as an approved aquaculture facility in a non-approved zone. These conditions relate to, inter alia, the source and quality of water used in the facility; the non-occurrence of symptoms of listed disease for the last four years (fish) and two years (crustaceans, molluscs and gastropods) respectively, as well as measures preventing wild fish from entering the facility.

        In order for an approved facility to retain its status as such, the following conditions have to be fulfilled:
        • Fish and molluscs released into the aquaculture facility shall come from an approved zone or facility.
        • The Food Safety Authority shall inspect the health conditions in the aquaculture facility and take samples to certify that the facility is free of contagions of the listed disease.
        • Tests carried out in a lab shall be negative as to the occurrence of such contagions.
        • The person in charge of the aquaculture facility shall keep a register that includes detailed information regarding the health of the fish and molluscs.
        Any occurrence of mortality or symptoms of certain listed diseases shall be reported as soon as possible to the Food Safety Authority. The status as an approved facility will be withdrawn immediately upon an outbreak of disease or suspicions of such, however only on a temporary basis until the results from disease tests are ready. The Regulation further details out the procedures for the testing of disease in the facility and the permanent withdrawal of the status as approved facility upon a positive test, as well as how the status as approved facility can be gained back.

        The Regulation includes detailed provisions related to the movement of aquaculture animals and products between different zones. When live fish susceptible to the listed diseases, as well as their egg and gametes are introduced into an approved zone or facility, they must come from an approved zone or facility. This also applies when live molluscs susceptible to diseases are to be introduced into an approved coastal zone or facility.

        For trade in aquaculture fish and molluscs, bivalves and gastropods that are not susceptible to the listed diseases, the rules for movement between zones apply. However, the batch can come from a facility from a non-approved zone if the facility do not store animals susceptible to disease and do not have any connection with water courses or coastal waters. Wild fish, molluscs, bivalves and gastropods and their egg and gametes being introduced into an approved zone/facility have to come from an approved zone. When they have been captured in the sea and are to be used in aquaculture or sea ranching in approved zones/facilities, they shall be placed in isolation under the supervision of the Food Safety Authority.

        A movement document certifying that the aquaculture animals come from an approved zone/ facility, or other conditions as mentioned above, has to accompany the batch.

        Before aquaculture animals and products from non-approved facilities in a non-approved zone can be traded for consumption in an approved zone, fish susceptible to disease shall be slaughtered and cleaned, and live molluscs, bivalves and gastropods susceptible to disease shall be delivered directly for consumption or directly to the processing industry.

        Live crustaceans, molluscs and gastropods cannot be reintroduced into the sea unless they come from an approved facility or other specific disease preventive measures are observed.

        The Regulation does also include other requirements related to fish movement and disease prevention. When aquaculture animals and products are being traded within the EEA, or are being imported from outside the EEA, the following rules shall be observed:
        • There must be no sign of clinical disease the day before dispatch.
        • The animals must not be meant for destruction or slaughter as part of a programme to eradicate a listed disease.
        • The animals must not come from an aquaculture facility that is subject to restrictions due to animal health considerations, or have been in contact with animals originating from such a facility.
        Eggs and gametes that are being traded for aquaculture and sea ranching purposes must originate from animals that meet the above mentioned conditions. Aquaculture products that are being traded for consumption must not show clinical signs of disease on the day of dispatch.

        As regards transport, the Regulation prescribes that aquaculture animals shall be transported as fast as possible to its destination, in a vehicle that has been cleaned in the prescribed manner before departure. The transportation shall be carried out in a way that safeguards the health of the animals. The Regulation does also include provision related to the use of water during transportation.

        Import of live aquatic animals and products:

        The Regulation relative to animal health requirements related to trade in and import of aquaculture animals and products (2003) prescribes that it is prohibited to import live fresh water crustaceans, fresh water lobster, as well as live oysters for the purpose of aquaculture and sea ranching.

        The Regulation also includes specific rules that apply for the importation of aquaculture animals and products from outside the EEA and are account of this is made in the following. The importation of live crustaceans for the release into or outside an aquaculture facility is prohibited. Imported live aquaculture animals intended for consumption shall not be released.

        Live fish and their eggs and gametes that are to be imported for use in aquaculture and put-and-take facilities have to originate in a listed (approved) area/third country. The same goes for live molluscs, bivalves and gastropods and their eggs and gametes imported for aquaculture. When importing live fish and molluscs, bivalves and gastropods for consumption, the same restriction applies unless they are shipped directly to an approved import centre.

        When importing aquaculture animals and products from outside the EEA, the batch has to be accompanied by a health certificate issued by the official authorities of the exporting third country. Samples of different health certificates are annexed to the Regulation.

        Under the Food Safety Act (2003), the Regulation relative to special protection measures in relation to the importation of aquatic animals and products derived from such animals, has been adopted, stating that it is prohibited to import live fish belonging to the salmon family Salmonidae originating in the Faroe Islands. The Regulation also includes restriction related to the import of live roe and eggs from the same species.

        The Quality regulation for fish and fish products (1996), adopted under the Food Safety Act (2003), does also include provisions related to import of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products. The imported products shall meet the same standards as provided for in this regulation. Products that are not fulfilling these standards can be denied for import unless Norway is, pursuant to international agreements, obliged to approve the goods for import.

        When importing products from outside EEA, the following requirements shall be met:The aquatic animals and aquatic animal products shall:
        • Come from country or a region that has been listed (approved) by the Food Safety Authority.
        • Not come from a country or region where a ban on import has been enacted based on public health and/or animal health considerations.
        • Come from a facility or vehicle/vessel that has been listed (approved) by the Food Safety Authority.
        • Be accompanied by a health certificate issued by the export country and which is in compliance with the requirements set by the Food Safety Authority.
        • Have passed successfully a border control.
        Under the Act relating to the regulation of exports of fish and fish products (1990), only exporters that have been registered can export fish and fish products. The Ministry can issue Regulations providing that negotiations concerning the export of fish and fish products and their implementation, shall only be carried out by one or more sales companies with limited liability (centralized sales). Furthermore, the Act gives the Ministry regulatory powers as regards terms of sale, minimum prices and other measures of temporary character, as well as enforcement measures. Under the Act, the Export Council for Fish is established; a body that is given powers to implement the Act and regulations as provided for.

        Pursuant to the Act, the Temporary Regulation relative to special requirements in relation with the exportation of salmon products (1998) and the Regulation relative to the regulation of the export of fish and fish products (1991) have been adopted, detailing out rules for the export of fish and fish products, as well as the role of the Export Council in this regard.

        Generically modified organisms (GMOs):

        The Act relating to the production and use of genetically modified organisms (the Gene Technology Act 1993) regulates the introduction, including import and the release for aquaculture purposes, of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). This cannot take place unless a permit has been granted by the Ministry of the Environment. A permit can only be granted if the introduction does not represent a threat to the environment or to health. The application has to include an environmental impact assessment, as well as an assessment of the introduction's impact on health. The Regulation relative to impact assessments related to the Gene Technology Act (2005) details out the procedure for this. For export, the Act prescribes that no permit or notification is required. The Act prescribes that the Minister may regulate that import and transport of GMOs is done without permit and this has been provided for in the Regulation relative to the labelling, transport, import and export of GMOs (2005).
        Disease control
        The Food Safety Act (2003) is the main act addressing aquatic animal health. The Act provides a general obligation for anyone to take due care to avoid the development of, or the spread of, contagious animal diseases. Live animals, including aquatic animals, shall not be sold or bought, kept, moved or set out when there is a reason to suspect a contagious animal disease that can have considerable social impact.

        Pursuant to the Food Safety Act (2003), the Regulation relative to the establishment and expansion of aquaculture installations and the registration of ornamental dams (2004), has been adopted. Under the regulation, no person can establish an aquaculture facility, or expand the production volume in an existing one, without obtaining an authorization from the Food Safety Authority. Before granting an authorization, a risk assessment of disease spread in the aquaculture facility and the surrounding environment has to be conducted. When conducting the assessment, the following aspects are of relevance: distance to watercourses and other aquaculture facilities; the type of species to be produced; the farming system and production volume.

        Pursuant to the Regulation relative to the prevention, limitation and eradication of Diseases among Aquatic Organisms (1991), adopted under the Food Safety Act (2003), it is prohibited to mate or reproduce aquatic animals from water courses and aquaculture facilities with contagious "A or B disease," or where there is a suspicion of this, without a permit from the Food Safety Authority. For the purpose of combating "A and B disease" and salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), the Food Safety Authority can establish special zones where specific measures for combating the spread of disease are carried out, including the ban on mating broodstock without a permit.

        Furthermore, the Regulation provides that in case there is contagious disease in an aquaculture facility, or upon suspicion of this, the Food Safety Authority can order necessary measures, including killing and destruction, in order to limit the spread of the disease. They can also order the reconstruction of facilities, transport units and equipment in these cases.

        The Regulation on the prevention, limitation and eradication of Gyrodactylus salaris (1997), adopted under the Food Safety Act (2003), prescribes that the operator of an aquaculture facility, or other persons responsible for aquatic organisms, shall immediately notify a public veterinary surgeon in the Food Safety Authority when there is reason to believe that aquatic organisms have been contaminated by Gyrodactylus salaris. The Food Safety Authority shall confirm the occurrence of Gyrodactylus salaris based on a laboratory diagnosis from the National Veterinary Institute. Upon suspicion of the occurrence of Gyrodactylus salaris in aquaculture facilities or water courses, the country veterinary surgeon shall prescribe intensified surveillance and other necessary measures in order to determine the occurrence of disease.

        When the occurrence of Gyrodactultys salaris has been confirmed in watercourses, the Food Safety Authority can order the treatment or killing of aquatic organisms living there. If the latter measures will have an impact on fish stocks or other fauna, a permit has to be obtained pursuant to the Act relative to salmonids and fresh-water fish (1995). If the measures entail the use of chemicals, a permit will have to be obtained pursuant to the Pollution Control Act (1981).

        Upon a confirmation of the occurrence of Gyrodactultys salaris in aquatic organisms in aquaculture facilities, the facility shall be shut down and reconstructed. Also upon a suspicion of disease can the Food Safety Authority order the latter if this measure can influence on the treatment of a water course. Specific measures to prevent disease spread can also be imposed on aquaculture facilities whose positioning close to a waters course makes it particularly vulnerable to potential disease.

        The Regulation relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (2004), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005) and the Food Safety Act (2003), establishes various requirements for the operation of aquaculture facilities, including disease preventive measures and hygiene measures. The Regulation does not cover sea ranching.

        Under the Regulation, a licensee is obliged to keep an up-to-date emergency plan for the aquaculture facility. The purpose of such a plan is to ensure that disease prevention and animal welfare considerations are taken into account in an emergency situation. The plan shall list the disease preventive and animal welfare measures that should be carried out in case of sudden contagious disease and mass death. Furthermore, the plan shall include measures that can be taken in order to prevent and deal with mortality caused by invasions of algae and jellyfish, harmful water temperatures and sudden pollution. The plan shall also give an outline of how escapes can be discovered and limited, and how recaptures can be made more efficient.

        The Regulation prescribes that all aquaculture operations shall be carried out in a responsible manner as regards disease prevention. Facilities and equipment shall be cleaned at a regular basis. Care has to be taken so that employees, clothing, equipment, used packaging etc. do not spread disease. Used equipment shall be cleaned and disinfected before being moved to another aquaculture facility. Systematic measures to prevent spread of disease from fish eggs shall be taken. Inseminated salmon eggs shall be disinfected before they are incubated.

        The person in charge of operating the aquaculture facility shall inspect the facility, based on risk assessment of conditions related to environment, health and animal welfare. Inspections in facilities where fish is bred shall be carried out once a day if the whether so permits. Inspections of facilities where crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms are bred shall be inspected once a week. The inspections shall be carried out in way that disturbs the animals as little as possible. Prior to, and after rough weather, inspections shall be carried out to ensure that devices are secured in an appropriate manner. Defects will have to be repaired immediately. The alarm on land based aquaculture facilities shall be inspected at least once a week.

        In case of increased mortality rate or when there is suspicion of disease, a veterinary surgeon or fish biologist shall be contacted immediately, whereupon a health inspection is to be carried out. In case of continued high mortalities, a new health inspection shall be carried out within 14 days, unless the causes of the mortalities are evident.

        During every health inspection, the record of operations (see below) shall be studied and the site shall be inspected. Autopsy shall be performed on a representative selection of recently died animals or animals with abnormal behaviour, as well as other examinations as appropriate. Upon an increase in mortality rate or suspicion of contagious or non-contagious disease, tests shall be taken and examinations shall be carried out in order to determine the cause of this.

        The Regulation does also prescribe a minimum number of regular health inspections that shall be conducted each year, varying according to species, the quantity of fish, and for what purpose the aquatic animals are bred. More frequent inspections are prescribed for broodstock and fingerlings, than for table fish.

        The Regulation also includes detailed provisions regarding mating and reproduction of fish, and the health measures that are to be observed in this regard.

        As a measure against Gyrodactylus salaris, the Regulation prescribes that a minimum of 30 fresh water table fish of salmon or rainbow trout shall be examined for this disease every year.

        The Regulation also prescribes measures related to the slaughtering and the handling of dead aquatic animals. It is prohibited to slaughter aquaculture animals on the aquaculture facility. To the extent possible, dead animals shall be removed from the production unit every day. Dead animals, as well as parts of these, shall be treated as refuse and kept in containers (capacity of minimum 5 m3 for facilities with a biomass above 130 tonnes). The refuse shall as soon as possible be grinded and ensiled to below pH 4.

        The aquaculture facility shall at all times be kept tidy. When production on a site is discontinued, the whole installation, including all devices above and under water shall be removed within six months.

        As regards table fish and broodstock production in marine waters, the Regulation prescribes that a plan of operations shall be prepared. The plan shall describe plans for the next two years regarding the estimated time and place (site) for release of fish, and the number of fish that is to be released. For sites to which more than one licence is attached, it shall be indicated what licence the release concerns. Furthermore, the routines for leaving sites dormant and any possible movements of fish to other sites shall be recorded. Regarding the former, the Regulation prescribes that sites shall be emptied and left dormant for at least two months after every production cycle. The Food Safety Authority can make decisions extending this period, or decide that a whole area shall be left dormant if fish health considerations so dictates.

        A biennial plan of operations for table fish and broodstock production of salmon, trout and rainbow trout, shall be submitted to and be approved by the Directorate of Fisheries, in cooperation with the Food Safety Authority, every year.

        An operator of an aquaculture facility is required to maintain a record of operations that is to be kept on the aquaculture facility for at least four years.

        For each site where there is production of table fish and broodstock, the record of operations shall include, inter alia, the following items:
        • Time for leaving sites dormant.
        • Incidents of escape: cause, time of escape, species, number of escaped fish, average weight, health status; confirmation that escapes have been reported to the Directorate of Fisheries and the time for this.
        • Escaped fish that have been caught: the number of fish, the size, total weight and species.
        • Use of chemicals: type of chemical, product, quantity and period of use;Use of drugs: type of drugs, product, quantity, period of use and period of withdrawal.
        • Delivery of dead fish, quantity, time of delivery and recipient.
        • Results of environmental surveys that have been carried out.
        For each production entity (cage etc.) of table fish and broodstock, there shall be kept a record of operations that includes the following items:
        • Release of fish: date, species, number of fish, age and origin.
        • Quanta of slaughtered fish: date, species, number of fish, weight.
        • The withdrawal of live fish: date, species, number of fish and quanta. When fish are moved to another aquaculture facility, it shall be indicated to which one they are moved.
        • Real volume.
        • The health condition and welfare status of the fish; the number of health inspections; the number of autopsies performed; trial withdrawals; examinations; diagnostics; damages; treatments; known and probable causes of damages and diseases.
        • Relevant parameters for water quality and water quality measures.
        • Attacks by predators, algae or jelly fish and measures carried out to fight these.
        The following information for each production entity (cage etc.) of table fish and broodstock shall be recorded on a daily basis:
        • The stock of fish: species, number of fish and age.
        • Biomass and the basis for calculating the biomass.
        • Losses: species, number of fish, quanta and cause.
        • The consumption of feed in kilos and type of feed.
        As regards marine aquaculture of salmon, trout and rainbow trout, the information under these four items have to be furnished to the Directorate of Fisheries on a monthly basis, together with the information regarding release of fish, quanta of slaughtered fish, the withdrawal of live fish and the real volume. The licensee shall also report every month about the times for leaving the sites dormant.

        The record of operations for broodstock shall in addition contain the following information on the site level:
        • The quantity (litres) of roe produced (only applies for temporary licences) .
        • Biological decent and origin.
        • External and internal delivery of roe: date of delivery, name of recipient and amount (litres) of roe.
        For aquaculture other than marine aquaculture of salmon, trout and rainbow trout, a notification shall be given to the Directorate of Fisheries the following cases:
        • When an aquaculture facility becomes operative.
        • When all aquatic animals are emptied out of the aquaculture facility.
        • When the mortality rate has increased substantially or when the fish are under substantial danger (Does not apply to crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms).
        There are also more detailed provisions regarding the keeping of a record of operations for hatcheries and for culture based fisheries, as well as for the aquaculture of crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms.

        The Regulation does also establish limitations on the density of fish in every production entity, as well as obligations to empty and let sites dormant regularly.

        It is prohibited to fish closer than 100 meters from the aquaculture facility and to move closer to it than 20 meters.

        The Regulation relative to fighting of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (2000), adopted under the Food Safety Act (2003), provides for measures that are to be taken in order to reduce the occurrence of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in marine aquaculture of salmon and rainbow trout. The Regulation prescribes that when the sea temperature is 4 degrees Celsius or above, the occurrence of salmon lice has to be examined and registered at least every two weeks. Reports shall be made to the Food Safety Authority every month, and shall include: the number of adult female salmon lice, the number of male and adolescent salmon lice, the number of treatments carried out, the sea temperature and the use of wrasse. The Regulation also determines maximum limits for the occurrence of salmon lice before treatment of the stock has to be carried out. Such treatment has to be carried out no later than 14 days after these limits have been exceeded, unless a dispensation is granted by the Food Safety Authority.

        Pursuant to the Regulation relative to sea ranching (2003), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005) and the FAOLEX QueryFood Safety Act (2003), sea ranching operations shall be operated in a fashion that ensures that the activity is technically, sanitary and environmentally sound. A licence holder shall make sure that a biennial operational plan for the sea ranching activity be prepared. Such a plan shall be submitted to, and be approved by the Directorate of Fisheries before 1 October every year.

        The plan for the first year shall be approved in cooperation with the Food Safety Authority. The operational plan shall as a minimum contain:
        • The origin of the animals and the number of animals that are to be released; the time for release; in what site(s) or part of site the animals are to be released.
        • What parts of a site where activities will commence the next year, if applicable.
        • Scheduled time, methods and scale of recapture of sea ranched animals.
        • Prescribed measures in case of disease outbreaks, e.g. leaving a site dormant.
        • Planned use of installations and devices and maintenance of these, if applicable.
        • Planned measures related to control of predators.
        • Plans related to feeding and other measures that have been applied for, if applicable.
        The Directorate of Fisheries may, after application, approve essential changes to the operational plan.

        The Directorate of Fisheries may in each licence prescribe that the animals shall be labelled before they are released or recaptured, and that the sea ranching sites shall be marked.

        Pursuant to the Sea Ranching Regulation, the licensee shall notify the Directorate of Fisheries when activities are commenced and when they are stopped.

        The licensee is furthermore obliged to monitor the operations on a regular basis - this can be further specified in the individual licence. The licence may also include conditions related to surveys of the released species. Furthermore, the licensee shall keep a record of operations which is to be kept for a minimum of five years, and that shall be produced upon request by the authorities. The record shall include the following:
        • For every release: species, number, age and size of the released animals, the time of release, where they are being released and the average weight of the animals.
        • The actual time of harvest and quantity of animals harvested.
        • The amount of dead or diseased animals that were harvested; how these were disposed off, when and to whom.
        • If a permit for feeding has been given - type of feed, consumption, brand and producer.
        • The health conditions of the animals.
        • The use of medicine and chemicals.
        • Measures to combat predators.
        • Times for leaving sites dormant because of disease.
        • Results of surveys of the released species.
        • Time and nature of inspection by licensee.
        • Documentation of the environmental state.
        • Other information as required by the licence.
        The Regulation furthermore prescribes that that health inspections shall be carried out in accordance with the Regulation relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (2004).

        In order to combat disease and danger of infection, the Food Safety Authorities can make decisions on the sampling of genetic material from sea ranched animals.

        When contagious disease has been proven, or there is suspicion of this, the Food Safety Authority might order necessary measures, such as killing and destruction of animals. When disease is proven, the authorities might in addition order to leave sites dormant.

        The Regulation relative to disinfection and cleaning aquaculture facilities (1997), adopted under the Food Safety Act, provides rules for the cleaning of aquaculture facilities, and the application of chemical disinfection in aquaculture facilities, as well as transport and quarantine. It also provides for the authorization of such chemicals by the medical authorities.

        Under the Regulation relative to slaughterhouses and processing premises of aquatic animals (2006), adopted under the Food Safety Act, the establishment, operation, expansion, moving and reorganization of a slaughterhouse or processing premise (hereafter establishment) is prohibited without an authorization from the Food Safety Authority.

        In order to be granted an authorization, the establishment has to be located in such a way that aquatic animal disease control consideration can be taken with respect to neighbouring aquaculture facilities, as well as wild stocks. In addition, requirements related to the treatment of waste water and animal waste, as further specified in the regulation and the Regulation relative to the disinfection of intake water and waste water from aquaculture related businesses (1997), as well as the Regulation on transport and handling of animal waste (1999), have to be observed. The Regulation prescribes that there shall be physical division between the outlet of waste water and animal waste.

        The Regulation furthermore prescribes that establishments have to be run in a sound manner in terms of animal disease control, ensuring that personnel, clothing, equipment, devises and packaging etc. do not spread disease. Aquaculture animals shall not leave the establishment alive unless they are to be consumed directly.

        Further, when contagious diseases (A or B disease) is present, or when it is suspected to be so, slaughtering and processing is not permitted without an authorization from the Food Safety Authority. The latter can also order that slaughtering and processing is done in a restricted manner in case of other contagious diseases.
        Drugs
        The production, testing, import, licensing, sale and advertisement of drugs, including veterinary drugs, is regulated in the Act relative to Drugs (1992). The Regulation relative to the prescription, production and distribution of feed containing drugs for animals, birds, fish and other aquatic organisms (1996), has been adopted under the act. Pursuant to the Regulation, any enterprise needs a licence issued by the Norwegian Medicines Agency prior to the manufacture, storage, and distribution, import and export of feed containing drugs. The issues of packing, labelling, storage, transport of drugs are also addressed in the Regulation.

        The Act Relative to Veterinary Surgeons and Animal Health Personnel (2001) regulates the issuance of authorizations as a veterinary surgeon, as well as the use of veterinary drugs. According to the act, only a veterinary surgeon, or a fisheries biologist in case of the treatment of most aquatic species, can order or use veterinary drugs that have to be dispensed by prescription.

        The Regulation relative to the control of residues in animal foodstuffs, production animals and fish (2000), adopted under the Veterinary Surgeons Act (2001) and the Food Safety Act (2003), regulates the use of veterinary drugs and the production, processing, import and trade in production animals and fish which have been treated with such drugs.

        The Regulation prohibits unauthorized treatment of production animals and fish. Unauthorized treatment is understood as the use of prohibited substances or products, or the use of drugs in an unauthorized way. The Regulation details out what is considered as unauthorized treatment.

        The Regulation prescribes that enterprises that trade in aquaculture animals shall be registered with the Food Safety Authority. Furthermore, it prescribes that it is prohibited to store prohibited substances, as defined in the Regulation, in an aquaculture facility.

        Furthermore, the Regulation provides that it is prohibited to import, store and sell fish that have been given prohibited substances or that has been given unauthorized treatment.The person in charge of an aquaculture facility is obliged to put in place necessary measures to ensure that fish are not being given prohibited substances. Necessary measures include monitoring of all documentation, and to control that the withdrawal time (period from when fish have been given drugs till they can be used in the food production) is being observed.

        The person in charge of the aquaculture facility shall keep under supervision the dates for and nature of treatments carried out with veterinary drugs on fish. Prescriptions on treatment shall be kept as documentation for five years.

        Moreover, the Regulations prescribes that it is prohibited to import, process or sell and distribute fish that contain prohibited substances, polluting substances and residue levels of veterinary drugs that exceed the maximum permitted levels. The person in charge of processing plant is obliged to put in place necessary measures to ensure that fish that is received at the processing plant do not contain residue levels of unauthorized substances, polluting substances or residue levels of veterinary drugs that exceed the maximum permitted levels. Necessary measures further include monitoring of all documentation and to control that withdrawal times are being observed.

        The Regulation also details out measures that can be taken or ordered by the Food Safety Authority in connection with their inspections. If there is a suspicion of the occurrence of residue levels of prohibited substances, pollution substances or veterinary drugs that exceed the permitted levels, the fish shall be held back in the aquaculture facility or processing plant until tests have been carried out and the results are ready. If the fish have been subject to prohibited treatment, the fish must not leave the aquaculture facility unless this is done under the supervision of the Food Safety Authority. Moreover, such fish shall be slaughtered and destroyed immediately. If there are traces of residues of prohibited substances, polluting substances or veterinary drugs that exceed permitted levels in fish in a processing plant, this fish shall be declared non-consumable. Furthermore, the Food Safety Authority might ban the trade in, confiscate, hold back, discard and destroy fish not fulfilling the requirements set forth in the Regulation.

        The Regulation relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (2004), adopted under the Food Safety Act (2003), does also include provisions related to the use of veterinary drugs and chemicals. The Regulation provides that when veterinary drugs and chemicals are being used, special care shall be taken so that the substances are not released into the environment. If aquaculture animals are given veterinary drugs and a withdrawal time has to be observed, this shall be notified by a signboard throughout the withdrawal time.

        Furthermore, the Regulation prescribes that fish shall not be given any kind of chemical substances, including salt, or be treated with hormones if this can have influence the fish welfare in a negative way. Use of chemicals and hormones is, however, permitted if fish health considerations so prescribe.
        Feed
        Pursuant to the Food Safety Act (2003) it is prohibited to trade unsafe feed, or to feed aquaculture animals that are destined to become foodstuffs with unsafe feed.

        The Regulation relative to the prohibition of the use of certain animal waste products in feed for animals (2001), adopted under the Food Safety Act (2003), prohibits the use of dead animals that were not killed for consumption as a component in feed for aquaculture animals. This includes dead aquaculture animals, excluding shellfish.

        The Regulation relative to the prohibition of the use of processed animal proteins in feed for animals breaded for human consumption (2000), adopted under the Food Safety Act, prohibits the trade in feed that includes processed animal proteins, or the feeding of animals with this kind of feed. An exception to this is made for blood meal from other animals than ruminants, which still can be used in feed for aquaculture animals. The Regulation also prescribes that when the latter is used in the feed, the feed shall be rendered hygienic as prescribed by the Food Safety Authority.

        The Regulation relative to feeding stuffs (2002), adopted under the Food Safety Act (2003), prescribes for the production, import, export and trade in feed for animals, including aquatic animals. It details out rules related to the authorization of feed production plants, the use of additives and the composition of feed, the use of genetically modified feed and additives, as well as packing and labelling of feed.

        The Regulation relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (2004), adopted under the Food Safety Act (2003), provides that there shall be sufficient amounts of feed available for the fish and that it shall be composed in a manner that enhances fish welfare. The feeding shall be adjusted according to species, age, development stage, and weight of the fish, as well as needs related to physiology and instincts. The fish shall be fed on a daily basis, unless this is not required. The feeding shall be done in a manner that provides all fish with feed and which does not cause any damage to the fish. Fish shall not be fed when this is unfavourable to their health, welfare and quality.

        Furthermore, the Regulation relative to sea ranching (2003), adopted under the Aquaculture Act (2005), prescribes that an authorization from the Directorate of Fisheries, in consultation with the Food Safety Authority, has to be obtained before feeding sea ranched animals. When granting an authorization, special consideration shall be given to disease and environmental aspects.
        Food safety
        The Food Safety Act (2003) is the main act addressing food safety, and covers the production, processing and distribution of aquatic foodstuffs. Under the Act, it is prohibited to trade in or distribute unsafe foodstuffs, i.e. foodstuffs that can be considered harmful to human health or unsuitable for consumption.

        The Act prescribes that establishments are responsible for immediately notifying the Food Safety Authority if there is reason to suspect that foodstuffs are unsafe or that contagious animal disease that can have substantial social consequences will spread. The establishment shall immediately introduce measures to prevent, reduce or eliminate any harmful effects, including stopping trade and withdrawals from the market.

        Under the Act, establishments are required to make sure that the design and operations of establishments are hygienic. The person responsible for the establishment shall ensure that anyone participating in activities covered in the act has necessary formation.

        Under the Act, the Quality regulation for fish and fish products (1996).   has been adopted. The Regulation addresses hygiene measures related to trade, production and transport of fish and fish products, including crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms, of both domestic and international origin.

        Before commencing operations, processing establishments, including factory vessels (hereafter establishment), need to obtain an authorization from the Food Safety Authority. Before granting authorizations, the Food Safety Authority has to verify that the establishment complies with the provisions in the Regulation. The Food Safety Authority keeps a register of authorized establishments.

        The Regulation reiterates the prohibition to trade in unsafe foodstuffs set forth in the Food Safety Act, and details out under which other conditions fish and fish products shall not be traded. This relates to the physical appearance and quality of the products; levels of toxics, veterinary drugs, additives and residues exceeding the permitted levels, as well as the appearance of parasites and micro-organisms.

        The Regulation furthermore includes sections on hygiene and quality measures related to the handling of live fish; equipment, handling and hygiene in factory vessels; handling of fish during and after landing; quality requirements related to raw materials; general conditions for establishments on land; conditions for handling of fish and fish products in general, as well as frozen fish products, aquaculture fish, crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms; special conditions for preserving fish products (salting, smoking, drying, canning); control of parasites and histamines; packing, labelling and transport, as well as microbiological specifications. All establishments shall have hot and cold tap water.

        The person responsible for the establishment shall ensure that the establishment is operated in compliance with the Regulation. To this effect, he has the duty to inform employees about provisions that are of relevance to their work, as well as to cooperate with the Food Safety Authority regarding inspections and to ensure compliance with their directives.

        This person shall furthermore take the necessary measures so that the specifications of the Regulation are complied with at all stages of the production. To that end, the HACCP (the hazard analysis and critical control point) system shall be put in place in the establishment, a system which identifies, evaluates and controls hazards which are significant for food safety.

        The HACCP system includes the following elements:
        • Identification of critical points in the establishment.
        • Establishment and implementation of methods for monitoring and checking critical points.
        • Taking samples for analysis in an approved laboratory by the competent authority for the purpose of controlling the cleaning and disinfection methods and for the purpose of controlling compliance with the standards established by the Regulation.
        • Controlling conditions related to hygiene and construction technology.
        • Keeping a written record of the preceding points with a view to submitting it to the Food Safety Authority. The results of the different control and tests will be kept for a period of at least two years.
        For plants only receiving, and not processing fish, a simplified HACCP system can be put in place. The HACCP system has to be authorized and be revised at a regular basis by the Food Safety Authority. Furthermore, the HACCP system imposes on the establishment a duty to keep records of the below items - records that are to be kept and produced upon request by the authorities:
        • The organization of the establishment.
        • The public regulations the HACCP system is referring to.
        • The products and manufacturing processes.
        • Plan for cleaning of the establishment.
        • Requirements related to hygiene and construction technology.
        • Procedures for withdrawing products from the marked and processes for handling consumer complaints.
        • Descriptions of how documents and forms relevant to HACCP are being handled and filed.
        • Descriptions of routines for internal audit and the updating of the HACCP system.
        All elements of the HACCP system shall be subject to internal audit once a year. If the results of this audit, or other information, show that there exists a health danger or a suspicion of such, the Food Safety Authority shall be contacted immediately and necessary action shall be taken.

        Under the Food Safety Act, the Regulation relative to internal audit for complying with the aquaculture legislation (2004) has been adopted. Pursuant to the Regulation, the responsible for the establishment has to make sure that a system for internal audit is introduced and applied and that this is done in cooperation with the employees. The internal audit system shall be individually adapted, observing the following criteria:
        • Relevant aquaculture legislation and regulations shall be accessible.
        • Employees shall have sufficient and updated knowledge and skills as regards the internal audit.
        • Set targets for the internal audit.
        • A plan of how the establishment is organized is made, including how responsibilities, duties and powers related to compliance with aquaculture legislation are distributed.
        • Map out dangers and problems, carry out risk assessment and prepare measures to reduce these risks.
        • Put into effect routines to reveal, correct and prevent contraventions of conditions set forth in the aquaculture legislation.
        • Monitor and examine the system for internal audit to ensure its functioning.
        The system for internal audit shall be duly documented.

        The Regulation relative to Labelling of Foodstuffs (1993), adopted under the Food Safety Act, applies to all foodstuffs, including fish and fish products, and details out requirements relating to the labelling and presentation of traded foodstuffs. Foodstuffs shall be labelled with information regarding name of product, ingredients, content, expiry date, storage, as well as country of origin.

        The Regulation relative to tracing of food and feeding stuffs (2004) has equally been adopted under the Food Safety Act, and prescribes that it shall be possible to trace back food, feeding stuffs and animals that may be used in food or mixed with food or feeding stuffs. The person in charge of an establishment producing, processing or distributing food shall be able to trace back any person that has delivered to the establishment food, feeding stuffs and animals that will be mixed in food or feeding stuffs. Measures shall be put in place so that an establishment can identify other establishments that have received their products. Information regarding traceability shall be made available to the Food Safety Authority upon request. When selling products within the EEA area, the products shall be labelled for the purpose of traceability.
        Miscellaneous
        Animal welfare

        The Act Relative to Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (1974) has several legal implications for the operating of aquaculture facilities. As a general principle, the Act provides that animals, including fish and crustaceans, shall be treated well, and due regard shall be given to their natural instincts and needs so that they are not in danger of suffering unnecessarily. Furthermore, the Act prescribes that animals in captivity shall receive sufficient food; proper care and attention; that restraining ties or barriers do neither injure or harm the animals, and that sick or injured animals receive suitable treatment and are killed if need be. The killing of animals shall be done in a manner that limits their suffering. The Act furthermore restricts the altering of the genes of animals based on animal welfare considerations.

        The Regulation relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (2004) includes several provision adopted under the Act Relative to Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and prescribes that every aquaculture facility shall be equipped with personnel qualified for taking care of fish welfare.

        Moreover, a licensee is obliged to keep an up-to-date emergency plan for the aquaculture facility, one of its purposes being to ensure that aquatic animal welfare considerations are taken into account in an emergency situation.

        The person in charge of operating the aquaculture facility has a duty to inspect the facility based on risk assessment of conditions relevant to environment, health and aquatic animal welfare.

        There are several provisions that only apply to the production of fish. Aquaculture facilities for the production of fish shall be designed in such a manner that:
        • The fish has space enough to move around and follow their natural instincts.
        • They do not have sharp edges that can cause discomfort to the fish.
        • They cause minimal risk of damage to the fish, also when fish are being released and captured.
        • Inspections of the fish can easily be carried out.
        • Care and treatment of the fish can easily be carried out.
        • They are designed in way that facilitates good hygiene.
        • They are adjusted to the surroundings, with regard to weather conditions.
        Methods, technical devises and equipment that are being used, including equipment used for moving the fish, shall be suitable from a fish welfare perspective. New methods and technical solutions shall be tested and found safe before use. If the facility relies on electricity for securing the fish welfare, there shall be reliable sources of electricity and access to emergency supplies of electricity (aggregate) and oxygen.

        Land based aquaculture facilities shall be equipped with an alarm that is activated in case of power outage, low oxygen levels, low water supplies and other deficiencies that are of concern to fish welfare.

        Tests for surveying oxygen values, pH value, temperature and salinity shall not expose the fish to substantial harm. The salinity of the water in which the fish is kept shall not exceed 35 per thousand.

        Moreover, the fish shall be kept in an environment that is adapted to the needs of each specific species and that protects them from unnecessary stress, pain and suffering. The fish shall be grouped according to size to the extent this is of importance and taking into consideration fish welfare. The fish shall not be handled and taken out of the water unless this is necessary. If the fish show signs of considerable discomfort or deviant behaviour, measures to secure the welfare of the fish shall be put in place.

        Furthermore, measures to combat stress and pain to the fish caused by predators, jellyfish and algae should be put in place. Moreover, the regulation prohibits operations and removal of body parts on live fish, as well as treatment of fish with chemical substances or hormones if this can have a negative impact on fish health. These restrictions do not apply if it is required from a medical point of view.

        If living on will cause unnecessary or considerable suffering for the fish, it shall as soon as possible be stunned and killed duly. The fish shall be stunned or given anaesthetics before being killed and shall be unconscious when death occurs. The death shall occur as a result of the fish being bled, and care has to be taken that the fish are dead before being subject to further treatment.

        As regards feed, the Regulation provides that the amount and nature of the feed used shall advance fish welfare.

        Fish welfare considerations are also to be taken into account as regards vaccinations, and the Regulation provides that vaccination equipment shall be tested before being used to make sure that they are safe from a fish welfare perspective. Care has to be taken that vaccinations are done in a correct way.

        Furthermore, the record of operations for the production of table fish, broodstock, hatcheries and hatchery-reared animals for culture-based fisheries, shall include details regarding the welfare status of the animals.

        The Regulation includes provisions related to the density of fish in a site, stating that this shall be adjusted according to water quality, the natural instincts of the fish, the manner in which the aquaculture facility is operated and technology used. The fish density of salmon and rainbow trout aquaculture (table fish and broodstock) is prescribed to not exceed 25 kg/m3.

        Furthermore, the Regulation relative to sea ranching (2003), adopted under the Food Safety Act (2003), provides that the Food Safety Authority may make decisions on the maximum density of animals on a site.

        The Food Safety Act (2003) provides that the Ministry can issue regulations banning the production, processing, import and trade in animal foodstuffs that stem from animals that have been treated in a way that can be considered as representing cruelty against animals. To date, no such regulation has been issued.

        Pursuant to the Regulation relative to slaughter houses and processing premises of aquatic animals (2006), adopted under the Food Safety Act and the Act Relative to Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, an establishment will not be authorized to operate unless it has technical devises and equipment for its operations that are suitable from a fish welfare perspective.

        Moreover, the Regulation provides that fish shall not be exposed to unnecessary stress, pain and suffering. The fish shall be killed as fast as possible after having arrived at the slaughterhouse. The killing of fish shall be executed at a speed that is responsible from a fish welfare point of view. The Food Safety Authority can prescribe the maximum amount of fish that can be killed in a given amount of time. The Regulation also prescribes rules regarding qualifications of personnel (the personnel shall have necessary knowledge as regards fish welfare issues), and methods, equipment and installations used for the handling of fish. If the establishment depends on electricity to ensure fish welfare, there shall be in place back-up solutions in case of power blackouts. Moreover, the Regulation prescribes rules regarding the use of anaesthetics, prohibited anaesthetics and the procedure for killing the fish. The fish shall be given anaesthetics before, or at the time of killing and be anaesthetized when death occurs, and shall be killed immediately after having been given anaesthetics. The fish shall die as a consequence of loss of blood.
        References
        Legislation
        All the acts and regulations are available in Norwegian at http://www.lovdata.no
        Regulation No. 1799 of 2004 relative to authorizations for the breeding of other species than salmon, trout and rainbow trout (Forskrift om tillatelse til akvakultur for andre arter enn laks, ørret og regnbueørret).
        Regulation No. 1785 of 2004 relative to the operation of aquaculture facilities (Forskrift om drift av akvakulturanlegg).
        Regulation relative to the prohibition of the use of animal proteins in feed for production animals (2007). (Forskrift om forbud mot bruk av animalske proteiner i fôr til produksjonsdyr).
        Regulation No. 514 relative of 2001 relative to the prohibition of the use of certain animal waste products in feed for animals breaded for human consumption. (Forskrift om forbud mot bruk av visse animalske avfallsprodukter i fôr til produksjonsdyr).
        Regulation No. 1385 of 1993 relative to labelling etc. of foodstuffs (Forskrift om merking mv av næringsmidler).
        Act No. 75 of 2001 Relative to veterinary surgeons and other animal health personnel. (Lov om veterinærer og annet dyrehelsepersonell).
        Regulation No. 693 of 1996 relative to the prescription, production and distribution of feed containing drugs for animals, birds, aquatic animals and other aquatic organisms. (Forskrift om forskrivning, tilvirkning og distribusjon m.v. av medisinfôr til dyr, fugler, fisk og andre akvatiske organismer).
        Act No. 132 of 1992 relative to drugs. (Lov om legemidler m.v.)
        Regulation No. 749 of 2003 relative to the processing and control in construction matters. (Forskrift om saksbehandling og kontroll i byggesaker).
        Act No. 73 of 1974 relative to prevention of cruelty to animals (1974). (Lov om dyrevern).
        Regulation No. 1009 of 2005 relative to the labelling, transport, import and export of GMOs. (Forskrift om marking, transport, import og eksport av genmodifiserte organismer).
        Regulation No. 1495 of 2005 relative to impact assessments pursuant to the Gene Technology Act (2005). (Forskrift om konsekvensutreding etter genteknologiloven).
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