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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationsfor a world without hunger
  1. Profile
    1. Basic legislation
    2. Legal definition
    3. Guidelines and codes of conduct
    4. International arrangements
  2. Planning
    1. Authorization system
    2. Access to land and water
    3. EIA
  3. Operation
    1. Water and wastewater
    2. Fish movement
    3. Disease control
    4. Drugs
    5. Feed
  4. Food safety
    1. Miscellaneous
      1. References
        1. Legislation
        2. Related resources
      2. Related links
        Profile
        Basic legislation
        From an analysis of the available fisheries legislation, it appears that the Russian Federation as a whole does not have a systematic approach to aquaculture. Indeed, it is often unclear to the reader whether the term fisheries includes aquaculture or not. Being a desk study, the following work does not tackle the issue. Only a field visit, ensuring direct contact with the authorities, could possibly give a clarification.

        There is currently no basic fisheries law in the Russian Federation. A Draft Federal Law on fisheries and conservation of aquatic biodiversity resources was adopted after the third reading by the State Duma (Lower Chamber) of the Federal Assembly (Parliament) of the Russian Federation on the 21st of March 2001, approved by the Council of Federation (Upper Chamber) and forwarded to the President of the Russian Federation for signature on the 4th of April 2001. The President has rejected the afore-mentioned Federal Law on the 18th of April 2001 proposing in his official letter to the Federal Assembly to set up a conciliatory commission of both Chambers in order to prepare the final version of the Federal Law. The Draft Federal Law is available in temporary version.

        The document defines the concepts of: 1. coastal fisheries – economic activity related to fisheries carried out in internal sea, territorial sea of the Russian Federation, including catch (harvest) of aquatic biodiversity, transhipment and landing of catch to fish-processing organizations situated on the coastal zone or to fish-processing vessels; 2. lease of water-objects destined for fisheries for the purpose of carrying out industrial fish-farming means carrying out charged fisheries economic activity on contractual basis concluded in accordance with Civil Code, Water Code and the present Federal Law; 3. fish-farming – rearing of fish, other aquatic animals and plants; 4. industrial fish-farming – entrepreneurial activity regarding growing fish and other aquatic animals and plants; 5. fisheries licence – document attesting the right of its holder to carry out some types of fisheries economic activity.

        The document specifies that elaboration, validation and carrying out programs of the development of coastal fisheries and aquaculture in inland waters and territorial sea of the Territories, Regions and Provinces of the Russian Federation pertains to the sphere of competence of the respective Territorial, Regional and Provincial Authority. The Draft Federal Law provides that the use of aquatic biodiversity can be carried out in accordance with the licence for fisheries economic activities, the authorization for harvest of farmed species and other relevant permits.

        Access free-of-charge to aquatic biodiversity for industrial fish-farming is made on a contractual basis. The concession contract must be established according to Federal Law on concession of aquatic resources intended for fisheries free-of-charge. However, such Law has not been adopted yet.

        Until then, aquaculture will be regulated by Regional Laws (seven out of nine existing are currently available in the FAOLEX database), Federal Special Programs (FSP) and Regional Special Programs (RSP).

        Regional Law No.123 of 1997 on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity (Kamchatka Region) specifies that enterprises and organizations engaged in aquaculture and artificial reproduction and improvement of aquatic resources are considered subjects of the relations in the sphere of fisheries and management of aquatic biodiversity. The document distinguishes between plenary powers of state authorities and local self-government at the regional level.

        The Regional Legislative Assembly has plenary powers as regards participation in the regional and federal programs on research, conservation, reproduction and management of aquatic biodiversity.

        The Regional executive body and governor have plenary powers as regards elaboration of the Regulation on Regional fisheries council (fisheries deliberative body), organization of elaboration and validation of regional territorial programs in the sphere of research, conservation, reproduction and management of aquatic biodiversity, organization of keeping cadastre of fisheries water reservoirs and monitoring of aquatic biodiversity, establishment of fees for the use of aquatic biodiversity and fishing water reservoirs pertaining to the regional property.

        Local self-government bodies have plenary powers as regards elaboration and carrying out local programs on conservation and regulation of management of aquatic biodiversity.

        Regional Law No.22-OZ of 2001 regarding validation of special program “Development of fish-farming and fisheries in inland waters for the period of 2001-2005” (Kemerovo Region) was adopted for the purpose of further development of fish-farming and fisheries to be carried out in the inland waters of the region. The list of arrangements includes stock enhancement, development of aquaculture nurseries, increase of the production of pond fish, speeded up development of marketable sturgeon-breeding, development of industrial fish-farming, renewal and raising of manufacturing of fishmeal, sustainable development of agriculture.

        Regional Special Program “Stock enhancement of aquatic biodiversity for the period of 2004-2008” (Astrakhan Region) contains sub-program “Development of aquaculture in Astrakhan Region for the period of 2004-2008” with the arrangements for its implementation, including the budget based on prices from 2003. Unfortunately the full text of the document is not available. The document in particular refers to stock enhancement of precious marketable fish species, mostly sturgeon.

        Regional Law No.22-OZ of 2000 regarding use, management and protection of fishery resources (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area) states that its purposes are to ensure stock enhancement, rational use and conservation of fishery resources and their natural habitats, to promote scientifically supported management of fishery resources, and to provide financial incentives for the development of fisheries as a traditional activity. The law distinguishes between “stock enhancement of fishing resources”, defined as increase or restoration of fishing resources by natural or artificial means, and “fish-farming”, defined as economic activity regarding fish-breeding and fish-growing.

        Regional Law No.38-ZAO of 1998 on fisheries (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area) attests that state management if the field of fisheries is carried out by the President of the Russian Federation, the Government of the Russian Federation, by the administration of the Autonomous Area and by authorized state institutions. Regional legislation envisages concession of privileged terms of revenues to the regional budget to fish-farming organizations.

        Regional Law No.72 of 2001 on fisheries and fish-farming activity (Kaliningrad Region) specifies that the extent and the modalities of carrying out the activity of artificial stock enhancement of aquatic biodiversity are validated by the Regional fisheries council and federal fisheries institution.

        Regional Law No.220-KZ of 2002 “On fisheries in the Primorie Territory” defines the concept of stock enhancement as activity of the subjects of fisheries aimed at reproduction, increase or creation of additional stock of marketable stock of aquatic biodiversity. According to the law, coastal fisheries are fisheries activities ensuring complex and efficient use of aquatic biodiversity, development of fleet, coastal production sites and infrastructure. Licences for the conduct of fisheries activity must be issued in accordance with the legislation currently in force. Cultivation (commodity fish-farming) of aquatic biodiversity is carried out exclusively for the purpose of their further removal (catch) and trade.

        Regional Law No.663-KZ of 2004 on fisheries and fish-farming activity (Krasnodar Territory) is aimed at ensuring scientifically supported management of fishing and fish-farming at the regional level, establishing a legal basis for reproduction, rational use and protection of aquatic biodiversity and its natural habitat, and promoting fish farming. The use of water bodies for the establishment of aquaculture facilities must be regulated by a contract between the user and the authorized regional executive body for fisheries, subject to a water use licence.

        Conception of the development of fisheries of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020 (2003) is a Federal Special Program (FSP) regarding long-term project for the development of fisheries. Conception determines the main directions of the common state policy for the development of fisheries in the long-term period. The document consists of six Sections. Section one defines the contemporary state of fisheries in the Russian Federation and its role in the national economy. Section two specifies the main problem of fisheries in the Russian Federation at present stage. Section three establishes the purpose and the targets of the development of fisheries in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020. Section four determines directions and stages of the realization of the Conception. Section five determines the mechanism of the realization of Conception. Section six regards legal coverage of the realization of Conception. The document does not mention investment policy and the amount of investments in the fisheries complex yet it stresses urgent necessity to approve as soon as possible Federal Law on fisheries and conservation of aquatic biodiversity resources.

        Federal Special Program (FSP) “FISH” (already expired although there is no official document closing definitively the program) traced the more efficient direction of the development of the national commodity fish-farming on the basis of the existing fish-farming establishments with the use energy-saving biotechnologies. The objective of the program was to reach the output of 181 thousand tonnes of freshwater species produced by fish-farming establishments by 2000, which exceeds the output of 1994 by 2.5 times.

        Federal Special Program (FSP) “Ecology and natural resources of Russia for the period of 2002-2010” contains sub-program “Aquatic biodiversity and aquaculture”, for the implementation of which are jointly responsible the Federal Fisheries Committee and the Ministry of agriculture. The objective of the program is to reach by 2010 the output of 5 000-5 500 thousand tonnes of fish and other aquatic resources, increase manufactured commodity fish products, including 3 500-3 725 thousand tonnes of canned fish products, and export of fish products, including 750 thousand tonnes of canned fish products. As a result, consumption of fish products in the Russian Federation shall increase by 1.5 times reaching average consumption per head of 18 kilograms.

        The Federal Fisheries Agency is a federal executive body, established and regulated by Ministerial Decree No.295 of 2004 regarding validation of the Regulation on Federal Fisheries Agency, which maintains under its jurisdiction organizations previously subordinated to the abolished Federal Fisheries Committee. The Federal Fisheries Agency is entitled to carry out functions of rendering state services, management of state property in the sphere of fisheries, rational use, study, conservation and reproduction of aquatic biodiversity and its habitats. The Federal Fisheries Agency is attached to the Ministry of Agriculture and has plenary powers in the following spheres of activity:
        1. state registration and state monitoring of the state of aquatic biological resources;
        2. artificial stock enhancement and acclimatization of aquatic biological resources.
        Federal Fisheries Agency has substituted Federal Fisheries Committee as federal executive body in the field of fisheries and has assumed jurisdiction over all offices and bodies previously subordinated to Federal Fisheries Committee and the functions of the abolished Federal Fisheries Committee in the field of fisheries. Now it is competent fisheries authority at federal (national) level.

        The leading research institution in the field of brackishwater aquaculture is Federal State Unitary Enterprise “All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Brackish Water Fisheries” (FGUP “VNIIPRH”). This federal office is subordinated to the Federal Fisheries Committee. The purpose of its activity is to improve organization of scientific research and experimental and design work (NIOKR) of the fundamental and applicative type in the field of brackishwater aquaculture aimed at rational use of resources of inland water basins, carrying out integration of science and works on contractual basis with federal executive bodies and the Russian and foreign legal and natural persons. (Order No.134 of 2002 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding leading institution – Federal State Unitary Enterprise “All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Brackish Water Fisheries” (FGUP “VNIIPRH”) in the field of brackishwater aquaculture.)

        Order No.144 of 1995 regarding validation of the Regulation on Chief Directorate for the protection, stock enhancement of fish stock and fisheries regulation establishes that the main tasks of the institution are:
        1. Elaboration and carrying out state policy in the field of rational use of aquatic biodiversity, its protection and reproduction in inland waters, territorial waters, continental shelf and EEZ of the Russian Federation.
        2. Control functions over protection and use of aquatic biodiversity in inland water basin, territorial waters, continental shelf and EEZ of the Russian Federation.
        3. Protection of the national interests of the Russian Federation in the field of aquatic biodiversity.
        4. Enforcement within the proper sphere of competence of legislation and normative legal acts in the sphere of protection, reproduction and use of aquatic biodiversity.
        This is federal office that makes part of the Federal Fisheries Committee.
        Legal definition
        While only two regional laws give specific legal definitions of aquaculture in the whole Russian Fisheries legislation other regional laws mostly refer to fish-farming and fish-growing:
        1. Fish-farming (aquaculture) – all types of artificial reproduction and cultivation of aquatic biodiversity resources. (Regional Law No.123 of 1997 on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity – Kamchatka Region).
        2. Fish-farming (aquaculture) – all types of artificial reproduction and cultivation of aquatic biodiversity resources. (Draft of the regional Law of St.Petersburg of fisheries and protection of aquatic biodiversity resources in St.Petersburg of 2002). The present Regional Law is currently under discussion at the Regional Legislative Assembly.
        3. Regional Law No.38-ZAO of 1998 on fisheries (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area) distinguishes between fish-farming and fish-growing. Fish-farming is defined as cultivation of fish in especially equipped natural or artificial water basins and establishments. Fish-growing is defined as incubation of hard-roe and growing of fry for stock enhancement of water basins destined for fisheries.
        4. Regional Law No.72 of 2001 on fisheries and fish-farming activity (Kaliningrad Region) defines the concept of fish-farming as artificial breeding of fish and other aquatic animals and plants and the concept of commodity fish-farming as entrepreneurial activity as regards growing, breeding of fish and other aquatic animals and plants.
        5. Regional Law No.663-KZ of 2004 on fisheries and fish-farming activity (Krasnodar Territory) defines fish-farming as the breeding of fish and other aquatic biodiversity in water bodies by means of release of fry with subsequent harvest of fish for the purpose of getting profit.
        Guidelines and codes of conduct
        Regulation on certification of fish, fish products, and seafood for compliance with safety requirements (1992) is based on the System of certification of foodstuffs and food raw materials within the framework of State Certification System (GOST) and establishes regulations for compulsory certification of fish, fish products and seafood in accordance with two models:
        1. Certification System of state Standards of Russia (GOST R);
        2. Regulation on product certification based on the application-declaration of the manufacturer.
        Regulation on certification of fish, fish products and seafood for compliance with safety requirements (1993) nominates the institution “Giprorybflot” (St.Petersburg) as certification authority. Fish products are divided into two groups – perishable products and long-term conservation fish products. Mandatory certification of long-term conservation fish products must be carried out in accordance with any certification schemes (II-V, VII) within GOST R certification system or in accordance with application-declaration (form 2). Mandatory certification of perishable products must be carried out in accordance with scheme V of GOST R certification system or in accordance with application-declaration (form 2).

        Regulation on the modalities of registration of fish-processing establishments and vessels manufacturing fishery products and non-fish products of fisheries for delivery to EU countries and the modalities of issuing sanitary certificates (2001) states that registration must be carried out by State Unitary Enterprise “National Fish Quality Control Agency” and gives the right to obtain Sanitary certificates covering a wide range of fishery products subject to export into EU member-states. The document contains the form of the registration certificate and the list of documents conceded to fish-processing establishments and vessels manufacturing fishery products confirming their right to use registration certificates.
        As it seems membership of aquaculture organizations of the Russian Federation is not obligatory and there is no evidence of such membership at the national level.
        International arrangements
        The issues concerning aquaculture in the Russian Federation are regulated by international bilateral and multilateral agreements/treaties, (sub) regional agreements, inter-ministerial agreements and inter-departmental agreements.

        The Russian Federation has the status of observer government to the World Trade Organization (WTO), is a member country of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and has ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (CDB) and the Biosafety Protocol.

        The most important multilateral agreement was concluded in 1999 between the Russian Federation, the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway, and deals with the organization of joint-ventures in the sphere of fisheries, fish stocks raising, fish-processing and landing.

        The International Agreement between the USSR and Republic of Korea on fisheries co-operation (1991) concerns transportation of fish products, development of aquaculture and mariculture, assistance to enterprises and companies of both States as regards the setting up of joint-ventures.

        The Fisheries Agreement between the Russian Federation and Ukraine (1992) establishes that the Parties shall co-operate for the purpose of conservation, repopulation and management of anadromous fish stocks in the Azov sea and the Black sea at biologically safe level and shall take part in the elaboration of joint development programs for aquaculture and mariculture.

        The Fisheries Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Estonian Republic (1994) envisages the creation of fishing joint-ventures on the territory of either Party, co-operation in the sphere of fish-processing and marketing, and obliges the Government of the country of origin of anadromous fish stocks to ensure their conservation by taking the appropriate arrangements for their reproduction and rational use.

        The Agreement between the Estonian Republic and the Russian Federation on co-operation in the field of conservation of fishing resources in Peipsi (Chudskoe), Lammi (Tjoploje) and Pikhva (Pskovskoje) Lakes (1994) envisages improvement of environmental conditions and increase of the amount of living resources, including artificial reproduction of fish.

        The International Agreement between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China regarding co-operation in the sphere of protection, regulation and stock enhancement of aquatic biodiversity in the boundary waters of the rivers of Amur and Ussuri (1994) encourages co-operation among the Parties in the field of protection and stock enhancement of anadromous stocks outside the boundaries of frontier water basins, taking account of the nature of each species and in line with international regulations. According to this Agreement the Parties shall elaborate and carry out joint arrangements as regards fish-breeding enterprises. The provisions concerns anadromous stocks, freshwater species, crustaceans and aquatic plants. The Parties shall also co-operate to set up joint fish-breeding enterprises for the purpose of artificial stock enhancement of salmon and sturgeon.

        The International Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Estonia regarding co-operation in the sphere of fisheries (1994) deals with the establishment of joint fish-farming enterprises, exchange of scientific information and access to it by the fishermen.

        The Agreement on Fisheries between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Russian Federation (1997) explicitly refers to aquaculture aspects. On the basis of the said Agreement the Parties shall evaluate the impact of traditional fishing on coastal fishermen communities, implementing common scientific research for optimal preservation and breeding of Caspian living resources in order to increase them. The Parties shall also co-operate in the field of fish-breeding in international and national waters, exercise control over sturgeon breeding, ensure co-operation in breeding new animal and plant species on both sides of the Caspian Sea, carry out global market analysis in order to achieve quality, harmonize prices and plan successful marketing strategies.

        The Protocol between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Finland regarding the continued participation of the Russian organizations in the fish breeding arrangements for stock enhancement purposes in the lake of Innary (1997) provides for the supply of electric energy free-of-charge from the Russian Federation to the Republic of Finland for the establishment of fish breeding enterprises and fish-farms by Finland.

        The International Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Lithuania regarding co-operation in the sphere of fisheries (1999) specifically cites co-operation between the Parties as regards development of aquaculture and mariculture although without going into details.

        The Agreement between the Federal Fisheries Committee and the Kamchatka regional administration on co-operation and co-ordination of activities in the sphere of fisheries and management of aquatic biodiversity (2002) gives an example of sub-regional co-operation between institutions aimed at the development of regional/basin fisheries arrangements. The document contains such specific arrangements as carrying out common technical policy in the sphere of fish-processing technologies, mechanization and technical re-equipment of fish-processing enterprises and fishing vessels.

        The International Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus regarding co-operation in the sphere of fisheries (2002) in particular deals with industrial fish-farming, including eel-breeding, trout-breeding, and sturgeon-breeding and exchange of information regarding the outcome of such activity. The aforesaid agreement also tackles such issues as exchange of experience in the field of fish-processing equipment, elaboration and carrying out joint projects in the sphere of fish-farming, catch, transportation of fish and storage of fish products and assistance to the enterprises and organizations of both countries in setting up joint-ventures operating in the sphere of fisheries, fish-farming, fish-processing and trade of fish and fish products.

        The Agreement between the State Committee of Fisheries and Fishing Industry of Ukraine and the Federal Fisheries Committee of the Russian Federation regarding Fisheries (1993) implements the Fisheries Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Ukraine (1992), specifying that the Parties shall co-ordinate and elaborate an efficient joint program for the conservation of anadromous fish that can ensure safe biological state in order to allow optimal catch, prepare and implement joint programs in order to prevent hazardous impact on living resources as a result of their excessive exploitation, ensure exchange of specialists in the field of fisheries and information regarding fishing methods, fish-processing, carrying out optimal use and management of living resources of the Azov sea.

        The Agreement between the Russian Federation and Ukraine on co-operation in the use of the Azov sea and the Kerch strait (2003), although not dealing explicitly with aquaculture, stresses that Russian-Ukrainian co-operation in the sphere of fisheries, protection of marine environment and ecological safety in the sea of Azov and the strait of Kerch must be implemented on the basis of existing and forthcoming international agreements.

        The Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) regarding the delimitation of jurisdictional competence and plenary powers between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (1995) establishes that the regional administration is responsible for licensing and quota setting on the regional territory in accordance with federal legislation and shall administer ownership, use and disposal of land, water and other natural resources, including joint management of said resources. The Russian Federation and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) shall jointly manage the establishment of special budgetary and extra-budgetary funds for the purpose of financing programs to be carried out jointly by federal and regional state bodies and institutions. They shall also prospect joint management of natural resources in the continental shelf of the Russian Federation.

        The Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) Autonomous Area, the Evenki Autonomous Area regarding the delimitation of jurisdictional competence and plenary powers between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) Autonomous Area, the Evenki Autonomous Area (1997) determines that federal and territorial state bodies and institutions shall jointly regulate the issues related to water, biological and other natural resources within the territorial boundaries, as well as the licensing of certain activities, not specified in the text. Russian Federation maintains under its own jurisdiction the issues regarding the management of water, biological and other natural resources within its territorial boundaries. Allocation of aquatic biodiversity must be regulated by separate agreements.

        The Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation signed an Agreement on co-operation in the field of fish-farming in the inland water basins with the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia but the full text of the document is not available.

        Between 2002 and 2003, the Federal Fisheries Committee of the Russian Federation and the Government of Indonesia have carried out a series of negotiations aimed at preparing the draft Memorandum on mutual understanding in the sphere of fisheries. Russian-Indonesian co-operation concerning joint research on and management of aquatic biodiversity in the EEZ must be based upon the provisions and principles stated in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982) and aimed at long-term sustainable conservation and management of aquatic biodiversity in the EEZ. Elaboration of biotechnologies for aquaculture, encouraging the use of equipment of the closed type, and training of Indonesian experts in the field of applied fisheries research, fisheries, aquaculture, processing technologies were among the issues considered in the Memorandum.

        Russian Federation is a member of 13 (out of 32 listed by the Federal Fisheries Committee) of international regional and global fisheries-related organizations paying annual membership dues amounting to 600 thousand U.S. dollars (2002 estimates).
        Planning
        Authorization system
        Article 33 of the Draft Federal Law on fisheries and conservation of aquatic biodiversity resources specifies that commodity fish-farming, except for pond, industrial and aquarium fish-farming is subject to a licence to be granted by the Federal Fisheries Executive Body (i.e. Federal Fisheries Committee of the Russian Federation) and its territorial (basin) branches. Licences must be issued under the terms of the regulation on fisheries licensing. Licences are granted for not less than three years.

        General rules of licensing of fisheries activities are set forth by Ministerial Decree No.1418 of 1994 regarding licensing of some types of activity. The document contains the list of activities subject to licensing. Licence is official document which authorizes carrying out specified type of activity for the established period and determines conditions for its realization. Each type of activity requires a separate licence. It is prohibited to transfer licence from the holder to another legal or natural person. The Federal Fisheries Committee is entitled to license industrial fisheries and fish-farming.

        Order No.228 of 1995 of Federal Fisheries Committee regarding validation of the list of activities pertaining to industrial fisheries and fish-farming that are subject to licensing and instructions on industrial fisheries and fish-farming specifies the types of activity related to industrial fish-farming subject to licensing: 1). Reproduction of aquatic biodiversity in natural water basins and water reservoirs, including catch for such purpose; 2). Acclimatisation of aquatic biodiversity in natural water basins and water reservoirs, including catch and transportation for such purpose; 3). Cultivation of aquatic biodiversity in natural water basins and water reservoirs (commodity marine, lake and hatchery fish-farms).

        Ministerial Decree No.967 of 1995 regarding validation of the Regulation on licensing of industrial fisheries and fish-farming specifies that industrial fisheries and fish-farming (except for commodity fish-farming) in the Russian Federation is carried out by legal persons and individual entrepreneurs on the basis of a licence issued by the Federal Fisheries Committee or its basin fisheries institutions. The Federal Fisheries Committee is authorized to transfer the right of issuing licences for industrial fisheries and fish-farming to regional executive bodies. The Federal fisheries Committee validates the list of activities related to industrial fisheries and fish-farming subject to licensing. Licences are issued for not less than three years but the term can be reduced on specific request of the applicant. Prolongation of licences is carried out in accordance with the agreed terms and conditions. Licences issued directly by the Federal Fisheries Committee are valid for the whole territory of the Russian Federation while licences issued by basin fisheries institutions under the jurisdiction of Federal Fisheries Committee or by regional executive bodies entitled by Federal Fisheries Committee to carry out licensing activity are valid only for the corresponding territories and water basins destined for fisheries. Holder of licence for fish-farming activity must obtain biological substantiation of the specific projected activity validated by Inter-departmental ichthyological commission authorizing him to carry out specific acclimatisation program.

        Order No.137 of 2001 of Federal Fisheries Committee regarding validation of the list of the types of activity related to industrial fisheries and fish-farming subject to licensing specifies that industrial fish-farming activity subject to licensing includes reproduction of aquatic biodiversity in the natural reservoirs and storage ponds, including its removal for the aforesaid purposes, acclimatisation of aquatic biodiversity in the natural reservoirs and storage ponds, including their catch and transportation for such purposes, cultivation of aquatic biodiversity in the natural reservoirs and storage ponds (sea, lake and pond nurseries).

        Regional Law No.22-OZ of 2000 regarding use, management and protection of fishery resources (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area) introduces the concept of long-term licence that is defined as special authorization for carrying out economic or any other type of activity related to management and conservation of fish stock.

        Regional Law No.38-ZAO of 1998 on fisheries (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area) attests that water basins intended for fisheries (or their plots) can be conceded for long-term use (from three to 25 years) to fishing organizations for fisheries and (or) fish-farming and other purposes related to fisheries. In accordance with the said Regional Law fish-farming organizations carry out their activity on the basis of licences issued by fisheries inspections or by the administration of the Autonomous Area.
        Access to land and water
        The only legal document that specifically mentions water use licences is the Regional Law No.663-KZ of 2004 on fisheries and fish-farming activity (Krasnodar Territory). Duration and conditions of water use rights are established in the licence.

        Regional Law No.123 of 1997 on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity (Kamchatka Region) specifies that concessions for the use of water bodies pertaining to regional property (including those pertaining to federal property and transferred under the regional jurisdiction, and those pertaining to the property of Koryak autonomous area and transferred under the jurisdiction of Kamchatka Region) are granted by governor’s decree to the winners of a public tender, in accordance with the proposals made by the Regional fisheries council and the relevant territorial branch of the Federal Fisheries Committee.
        EIA
        The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources is the authorized federal executive body entitled with the task of carrying out EIA procedures at federal level. There exists EIA procedure at federal level.

        Regional Law No.123 of 1997 on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity (Kamchatka Region) establishes that scientific research in the field of fisheries includes participation in the expertise of impact of various types of projected economic activity, carrying out fishing and biological substantiation regarding valuation of damage caused to fish stocks by the construction and running factories, carrying out special EIA regarding impact on fisheries complex in the process of development of establishments (construction, reconstruction, extension and technical re-equipment) and carrying out monitoring of aquatic biodiversity for the purpose of valuation of anthropogenic activity on water basins destined for fisheries.

        Article 20 of the afore-mentioned Regional Law establishes that state ecological expertise (EIA) in the sphere of fisheries must be carried out in accordance with Federal Legislation for the purpose of conservation of natural habitats and spawning grounds of aquatic biodiversity in the process of complex use of water bodies destined for fisheries.

        Article 5 of the Regional Law No.38-ZAO of 1998 on fisheries (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area) establishes that one of the basic principles of the regional fisheries legislation is mandatory state ecological expertise of economic and other activity causing impact on fishing resources.

        Regional Law No.220-KZ of 2002 “On fisheries in the Primorie Territory” establishes that the users of aquatic biodiversity have the right to exert influence on the natural habitats of aquatic biodiversity for the purpose of their improvement, subject to the approval of territorial branches of authorized federal executive bodies and authorized institutions of the regional executive bodies.

        Joint Order No.327 of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources and No.130 of Federal Fisheries Committee of 1995 regarding validation of the Regulation on the modalities of carrying out control over projecting, construction of compensation fish-farming and melioration objects and their operation aims at establishing an efficient control system over planning and construction of aquaculture farms and facilities as a compensation measure for damages caused to the fish stocks by certain activities carried out in waterbodies. Economic activities specified in the Regulation are: dredging, laying of oil and gas pipelines, extraction of gold and other minerals, timber-rafting and other activities.
        Operation
        Water and wastewater
        The matter is not specifically treated in the legislation currently in force.
        Fish movement
        Order No.128 of 1996 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding validation of the Regulation on expertise in the process of issuing licences for industrial fisheries and fish-farming establishes that official of Federal Fisheries Committee upon presentation by the applicant of the list of defined areas of water (water bodies destined for fisheries and fish-farming) and the list of aquatic biodiversity intended for fish-farming, must make sure of ecological substantiation and advisability of the declared activity, of the possibility of removal of sire (producer) of the declared aquatic biodiversity species from their natural habitats, of hydro-biological and genetic safety of the declared activity in accordance with technology applied by the applicant and of conformity to environmental requirements. Release of inter-pecific hybrids and cross hybrids having the status of sub-species into natural water bodies is prohibited.

        Federal Law No.86-FZ of 1996 on state regulation in the field of genetic engineering does not specifically refer to aquaculture and aquaculture products. The law provides that products and services developed by means of genetic engineering techniques shall fulfil the requirements of environmental safety, public health, pharmacopoeial provisions and the mandatory provisions of Russian Federation national standards. A quality certificate and a conformity mark are required for the development of products and the provision of services related to genetically modified organisms.
        Disease control
        In accordance with Law No.4979-I of 1993 “On veterinary medicine” directors of fish-farming establishments are responsible for carrying out timely arrangements prophylaxis and eradication of infectious fish disease.

        Methodical Instructions regarding sanitary and biological assessment of fishing water bodies (No.13-4-2/1742 of 1999) and Methodical Instructions regarding determination of bio-chemical consumption of oxygen in the process of sanitary valuation of water in fishing water bodies (No.13-4-2/1750 of 1999) are applicable to aquaculture.

        The Veterinary Department of the Ministry of Agriculture is the competent authority in the sphere of fish disease and is entitled to prepare and approve fish disease legislation.
        Drugs
        No legislative arrangements specifically applicable to this sphere were found.
        Feed
        No legislative arrangements specifically applicable to this sphere were found.
        Food safety
        In accordance with Order No.21 of 2001, the Federal Fisheries Committee has recommended Russian fish-processing enterprises and fishing vessels producing fish products to introduce a branch quality certification system based on the principles of HACCP, after registration with the State Committee for Standardization and Metrology (GOSSTANDART) of Russia. Joint-stock company of the closed type “Export-Import Rybtrest” (St.Petersburg) and its regional branches are authorized to introduce Quality certification system, to carry out independent inspection of fish-processing enterprises and fishing vessels, prepare draft legislation on safety and quality of fish products either on their own initiative or upon request of the Federal Fisheries Committee and its territorial branches. The present Quality certification system is considered voluntary and not mandatory.

        Federal Law FZ-29 of 2000 “On food quality and food safety” is not specifically applicable to aquaculture but covers the whole range of foodstuffs that are admitted for internal trade on condition that they comply with the requirements established by relevant legislation and have passed state certification.
        Miscellaneous
        Aquaculture investment 
        Regional Law No.22-OZ of 2001 regarding validation of special program “Development of fish-farming and fisheries in inland waters for the period of 2001-2005” (Kemerovo Region) envisages investment for the implementation of RSP (Regional Special Programs) for the period of 2001-2005 of 64 million 50 thousand roubles (rate of exchange is approximately 1 US dollar = 29 roubles). The implementation of sub-program “Aquatic biodiversity and aquaculture” shall require investment of 93 202.9 million roubles, including direct expenditure from the federal budget envisaged by purposeful investment for the realization of program arrangements of which 2 871.7 million roubles are capital investments.

        Development/restoration fund
        Under the terms of Ministerial Decree No.1201 of 1999 regarding the development of inland marketable fish-farming and fisheries, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food and the Interdepartmental council is responsible for the establishment and management of a special fund for the agro-industrial sector on preferential terms by agreement with the Association “State and co-operative association of fishing industry (ROSRYBHOZ)” and with the Union of collective fishing farms. The aforesaid institutions must finance organizations of fishing industry engaged in fish-farming, fish growing and catch in inland waters for the purchase of mixed fodder, fry, fuel and other seasonal expenses.
        References
        Legislation
        Ministerial Decree No.860 of 2001 regarding the Federal Special Programme (FSP) “Ecology and natural resources of Russia for the period of 2002-2010”
        Related resources

        faolexSearch parameters: country=RUS, Keywords=aquaculture;mariculture
        Records Returned: 85
        Title of textDate of textConsolidated dateEntry into forceCountries
        Order No. 285 of the Ministry of Agriculture “On fisheries restriction related to some fish species”.2014-07-22Russian Federation

        Order No. 245 of the Ministry of Agriculture “On fisheries restriction related to some fish species”.2014-06-30Russian Federation

        Order No. 229 of the Ministry of Agriculture “On fisheries restriction related to whitefish (Coregonus muksun)”.2014-06-26Russian Federation

        Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Kingdom of Morocco on cooperation in the sphere of marine fisheries.2013-02-14This Agreement shall be implemented 60 days after the date of signature.Russian Federation; Morocco

        Order No. 345 of the Federal Fisheries Agency validating the form of report certifying release of aquatic biological resources.2012-04-23Russian Federation

        Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua on cooperation in the sphere of fisheries.2011-02-09This Agreement shall be effective from the date of receipt of written notice on accomplishment by the Parties of the internal procedures required for its entry into force.Russian Federation; Nicaragua

        Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Senegal on cooperation in the sphere of fisheries.2011-02-09This Agreement shall be effective from the date signature.Russian Federation; Senegal

        Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Namibia in the sphere of fisheries.2010-05-20The Agreement entered into force on 17 October 2012.Russian Federation; Namibia

        Regional Law No. 1227-KZ “On state policy in the sphere of aquaculture”.2009-07-23This Regional Law enters into force on the date of its official publication.Russian Federation

        Regional Law No. 154-Z “On protection and management of aquatic biological resources”.2009-07-03This Regional Law enters into force 10 days after the date of its official publication.Russian Federation

        Regional Law No. 1721-OD “On fisheries and conservation of aquatic biological resources”.2009-06-23This Regional Law enters into force 10 days after the date of its official publication.Russian Federation

        Order No. 199 of the Ministry of Agriculture validating the form of documents attesting the amount of breeding of aquatic biological resources in semi-free conditions or in artificial habitats.2009-05-26Russian Federation

        Ministerial Decree No. 136 on tender for concluding contracts related to allocation of fishing area for commercial fish farming.2009-02-14Russian Federation

        Ministerial Decree No. 603 validating the Regulation on setting up protected fishery water areas.2008-08-12Russian Federation

        Order No. 77 of the Federal Fisheries Agency regarding restriction on fisheries in the Volga delta.2008-08-06Russian Federation

        Order No. 125 of the Ministry of Agriculture validating the Regulation on fisheries for the purpose of fish farming, stock enhancement and acclimatization.2006-04-25Russian Federation

        Joint Order No. 161 of the Ministry of Agriculture and Federal Fisheries Agency regarding organization of fisheries for fish farming purposes for the period of 2005.2005-06-09Russian Federation

        Joint Order No. 109 of the Ministry of Agriculture and of the Federal Fisheries Agency regarding statistical reports on catch of fish, other aquatic biological resources and processing of fish products.2005-04-08Russian Federation

        Joint Order No. 215 of the Ministry of Agriculture and of the Federal Fisheries Agency regarding research and RD in the sphere of fisheries.2004-12-28Russian Federation

        Regional Ordinance No. 448-ra validating General Directions of the development of stock enhancement and fish breeding for the period up to 2010.2004-08-11Russian Federation

        Regional Decree No. 8/98 validating regional special program “Stock enhancement of aquatic biological resources for the period of 2004-2008”.2004-06-09Russian Federation

        Ministerial Decree No. 182 of 2004 regarding the sphere of competence of the Federal Fisheries Agency.2004-04-07Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Order No. 449 validating the Regulation on the modalities of distribution of quotas of catch (harvest) of aquatic biological resources for the purpose of stock enhancement and acclimatization thereof.2003-12-11Russian Federation

        General Guidelines for the development of fisheries for the period up to 2020.2003-09-08Russian Federation

        Conception of the development of fisheries of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020. (2003).2003-09-03Entry into force from the date of validation.Russian Federation

        Agreement between Federal Fisheries Committee and the administration of Kamchatka Region on co-operation and co-ordination of activity in the sphere of fisheries and management of aquatic biodiversity (2002).2002-12-23Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation

        Agreement between the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia on cooperation in the sphere of inland fisheries.2002-09-19The present Agreement shall enter into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation; Mongolia

        Order No. 273 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding support of fish farming enterprises in Sakhalin.2002-07-10Russian Federation

        Order No.173 of 2002 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding validation of the Regulation on Far-Eastern Scientific and Fisheries Council and of the Regulation on working group of the aforesaid council.2002-04-11Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation

        Order No.143 of 2002 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding the development of coastal fisheries and mariculture in the Russian Federation.2002-03-25Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation

        Order No.133 of 2002 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding validation of the Regulation on White Sea Scientific and Fishing Council and the Regulation on working group of White Sea Scientific and Fishing Council.2002-03-21Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation

        Order No.134 of 2002 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding leading institution – Federal state Unitary Enterprise “All-Russian scientific and Research Institute of Brackish Water Fisheries” (FGUP “VNIIPRH”) in the field of brackish water aquaculture.2002-03-21Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation

        Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Belarus regarding cooperation in the sphere of fisheries (2002).2002-03-13Entry into force from the 31st of May 2002.Russian Federation; Belarus

        Order No.75 of 2002 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding validation of the Statute of the Federal Experimental Unitary Enterprise “Archangel Experimental Algae Group of Enterprises”.2002-02-08Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation

        Agreement between the State Fisheries Committee and the City of St. Petersburg on cooperation in the conservation and rational management of aquatic biological resources.2001-11-27This Agreement enters into force on the date of its signature.Russian Federation

        Regional Law No.72 of 2001 on fisheries and fish-farming activity.2001-10-15Entry into force from the date of its official publication.Russian Federation

        Order No. 137 of 2001 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding validation of the list of the types of activity regarding industrial fisheries and fish-farming subject to licensing.2001-05-15Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Regional Law No.22-OZ of 2001 regarding validation of special program “Development of fish-farming and fisheries in inland waters for the period of 2001-2005”.2001-02-15Entry into force from the date of its official publication.Russian Federation

        Veterinary and sanitary requirements No. 13-8-01/2-8 of 1999 regarding import to the Russian Federation of fish products, aquaculture and thermally treated aquatic products.1999-12-23Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation

        Regional Law No.123 of 1997 on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity.1999-11-16Entry into force from the date of its official publication.Russian Federation

        Recommendations for combating alimentary fish disease (1999).1999-10-29Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Methodical Instructions regarding determination of bio-chemical consumption of oxygen in the process of sanitary valuation of water in fishing water basins (No.13-4-2/1750 of 1999).1999-10-04Entry into force from the date of validation.Russian Federation

        Methodical Instructions regarding sanitary and biological valuation of fishing water basins (No.13-4-2/1742 of 1999).1999-09-27Entry into force from the date of validation.Russian Federation

        Provisional Instruction regarding prophylaxis and liquidation of non-contagious branchionecrosis of fishes (No.13-4-2/1737 of 1999).1999-09-21Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Provisional Instruction No. 13-4-2/1738 on measures for combating chlorine mixosis of carp (Cyprinidae).1999-09-21Russian Federation

        International Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Lithuania regarding co-operation in the sphere of fisheries (1999).1999-06-29Entry into force from the 4th of February 2000.Russian Federation; Lithuania

        Methodical Instructions regarding haematological inspection of fishes (No.13-4-2/1487 of 1999).1999-02-02Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Governor’s Decree No. 100 on allotment and re-distribution of marine fishing areas.1998-12-22Russian Federation

        Methodical Instructions regarding laboratory diagnostics of pseudomonasis of fishes (1998).1998-09-22Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Instruction on the arrangements for prophylaxis and liquidation of pseudomonasis of fishes (1998).1998-09-18Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Recommendations for planning and carrying out anti-epizootic arrangements in fish-farming establishments (No.13-4-2-/1386 of 1998).1998-09-10Entry into force from the date of validation.Russian Federation

        Provisional Instruction on the arrangements for combating ambiphryosis of fishes in fish-farming establishments (1998).1998-08-17Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Regional Law No.38-ZAO of 1998 on fish-farming activity.1998-06-18Entry into force from the date of its official publication.Russian Federation

        Instruction on the arrangements for combating dactylogyrosis of fishes at fish-farming establishments (1998).1998-06-08Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Provisional Instruction regarding combating vibriosis of fishes (1998).1998-05-26Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Provisional Instruction on the arrangements for combating saprolegniosis of fishes and spawn in fish-farming establishments (1998).1998-05-26Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Order No. 195 of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food validating the list of industrial fisheries and fish farms subject to licensing.1998-04-13Russian Federation

        Instruction on the arrangements for combating branchiomicosis of fishes (1997).1997-11-27Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Instruction on the arrangements for combating trichodiniosis at fish-farming establishments (1997).1997-11-27Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Instruction on the arrangements for combating chilodonellosis (1997).1997-11-26Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Instruction on the arrangements for combating ichtyophtiriosis (1997).1997-11-26Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Instruction on the arrangements for combating myxoboliosis of silver carps at pond fish-farming establishments (1996).1996-04-24Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Regulation on sub-division of state veterinary supervision at fish farming, fishing, processing, storage and trade establishments regarding marine fishes, freshwater fishes and other aquatic biodiversity (No.13-7-2/532 of 1996).1996-02-22Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Ministerial Decree No. 930 of 1995 regarding the validation of the Federal Program of the development of the fishing industry up to 2000.1995-09-18Entry into force on the date of signature.Russian Federation

        Joint Order No. 327 of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources and No. 130 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding validation of the Regulation on the modalities of carrying out control over projecting, construction of compensation fish-farming and melioration objects and their operation.1995-08-17Russian Federation

        Ministerial Decree No. 1418 regarding licensing some types of activity.1995-06-03Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation

        Order No.38 of 1995 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding validation of the Regulation on the modalities of registration of fish-breeding species released by the organizations of the Russian Federation into natural water basins and reservoirs.1995-03-06Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation

        Order No.44a-u of 1994 of the Federal Fisheries Committee regarding validation of the Regulation on the modalities of registration of fish-breeding species released by the organizations of the Russian Federation into natural water basins and reservoirs.1994-10-29Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation

        International Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Estonia regarding cooperation in the sphere of fisheries (1994).1994-06-03Entry into force from the 3rd of June 1994.Russian Federation; Estonia

        International Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of People’s Republic of China regarding cooperation in the sphere of protection, regulation and stock enhancement of live aquatic biodiversity in the boundary waters of the rivers of Amur and Ussuri (1994).1994-05-27Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation; China

        Model Regulation on regional, territorial provincial anti-epizootic expedition for combating fish disease (No.22-2/41 of 1993).1993-03-17Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Agreement between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Russian Federation on joint transboundary waterbodies management and protection.1992-10-19The Agreement enters into force from the date of signature.Ukraine; Russian Federation

        Fisheries Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Ukraine.1992-09-24Entry into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation; Ukraine

        Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Korea on cooperation in the sphere of fisheries.1991-09-16The Agreement enters into force from the date of written notification of the fulfilment of the internal procedures required for its coming into force.Russian Federation; Korea, Dem. People's Rep.

        Decree No. 1045 of the Fisheries Ministry validating the Regulation on fisheries and protection of stocks.1988-01-01Russian Federation

        Regulation on taking of samples of pathological material, blood samples and feed and their sending for laboratory study (1987).1987-09-09Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

        Ministerial Decree No. 594 validating the Instructions on issuing and utilization of fishing authorization for scientific research, stock enhancement, repopulation, control catch, acclimatization and fish farming purposes.1980-12-30Russian Federation

        Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of France on cooperation in research of the World Ocean.1979-04-28The Agreement entered into force on 4 December 1979.Russian Federation; France

        Ministerial Decree No. 388 supplementing the list of rivers, their estuaries and other water bodies that are the spawning grounds of salmon and sturgeon stocks validated by the Decree No. 554 of the Council of Ministers.1978-08-07Russian Federation

        Fisheries Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Romania.1978-02-03The Agreement enters into force from the date of signature.Russian Federation; Romania

        Ministerial Decree No. 246 supplementing the list of rivers, their estuaries and other water bodies that are the spawning grounds of salmon and sturgeon stocks validated by the Decree No. 554 of the Council of Ministers.1974-04-23Russian Federation

        Decree No. 554 of the Council of Ministers validating the list of rivers, their estuaries and other water bodies that are the spawning grounds of salmon and sturgeon stocks.1973-10-26Russian Federation

        Veterinary and Sanitary Regulations for pedigree fish-farming establishments.Entry into force from the date of validation.Russian Federation

        Veterinary and Sanitary Regulations for sturgeon fish-farming establishments.Entry into force from the date of validation.Russian Federation

        Veterinary and sanitary requirements for fish-farming establishments.Entry into force from the date of issue.Russian Federation

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