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  1. Profile
    1. Basic legislation
    2. Legal definition
    3. Guidelines and codes of conduct
    4. International arrangements
  2. Planning
    1. Authorization system
    2. Access to land and water
    3. EIA
  3. Operation
    1. Water and wastewater
    2. Fish movement
    3. Disease control
    4. Drugs
    5. Feed
  4. Food safety
    1. Miscellaneous
      1. References
        1. Legislation
        2. Related resources
      2. Search related links
        Profile
        Basic legislation
        The legal framework for the regulation and promotion of aquaculture in Spain consists of several legal instruments, amongst which outstand the Constitution of Spain, Law N°20/1942 for Promotion and Conservation of Riverine Fisheries (Ley Nº 20/1942 de Fomento y Conservación de la Pesca Fluvial) , Law Nº 23 /1984 on Marine Aquaculture (Ley Nº 23 /1984 de Cultivos Marinos) and Law Nº 22/1988 on the Coastline (Ley Nº 22/1988 de Costas) . The main objectives of these legal instruments are:
        1. Law Nº 23/1984 on Marine Aquaculture: “the regulation and ordering of marine aquaculture within the national territory, the coastal land zone, estuaries, coastal lagoons either temporarily or permanently open to the sea, territorial sea, and exclusive economic zone; either regarding public or private property, without affecting the competence and faculties assumed by the Autonomous Communities”.
        2. Law Nº 22/1988 on the Coastline: “the boundaries, protection, use and patrol of the public sea border, particularly the marine coastline”.
        Notwithstanding, in agreement with the dispositions of Article 148.1.11 of the Constitution of Spain, the Autonomous Communities exert exclusive competence in inland waters, harvesting of shellfish, aquaculture, hunting and riverine fisheries. It may be pointed out that the following Autonomous Communities have taken responsibility on aquaculture and shellfish harvesting: Galicia, Andalucía, Valencia, Islas Baleares, Cantabria, País Vasco, Cataluña, Asturias, Murcia, Islas Canarias, Aragón, Castilla-León, Castilla La Mancha y Extremadura .

        The legal instruments issued by the National Government on marine and inland aquaculture regulation have a general and supplementary character, since as has been mentioned, Autonomous Communities apply their own regulation.

        The National Government, through the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAPA - Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación)  dictates and executes the general principles on agrarian, fisheries and food principles. It also has coordinating and representation functions through the General Secretariat of Marine Fisheries coordinating and representation functions through the General Secretariat of Marine Fisheries (SGPM). It should also be mentioned that such General Secretariat is responsible for the application of the European regulations as well as of those imposed by multilateral organisms of which Spain is a member.

        The Advisory Board on Marine Aquaculture (JACUMAR - Junta Asesora de Cultivos Marinos) , is another organisation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food created by Law Nº 23/1984 of Marine Aquaculture (Ley Nº 23/1984 de Cultivos Marinos) and is constituted by the General Secretariat of Marine Fisheries, the Councils of the Autonomous Communities, as well as by representative organisations of the aquaculture production sector. One of the main tasks of this organisation is to facilitate the coordination of the activities of the Autonomous Communities and to follow-up the National Plans.

        Law Nº 23/1984 on Marine Aquaculture (Ley Nº 23/1984 de Cultivos Marinos) regulates the formulation of National Plans, which have to be carried out jointly between the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and the Autonomous Communities. The latter are responsible for their execution as per their mandate. National Plans consist of actions leading to foster and promote the development of marine aquaculture within the national territory; having as objectives either research, development and innovation as well as any other activity related to aquaculture and whose execution is considered as essential for the harmonic development of aquaculture.

        The Regulation and Organisation Marketing Fund for Fisheries and Aquaculture Products (FROM - Fondo de Regulación y Organización del Mercado de los Productos de la Pesca y Cultivos Marinos) , is another autonomous organisation created by Law Nº 33/1980 (Ley Nº 33/1980) , under the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Marine Aquaculture (MAPA), and is responsible for the development and promotion of aquaculture in Spain. Its main tasks are to promote consumption of fisheries products and to provide technical or financial assistance to associations, cooperatives and enterprises within the sector.

        The Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO - Instituto Español de Oceanografía) , is another important autonomous organisation linked to aquaculture. In agreement with Law Nº 3/2001 on State Marine Fisheries (Ley Nº 3/2001 de Pesca Marítima del Estado) , the IEO is the institution in charge of research and advice on sectorial fisheries policy.
        Legal definition
        The concept of “aquaculture” is stated in the Constitution of Spain, though other terms are also expressed and mentioned, such as: “marine cultivation”, “mariculture” and “marine aquaculture”. However, sectorial legislation utilises the term “marine cultivation”. Such is the case of the State Law Nº 23/1984 on Marine Cultivation (Ley estatal Nº 23/1984 de Cultivos Marinos) and in the autonomous norms.

        The definition of marine aquaculture is established by Law Nº 23/1984 on Marine Cultivation, which states that “marine cultivation are all actions and appropriate works required for the reproduction or growth of one or several species of plants or animals or their association thereof”.

        The autonomous legislation regulates shellfish harvesting activities and the marine cultivation following the State policy. There are also some legal regulations such as the Asturian , that have added to the concept of marine cultivation that of “algae-culture” which refers to the growing and harvesting of algae.

        At the European Union level, Regulation (CE) Nº 1421/2004 Reglamento (CE) Nº 1421/2004 , establishes that “aquaculture is the breeding or culture of aquatic organisms making use of techniques aimed at increasing their productivity over that of the natural carrying capacity; all along the entire phase of their rearing stages until harvest; either under private or public ownership”.
        Guidelines and codes of conduct
        The General Secretariat of Marine Fisheries (SGPM) has prepared the “National Strategic Plan for Fisheries” (Plan Estratégico Nacional en materia pesquera), in agreement with the mandate of the new European Fund for Fisheries 2007–2013 and the Common Fisheries Policy.
        In this regard, Spain has established the following strategic priorities for the development of aquaculture throughout period 2007–2013:
        • Species diversification.
        • Supply of the market (increase in the production of species with good market potential).
        • Establishment of methods or means of aquaculture exploitation that reduce adverse consequences or improve positive effects on the environment.
        • Support to traditional aquaculture activities.
        • Public health measures.
        • Promotion of specific actions on the market.
        • Promotion of quality measures.
        • Socio-economic measures.
        • Animal health measures.


        The Spanish aquaculture sector is grouped into various professional associations and cooperatives. The most important ones are listed below: Of the above mentioned associations, only APROMAR and OPAC belong to the European Federation of Producers (FEAP). This Federation has adopted a Code of Conduct for European Aquaculture, which is observed by its members. The main objective of this Code of Conduct is to promote the responsible development and management of aquaculture to ensure a high standard of quality in the production process, with consideration to both, environmental concerns and consumer demands.

        The General Secretariat of Marine Fisheries (SGPM), with the collaboration of the International Union for Nature (UICN) and the European Federation of Producers (FEAP), has formulated the first of the “Directing Guidelines for the Sustainable Development of Aquaculture”.

        This initial guidance for aquaculture, analyses the interaction between aquaculture and the environment, and has issued practical recommendations on the following main aspects of aquaculture: domestication, introduction of marine species, capture of wild stocks for aquaculture, feed ingredients, organic matter in effluents, transfer of pathogens, therapeutical products and others, antifouling products, and effects on local flora and fauna.
        International arrangements
        Spain is a member of the following international organisations:
        • European Union (EU).
        • World Trade Organisation (OMC).
        • World Health Organisation (OMS).
        • Animal Health World Organisation (OIM).
        • International Council for the Exploitation of the Sea.

        Spain is also part of the following International and Regional Treaties and Agreements:
        • Convention on the International Trade of Animal and Plant Endangered Species.
        • CITES.
        • Agreement on the Biological Diversity (CBD).
        • Cartagena Protocol on Bio-technology of the Biological Diversity Agreement.
        • Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Agreement).
        • Convention for the Marine Environment Protection and of the Mediterranean Coastal Area (Barcelona Agreement 1995).
        Planning
        Authorization system
        Potential aquaculturists intending to undertake an aquaculture activity, either marine or inland, must apply for various authorizations or permits before the corresponding authorities. As has been expressed before, the applicable legal framework for the development of aquaculture falls under the Autonomous Communities which apply their own norms for the execution of the procedures of authorizations or leases. However, those Communities that haven’t got their own norms, supplementary Law N° 23/1984 of Marine Cultivation (for marine aquaculture), the Law of Riverine Fisheries of 1942 (for inland aquaculture), and Law N° 22/1988 of the Coastline.

        Law Nº 23/1984, dictates that “only Spanish citizens or entities may be the holders of concessions or authorizations of marine cultures”. Likewise, it also defines the following terms:
        • Concession: the granting of the right of use in exclusivity and temporarily by Spanish citizens or entities in public lands, for the establishment of facilities intended for research or exploitation of marine cultures.
        • Authorization: permit granted to Spanish citizens or entities, for the establishment of facilities intended for research or exploitation of marine cultures.
        Within this context, it must be pointed out that the administrative procedures to be followed by potential aquaculturists for the establishment and exploitation of an aquaculture facility differ according to inland or marine aquaculture facilities and whether they are located in public or in private areas. These administrative procedures fall into the following categories:
        1. Administrative procedures for the application for a concession/authorization for inland aquaculture facilities.
        2. General administrative procedures for the application for a concession/authorization for marine aquaculture facilities within publicly owned coastal zones.
        3. General administrative procedures for the application for concession/authorization for marine aquaculture facilities within privately owned coastal zones but utilising publicly owned zones for collecting/discharging water.

        1) Administrative procedures for the application for a concession/authorization for inland aquaculture facilities.

        For the granting of a concession/authorization for the operation of an inland aquaculture facility, the applicant will be required to obtain the following authorizations and/or licences.
        • Construction and start of operations permit granted by the Municipal Authority.
        • Authorization for the intake and discharge of water; as well as the concession for the use or occupation of the public water area. Both permits are granted by the Hydrographic Conferences of the corresponding Autonomous Community.
        • Authorization for operation of the aquaculture facility granted by the corresponding Office of the Autonomous Community.
        Communities will apply their own regulations for the establishment and operation of aquaculture facilities; those that do not have their own appropriate legislation will apply the general dispositions of Riverine Fisheries Law of 1942. Notwithstanding, the general administrative procedure followed by Autonomous Communities for the regulation of aquaculture, include the following stages:
        • The applicant should present an application to the corresponding municipal office. It should include the precise location, the species to be cultured, the culture process or cycle, and the expected production output.
        • The Autonomous Community will eventually notify the applicant if the authorization may be granted for the particular location. If this were not the case, the applicant will receive the conditions for construction and operation to which the proposed project should be subjected.
        • If the applicant agrees with such conditions, he’ll be required to present an Authorization Request, attaching a certified copy of the Concession for the use of water granted by the corresponding authority, as well as a copy of the construction and operation project endorsed by a certified technician.
        • If the Autonomous Community deems that the project may interfere with other interests, the project will be subjected to the public dominion.
        Authorizations for the operation of inland aquaculture facilities may be granted provisionally for up to a period of 5 years, after which the corresponding authorities may issue a definite or permanent authorization.


        2) Administrative procedures for the concession/authorization of marine aquaculture facilities to be established in marine-terrestrial public grounds.

        In order to obtain the concession/authorization for the establishment of a marine aquaculture facility to be located in marine-terrestrial public grounds, the applicant will be required to file the following authorizations or licences:
        • Construction and start of operations permit granted by the Municipal Authority.
        • Concession for the occupation of the public marine/terrestrial zone granted by the Ministry of the Environment.
        • Authorization for operation of the aquaculture facility granted by the corresponding Office of the Autonomous Community.
        As has been mentioned above, Communities will apply their own legislation for the execution of this procedure, and those that do not have their own appropriate legislation shall apply the dispositions of Law N° 23/1984 on Marine Aquaculture and Law N° 22/1988 on Coastlines. Notwithstanding, the general administrative procedure followed by Autonomous Communities for the regulation of aquaculture, include the following stages:
        • The applicant should file an application of an authorization for the aquaculture operation, appending the following documents:
          • An application for the concession of the occupation of the public marine-terrestrial zone addressed to the Ministry of the Environment.
          • Legal identification of the applicant (person or company).
          • The project of the civil works endorsed by a certified technician.
          • A financial feasibility study and a scheme for the execution of the operation endorsed by a certified technician.
          • Proof of payment of duties
          • The environmental impact assessment and the sanitary requirements, as applicable.
        • During the ensuing 30 day period of public hearings, reports by the defence, navigation, tourism, municipal, environment and sanitary authorities will be required, as well as by any other authority that the Autonomous Community may deem necessary.
        • In case all the above mentioned authorities issue a favourable resolution towards the project, the Autonomous Community will request the Coastline Authority to issue a report within two months. Through this report, the Authority shall express the viability on the occupation, and will establish the conditions under which such occupation may be granted.
        • Throughout this stage, the Autonomous Community will inform the applicant the requirements to be met as well as the conditions required by the General Directorate for the Coastline for the granting of the authorization. If the applicant agrees with such requirements and conditions, the procedure will thereafter be channelled through this General Directorate.
        • Once the applicant receives the concession granted by the General Directorate, the Autonomous Community shall grant the authorization for the operation of the aquaculture facility. Such authorization will be published in the Official Gazette of the Autonomous Community.


        It should be pointed out that these authorizations for the execution of aquaculture operations are generally granted for a period of 10 years, renewable for up to a maximum of 30 or 50 years.


        3) General Administrative Procedure for the application of a concession/authorization of marine aquaculture facilities located in privately owned areas but that utilize public marine-terrestrial areas for the intake/discharge of water.


        In order to obtain a concession/authorization for a marine aquaculture facility located in privately owned areas but that utilize public marine-terrestrial zones for the intake/discharge of water, an applicant shall apply for the following authorizations or licences:
        • Construction and start of operations permit granted by the Municipal Authority.
        • Authorization for the intake and discharge of water granted by the corresponding authority. However, it should be pointed out that this procedure differs between Autonomous Communities since some consider it as an independent procedure, while others consider it as part of the procedure for the authorization of the aquaculture facility and the concession of public domain, or as part of the Environmental Impact Assessment.
        • Concession for the occupation of public marine-terrestrial domain granted by the Ministry of the Environment.
        • Authorization for the execution of the aquaculture operation granted by the corresponding authority of the Autonomous Communities.
        Access to land and water
        Law Nº 22/1988 of Coastlines establishes that the management of marine-terrestrial public property or dominion falls under the responsibility of the State Administration, including the granting of concessions and authorizations for their occupation and exploitation. In this sense, as has been mentioned above, the concession of the marine-terrestrial public dominion for the purpose of the development of aquaculture will be granted by the Ministry of the Environment.

        Regarding the authorization for the intake and the discharge of water, as well as the concession for the use or occupation of the water public dominion, are granted by the Hydrographic Confederations of the corresponding Autonomous Province.

        The General Secretariat of Marine Fisheries pertaining to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food has developed a System for the Identification of Aquaculture Facilities, which allows the geographical location of inland and marine aquaculture facilities in Spain.
        EIA
        The legal framework for the regulation of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedure comprises Directive 85/377/CEE (Directiva 85/377/CEE) of 27 June 1985, which was encompassed by the Spanish legislation through the Royal Legislative Decree Nº 1302/1986 (Real Decreto Legislativo Nº 1302/1986), of 28 June and the Royal Decree Nº 1131/1988, of 30 September. With the issuance of Directive 97/11/CE (Directiva 97/11/CE) some regulations of Directive 85/33/CE were modified. These modifications have been adopted by the Spanish system through Law Nº 6/2001 (Ley Nº 6/2001), of 8 May. Article 1, paragraph 2 of such Law establishes that “projects of intensive aquaculture facilities with an output higher than 500 tonnes/year will be subjected to an Environmental Impact Assessment whenever the environmental authority determines. Within this context it has been mentioned before that the administrative procedure for the environmental impact assessment varies among the Autonomous Communities. However, in general it may be mentioned that the study on environmental impact exhibited by a potential aquaculture producer shall include the following information:
        • General description of the project and foreseeable requirements in relation to the use of land and of other natural resources as applicable.
        • Analysis of technically feasible alternatives and justification of adopted solution.
        • Assessment of the direct or indirect foreseeable effects of the project.
        • Adoption of preventive and corrective measures.
        • Environmental Monitoring Scheme
        • Summary of the study and its conclusions.
        Operation
        Water and wastewater
        Through the approval of Directive 2000/60/CE (Directiva 2000/60/CE), dated October 23, 2000, the European Union provided a framework for the protection of inland surface waters, transition waters, coastal waters and subsurface waters. Such Directive has been adopted by the Spanish legal regulations through Law 62/2003 (Ley 62/2003), of December 30, 2003.

        Within this same context, it should be pointed out that the main legal dispositions on the quality of water and of wastewater in common or public hydraulic dominion are encompassed under the Royal Legislation Decree Nº 1/2001 (Real Decreto Legislativo Nº 1/2001) of July 20, 2000, “Unified Text of the Water Law”. Such legal disposition determines that the direct or indirect discharge of contaminating waters and residual products that may affect inland waters or any other element of the public hydraulic dominion is forbidden unless an administrative authorization has previously been granted by the corresponding responsible Authority.

        It should be mentioned that the Regulation for the Hydrological Planning has been adopted through the issuance of the Royal Decree Nº 907/2007 (Real Decreto Nº 907/2007 ) of July 6, 2007. This Regulation has as its main objective the attainment of the healthy state and the due protection of the public hydraulic dominion as well as of the waters encompassed by the Unified Text of the Water Law. It has been determined that such planning be conducted through hydrological watershed planning and the National Hydrological Plan.
        Fish movement
        Law Nº 23/1984 on marine cultivation establishes that the movement of spores or organisms of non-market size in any stage of development will only be allowed for the purpose of their cultivation, research or experimentation. It is also stated that for the exportation of such species, the authorization of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food will be required, upon a previous report of the responsible Body of the corresponding Autonomous Community.

        Aquculturists that request the importation of organisms of any size for their stocking or cultivation should have a favourable report of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. A favourable report by the Spanish Institute of Oceanography should also be obtained when the species to be imported is exotic and does not exist naturally in Spanish waters.

        As a member country of the European Union, Spain applies, amongst others, the following Directives and Decisions on the introduction of aquaculture species or products imported from other countries:
        • Council Directive 91/67/CEE (Directiva 91/67/CEE del Consejo), of January 28, 1991, on the conditions of sanitary policy applicable to the introduction of aquaculture animals and products to the market. This Directive has been adopted by the Spanish regulations through the Royal Decree Nº 1882/1994 (Real Decreto Nº 1882/1994) modified by the Royal Decree Nº 1255/1999 (Real Decreto Nº 1255/1999) and Nº 1597/2004 respectively. However, it should be pointed out that Directive 91/67/CEE will be derogated as of August 1st 2008 according to the disposition of Council Directive 2006/88/CE (Directiva 2006/88/CE) of October 26, 2006 .
        • Council Directive 97/78/CE of December 18, 1997 which establishes the principles for the organization of veterinary controls of products to be introduced into the Community coming from third countries
        • Regulation (CE) Nº 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council, of April 29, 2004 on the hygiene of foods of animal origin, and Regulation (CE) Nº 854/2004 through which the specific norms for the organisation of official controls for products of animal origin intended for human consumption are established. Such Regulations have been adopted by the Spanish legislation through the Decision 2006/766/CE of the Commission, of November 6, 2006, contains the lists of third countries and territories from which the importation of bivalves, echinoderms, tunicata, gasteropoda and fishery products are authorized.
        Disease control
        Through the promulgation of Royal Decrees Nº 1488/1994 (Reales Decretos Nº 1488/1994) and Nº 3481/2000 (Reales Decretos Nº 3481/2000), Directives 91/67/CE y 93/57/CE that regulate aquaculture sanitary control at the Community level, have been incorporated into the Spanish legislation.

        Spanish legislation requires that the Autonomous Communities establish an appropriate system of sanitary control measures and that they participate in the formulation of emergency intervention plans as required.

        The Sanitary and Animal Production Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in Algete, Madrid has been selected as the national reference laboratory for fish diseases. There are other labortories in various parts of Spain either associated to universities or the scientific research centres (Higher Council of Scientific Research –CSIC-, National Institute of Agricultural Research –INIA-) which are involved in various sanitary matters of marine and inland aquaculture. Several Autonomous Communities rely on this laboratories for the diagnosis of fish diseases in order to comply with the regulations on aquaculture sanitary control.
        It should be pointed out that there is a specific animal health law, Law Nº 8/2003 (Ley Nº 8/2003), of April 24, which also encompasses aquaculture facilities. The monitoring of certain bivalve diseases is specifically regulated by the Royal Decrees Nº 1043/1997 and Nº 640/2006 (Reales Decretos Nº 1043/1997, Nº 640/2006 ).
        Drugs
        Royal Decree Nº 109/1995 (Real Decreto Nº 109/1995) of January 27 regulates the manufacture, quality control, distribution, marketing, storage and supply of drugs for veterinary use and the substances and materials utilized for their manufacture, elaboration and packaging. It also grants responsibility on veterinary drugs to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, without impinging on the responsibilities that fall under the Autonomous Communities.


        The main dispositions comprised in the above mentioned Decree are :
        • Definition of the quality, efficiency, security and purity requirements that a veterinary drug must meet in order to be authorized and registered.
        • The prohibition of the marketing of a veterinary drug to be administered to animals whose meat or products are intended for human consumption if it hasn’t complied with Council Regulation CEE 2377/90 (Reglamento CEE 2377/90) of June 26, 1990, which formulates a Communitarian procedure for the setting of limits of veterinary drug residues in foods of animal origin.
        • The establishment of exception situations in which, even though there might not exist authorized veterinary drugs to treat a disease, an animal may be administered a different type of drug to animals whose meat or products are intended for human consumption.
        Spanish legislation also establishes control measures that apply to certain substances and residues in aquaculture products. The classification and control of these substances and residues is regulated by the Royal Decree Nº 1749/1998 (Real Decreto Nº 1749/1998), of July 31st, instrument that incorporates Directive 96/23 (Directiva 96/23) to the Spanish lesgislation.
        Feed
        Royal Decree Nº 56/2002 (Real Decreto Nº 56/2002) modified by Royal Decrees Nº 254/2003 and Nº 1205/2006 (Reales Decretos Nº 254/2003, Nº 1205/2006)incorporates into the Spanish legislation the European Parliament and Council Directives 2000/16/CE and 2002/2/CE (Directivas 2000/16/CE, 2002/2/CE). Such legal instrument has as its main objective the establishment of the legal regime applicable to the circulation and use of inputs for the feeding of animals and the circulation of fodders and feeds throughout the Spanish territory
        Food safety
        The Spanish Agency for Food Security (AESAN - Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria), is an autonomous organisation associated to the Ministry of Health and Consumption, and is responsible for food security in Spain. Its main tasks are to reduce risks of food borne diseases and to warrant an adequate system for their control.

        The general legislation on food innocuousness at the national level is based on Law N°14/1986, General Health Law (General de Sanidad).

        It should be pointed out that the legal framework for food safety also includes the following regulations:
        • Royal Decree Nº 640/2006 (Real Decreto Nº 640/2006), which provides measures for the application of Community dispositions regarding hygiene, production and marketing of food products of animal origin.
        • Royal Decree Nº 2064/2004 (Real Decreto Nº 2064/2004), through which the first sale of seafood products is regulated. These include capture fish and seafood products as well as aquaculture products.
        • Royal Decree Nº 1380/2002 (Real Decreto Nº 1380/2002), modified by Royal Decree Nº 1702/2004 (Real Decreto Nº 1702/2004), legal instrument whose objective is to regulate the information that must be included in the labelling, presentation and publicity of capture fish and seafood products as well as aquaculture products; frozen and ultra-frozen
        • Royal Decree Nº 121/2004 (Real Decreto Nº 121/2004), dictates the norms for the classification and labelling of capture fish and seafood products as well as aquaculture products: live, fresh, refrigerated or cooked.
        Miscellaneous
        The structural funds constitute the main financial instrument established by the European Union. The Financial Instrument for the Orientation of Fisheries (FOP - Instrumento Financiero de Orientación de la Pesca) constitutes the specific framework for the development of fisheries and aquaculture. Its main trait is that it abides member States to contribute to the financing of projects through public funds whenever required.

        In the case of Spain, this national co-financing is undertaken with funds contributed by the General Budget of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food; and in some instances by the budget of the Autonomous Communities, respectively.
        At the national level, social and economic policies related to the restructuring of the Fisheries Sector are dictated by the restructuring measures as dictated by Royal Decree Nº 3448/2000 modified by the Royal Decrees Nº 1473/2004 and Nº 518/2005 respectively.
        References
        Legislation

        EUROPE
        2004/453/EC:Commission Decision of 29 April 2004 implementing Council Directive 91/67/EEC as regards measures against certain diseases in aquaculture animals (notified under document number C(2004) 1679) (Text with EEA relevance)
        Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food
        Council Regulation (EC) No 2372/2002 of 20 December 2002 instituting specific measures to compensate the Spanish fisheries, shellfish industry and aquaculture, affected by the oil spills from the Prestige
        Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment
        Council Regulation (EC) No 1263/1999 of 21 June 1999 on the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance
        Council Directive 97/61/EC of 20 October 1997 amending the Annex to Directive 91/492/EEC laying down the health conditions for the production and placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs
        Council Directive 97/11/EC of 3 March 1997 amending Directive 85/337/EEC on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment
        96/240/EC: Commission Decision of 5 February 1996 amending Decision 92/532/EEC laying down the sampling plans and diagnostic methods for the detection and confirmation of certain fish diseases (Text with EEA relevance)
        Council Directive 96/23/EC of 29 April 1996 on measures to monitor certain substances and residues thereof in live animals and animal products and repealing Directives 85/358/EEC and 86/469/EEC and Decisions 89/187/EEC and 91/664/EEC
        Council Regulation (EEC) No 2080/93 of 20 July 1993 laying down provisions for implementing Regulation (EEC) No 2052/88 as regards the financial instrument of fisheries guidance
        Council Directive 93/54/EEC of 24 June 1993 amending Directive 91/67/EEC concerning the animal health conditions governing the placing on the market of aquaculture animals and products
        Council Directive 91/492/EEC of 15 July 1991 laying down the health conditions for the production and the placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs
        Council Directive 91/493/EEC of 22 July 1991 laying down the health conditions for the production and the placing on the market of fishery products
        Council Regulation (EEC) No 2377/90 of 26 June 1990 laying down a Community procedure for the establishment of maximum residue limits of veterinary medicinal products in foodstuffs of animal origin
        Council Directive 85/337/EEC of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment
        Related resources

        AQUACULTURE INSTITUTIONS IN SPAIN

        LITERATURE SPAIN

        AQUACULTURE INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
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