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  1. Profile
    1. Basic legislation
    2. Legal definition
    3. Guidelines and codes of conduct
    4. International arrangements
  2. Planning
    1. Authorization system
    2. Access to land and water
    3. EIA
  3. Operation
    1. Water and wastewater
    2. Fish movement
    3. Disease control
    4. Drugs
    5. Feed
  4. Food safety
    1. Miscellaneous
      1. References
        1. Legislation
        2. Related resources
      2. Related links
        Profile
        Basic legislation
        Fisheries Law No. 1380 of 1971, as amended by Laws No. 3288 of 1986 and No. 4950 of 2003, is the framework law for fisheries and aquaculture related activities. The law provides the basis for the regulations and communiqués, issued under the authority of the competent minister (the minister of Food Agriculture and Livestock), which are used to regulate fisheries and aquaculture. Article 1 of the Law explains the scope of the Act – “protection, production and inspection of aquatic products” – and Article 2 gives the definitions, including the aquatic products, which are further completed by other regulations. Fisheries Law No. 1380 sets out rules for:
        • Management of fisheries and aquaculture.
        • Fisheries and aquaculture activities.
        • Improvement, incentives and protection.
        • Prohibitions.
        • Fish markets.
        • Procedural provisions.
        • Inspection and control.
        • Penal clauses.
        A separate critique of the draft amendment to the fisheries law was prepared and submitted to the Prime Minister’s Office (2008) but in summary there are issues with the current law which compel a recommendation that the law be re-drafted and that a new law is made to deal specifically with aquaculture.

        Fisheries Regulation No. 22223 of 1995 and Amendment No. 25052 of 2003 set out application details for Fisheries Law No. 1380 and provide provisions concerning aquaculture, including hygiene, inspection and control of fishery products.

        According to Article 13 of Fisheries Law No. 1380, the procedures and principles related to aquaculture are determined by the Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507 which was issued in 2004 and amended in 2007. This regulation sets out rules for the following issues:
        • Site selection for inland and marine farms.
        • Application and evaluation procedures for fish farming licenses.
        • Approving the projects and issuing licenses.
        • Improving production capacity, species etc, cancellation (closing down farms), site changes and sales.
        • Other aquaculture activities (tuna fattening, organic farming, integrated production systems) .
        • Importing broodstock fish, egg and fry.
        • Compulsory technical staff employment.
        • Fish health management.
        • Environmental impacts and protection.
        • Monitoring and control of farming activities.
        • Fish welfare.
        Detailed issues concerning the implementation of Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507 are provided in the Application Principles with Regard to the Regulation on Aquaculture (Notice 2006/1).

        The Minister derives his legal authority to make regulations or other subsidiary legal instruments through the law establishing the ministry for which the minister is responsible. Thus, the Fisheries Law is not necessarily the basis for making regulations, but rather it is through the minister’s ex officio powers that fishery regulations are made. It is up to the minister to determine the instrument that he/she will use, in accordance with the delegated powers, and then to issue the appropriate instrument. The Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock – MoFAL is given institutional authority to manage the fishery sector under Decree Law No. 441 of 1991, on the Establishment and Functions of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs.

        The main authority in the field of fisheries and aquaculture is MoFAL. There are three Directorate Generals (DG) responsible for Fisheries and Aquaculture: the DG for Fisheries and Aquaculture (DGFA), the DG for Food and Control (DGFC) (concerning aquaculture the DG deals with, fish movement, disease control and marketing studies ), the DG for Agricultural Research and Policies (DGARP), the DG for Agricultural Reform (DGAR) (both responsible for performing basic research, organization and support activities, cooperatives, associations, etc.).
        The DG for Fisheries and Aquaculture consists in five divisions: the Department of Fishing and Control, the Department of Aquaculture, the Department of Administration and Coordination, the Department of Statistics and Information Systems and the Department of Resource Management and Fisheries Structure. Its main responsibilities are:
        • Determining policies for sustainable marine and inland water fisheries and aquaculture.
        • Promoting fishery and aquaculture activities.
        • Determining rules and procedures of establishment, management and audit of fishing ports, infrastructure facilities for fisheries and aquaculture.
        • Determining fisheries and aquaculture zones and taking preventive measures for the protection of these areas.
        • Protecting fishery and aquaculture resources.
        • Defining required features and rules on fishery and aquaculture products to be imported or exported.
        • Defining rules and procedures of concession of fisheries and aquaculture zones.
        • Generating development projects and information systems.
        The Aquaculture Department of the DG for Fisheries and Aquaculture consists in three subdivisions: Marine Aquaculture, Inland Aquaculture, Aquaculture Economics and Marketing. It is assisted by the Project and Statistics Divisions in 81 of MoFAL’s Provincial Directorates, as well as relevant sections in four Fisheries Research Institutes. The main responsibilities of the Department are:
        • Producing and promoting policies for development of aquaculture.
        • Designating sites, area and zone for aquaculture.
        • Administering rental procedures for the sites.
        • Administering licensing process and issuing fish farming licenses.
        • Preparing and implementing projects.
        • Controlling and monitoring fish farms.
        • Providing technical and financial support.
        Apart from MoFAL, there are several ministries and institutions that are responsible for, among other things, site selection and the issuance of aquaculture licenses:
        • Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning.
        • Ministry of Forestry and Water Resources.
        • Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
        • Ministry of Economy.
        • Ministry of Health: impact of aquaculture on public health, product hygiene.
        • Ministry of Transport and Communication.
        • General Commander’s Office: military training or sensitive areas.
        • Undersecretary of Foreign Trade: export of cultured fish.
        Furthermore, other ministries may have a significant role in fish farming on land, coast, and water, such as the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, the Ministry for Forestry and Water Resources and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
        Legal definition
        Aquaculture is neither defined in Fisheries Law No. 1380 nor in Fisheries Regulation No. 22223. However, Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507 describes it as an “activity of production and/or ongrowing (including fattening) aquatic species in production units under intensive, semi-intensive or extensive conditions”. The Regulation also defines aquatic products, aquaculture premises, hatchery, production ponds, net cages, intensive, semi-intensive and extensive aquaculture, offshore or open sea aquaculture, allocated zones for aquaculture, filtration system and aquaculture production license/certificate.
        Guidelines and codes of conduct
        There are no current aquaculture guidelines or codes of conduct. However, Article 20 of Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507 provides with the measures that should be taken to maintain the health and welfare of the fish cultured. Most of these measures are related to fish health control. Regulation No. 28190 on Aquatic Animal Health and Protection and Fight Against Aquatic Animal Diseases (31 January 2012) provides preventive measures on aquatic animal diseases and precautions to be taken in case of disease outbreak. The Regulation further sets forth the required health conditions in aquatic animals and aquaculture products. According to Aquaculture Regulation No.25507 other matters concerning fish welfare are regulated by the Ministry (MoFAL) by issuing notices and circulars.
        International arrangements
        Turkey is a member of the following international organizations and agreements with implications for the regulation of aquaculture:
        • EU Accession Country.
        • Food and Agriculture Organizaiton of the United Nations (FAO).
        • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
        • World Trade Organization (WTO).
        • World Organisation of Animal Health (OIE).
        • Codex Alimentarius Commission.
        • General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM).
        • European Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Advisory Commission (EIFAAC).
        • Central Asian and the Caucasus Regional Fisheries and Aquaculture Commission CACFish).
        • International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT).
        • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
        • International Organization for the Development of Fisheries in Eastern and Central Europe (EUROFISH).
        • The Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (BSC).
        • The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
        Planning
        Authorization system
        Licencing:
        Under Article 13 of the Fisheries Law No. 1380, those who wish to culture aquatic species for commercial purposes are obliged to apply to MoFAL by informing the Ministry about the location, characteristics and management of the facilities, and submitting the enterprise’s project and plans. MoFAL issues permission if there are no adverse effects in terms of public health, national economy, navigation, or science and technology. The provisions of the last paragraph of Article 4 of Fisheries Law No. 1380 are also applicable for production units to be established in the sea and inland waters. Aquaculture cannot be carried out without a licence. The power to grant aquaculture licences, including licenses for sea ranching, is vested in the Ministry, who has delegated this power to the Department of Aquaculture. The details of the application, issuing and cancellation of licenses are described in Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507 and Application Principles with Regard to the Regulation on Aquaculture (Notice 2006/1). Entrepreneurs or applicants need to submit their applications either to central offices (the DG for Fisheries and Aquaculture in Ankara) or relevant Provincial Directorates of MoFAL. Applications for ongrowing trout, carp, sea bass and sea bream and hatcheries for these species up to 2 million fry/year capacity submit their applications to Provincial Directorates, whilst applicants for ongrowing other species (namely new Mediterranean species, turbot, sturgeon, eel, algae, mollusks and crustacean species) and trout, carp and sea bass/sea bream hatcheries with an annual capacity of more than 2 million fry have to apply directly to the Aquaculture Department in Ankara.

        Entrepreneurs or applicants asking to be granted a license must provide the following information, along with supporting documentation for first applications:

        An application form providing the following information:
        • Site (province, district, village, etc.).
        • Name of water resource and flow rate.
        • Name of fish species.
        • Annual capacity farm or hatchery and production system (cage, raceways etc.).
        A map of the area (1/25 000 scale).

        Evaluation of Application:
        A team of staff/experts from the central or provincial office visits the site and prepares a preliminary survey report.

        Issuing Preliminary License:
        If the preliminary survey report is positive, permission or preliminary license is issued for a period of twelve (12) months, as long as an application letter, site map (1/25 000 scale), the preliminary survey report and a water quality report are provided.

        During this twelve (12)-month period, the entrepreneur gets approval from other related ministries and institutions depending on the nature of the project (e.g., Ministries of Environment and Urban Planning, Health, Culture and Tourism, Transport Maritime Affairs, Office of Navigation, Hydrography and oceanography, and local government). After approval by the above-mentioned authorities, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report is obtained and then the full project documentation, including a farm or hatchery design and a feasibility report, is compiled and submitted.

        According to the article 8 of Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507, after obtaining the Preliminary Licence which completes the procedures of renting/leasing and once the aquaculture facility is operational, the entrepreneur, within one (1) month, must apply for a Fish Farming Certificate approving the project. The Certificate includes information such as, the name of the aquaculture facility, its contact information, name of the owner/owners, project capacity, information on products, ownership status, leasing period, number and capacity of production ponds and cages, capacity of hatcheries. Then the Certificate and the Survey Report are sent to the central offices of MoFAL to be approved.

        Issuing the License:
        If the project is approved, the license (Fish Farming Certificate) is issued. This usually takes one (1) to two (2) years at minimum. In case of changes in project capacity, species composition produced, etc., the entrepreneur must submit a new application and a new license must be issued.

        Cancellation:
        MoFAL, or other relevant government authorities, for relevant reasons, can move the farm or cancel the project or license.

        Transfer of licenses/changes in ownership:
        According to Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507, licenses cannot be transferred, but a farm or hatchery can change ownership and retain the same license.

        License fees:
        There is no legally-defined license fee.
        Access to land and water
        Access to public waters and lands are regulated and restricted by several laws and regulations. These are mainly 1. Regulation No. 27951 of 2011 on concession of aquaculture production rights in seas and inland waters and concession of use of water needed in aquaculture investments. 2. Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507of 2004, 3. Application Principles with Regard to the Regulation on Aquaculture (Notice 2006/1) and 4. Circular No. 2003/46 Leasing Fisheries/Aquaculture Production Sites. Based on the above mentioned legislation the entrepreneur should apply for leasing land and/or water after the license is granted. Principles of leasing water bodies are regulated by MoFAL and its Provincial Directorates. Leasing and concession of land and water are issued by the commission composed of authorised officials of the relevant provincial directorate. Leasing periods and guiding leasing fees are defined by MoFAL’s Provincial Directorates according to the characteristics of the site/space leased if there is one applicant fulfilling required criteria. If there is more than one applicant fulfilling the criteria then the commission initiates tender negotiations and decides accordingly. Concession period for seas and inland water areas cannot be more than five (5) years. Leasing period of aquaculture facilities cannot be more than fifteen (15) years in duration, but leasing contract can be abolished any time by public side. Leasing fees are determined by taking into account the estimated values of the following:
        • One thousand square meter (1 000 m2) surface area of freshwater and marine water bodies.
        • Abstraction of 1 l/sec water from a watercourse.
        • One thousand square meter (1 000 m2) surface area of the land.


        Limitations on access to land and water
        MoFAL declares leasing fee guidelines and rent aquaculture area both in seas and fresh waters.Permits for logistic or shore facilities (jetties, service areas, etc.) for mariculture are granted by the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning at provincial level per Coastal Law No. 3621, Law on the Protection of Cultural and Natural Assets No. 2863 and the Regulation on Implementation of Coastal Law. Most of the coastal areas, particularly in the Aegean Sea, have been declared natural/historic sites, and fish farms or shore bases cannot be found in or around these areas (Principle Decision High Council of Protection of Cultural and Natural Assets Concerning Fisheries production and Aquaculture Premises at Natural/Historic Sites – No. 725). This is one of the major limitations for accessing land and water for aquaculture production. The other constraints, as outlined by Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507, are:
        • Distance between cage farms is determined by the Central Aquaculture Department according to criteria such as projected annual production capacity, water depth and current speed. Distance between tuna cage farms, and tuna and other fish farms may not be less than two kilometers, and less than one kilometer between other fish farms.
        • In freshwater cages, a minimum distance of 250 meters is required.
        • Minimum annual production capacities of farms are set up by the Aquaculture Department in order to ration use of the area. Currently minimum capacity for a cage farm is 25 mt/y in freshwater and 250 mt/y in marine waters.
        • Cage sites offshore, on open coast, or outside the enclosed bays and gulfs should have a minimum depth of 40 m of water. However, the Aquaculture Department may allocate sites for cage farming that has a depth less than 40 m, taking into account the capacity of the farm, water depth, current speed, and the intended production system/technology.
        In addition to MoFAL, the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning has authority regarding aquaculture development as pertains to environmental protections. The Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning is granted authority within Environmental Law No. 2872 to monitor and regulate with regards to that Law. Article 9 of Environmental Law No. 2872 was amended in 2006 and related Circular No. 26413 (Notification on determination of sensitive enclosed bays and gulfs areas where fish farms excluded) intends to exclude marine cages from sensitive areas, enclosed bays and gulfs, and near shore areas. This Circular brings new criteria for fish farm location: Water depth more than 30 m, distance from coastline more than 0.6 miles and current speed more than 0.1 m/sec. Also, according to the same circular:
        • Fish farms may not be established at or around natural/historic sites.
        • Fish farms that have already been found in the sensitive areas should evaluate their situation according to above mentioned criteria and report the results to the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning before May 1, 2007.
        • Current cage farms that cannot meet these criteria will be closed by May 13, 2007.
        Circular No. 26413 also introduced the concept of assessment of the risk of eutrophication: Trix Index.

        According to Coastal Law No. 3621 and related Regulation on Implementation of Coastal Law No. 20594, authority of coastal (land) planning and management belongs to Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning. The Law imposes restrictions on land use within the 100-meter-wide coastal strip. Therefore coastal land-based ongrowing facilities, hatcheries, and packing and processing plants, offices, jetties, etc., need to get permission from the Ministry.

        The Ministry of Culture and Tourism is responsible for implementing the Law on Protection of Cultural and Natural Assets No. 2863. Based on this Law, the High Council of Protection of Cultural and Natural Assets issued Principle Decision No. 725, related to fisheries production and aquaculture premises. According to this Decision, establishment of fish farms is not permitted at natural/historic sites and in bordering bays with natural/historic sites, in the regions with under water cultural and natural assets and in areas diving banned with decision of Council of Ministers.

        Compulsory site changes: According to Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507, the site of aquaculture farms might be changed due to new coastal planning, legal, technical, or safety reasons. In these cases, the public authority will propose a new site for transferring the farms, but will not contribute to transfer costs.
        EIA
        Article 8 of Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507 states that an aquaculture licence may, as a general rule, only be granted if it is pursuant to relevant provisions of the Regulation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) No. 26939. The EIA process is regulated by the DG for EIA in the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning. According to No. 26939, fish farms with an annual production capacity of 30 mt/y or less are exempted from EIA. Farms with an annual capacity between 30 and 1000 mt/y, and hatcheries with an annual capacity of over 40 million fry, are inspected by the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, which then makes a decision regarding whether “EIA is required” or “EIA is not required.” EIA is required for large farms with a capacity of 1 000 tonnes/year or more.

        In order to reach a decision on whether “EIA is required” or “EIA is not required,” a project description file is prepared by the entrepreneur(s) and is submitted to the Ministry. The file includes the general features and location of the project, as well as an alternate project and project location. The Ministry evaluates the file within fifteen (15) days and makes a decision in the following five (5) days. The decision is sent to the Governor of the relevant province and the entrepreneur(s).

        If an EIA is required, the entrepreneur applies to the Ministry with an application form and two EIA application files. The Ministry first inspects the file pursuant to the format provided in the EIA Regulation. The file is returned to the applicant if it is not in the required format. Otherwise, a commission is formed including representatives of the relevant institutes/institutions, authorities from the Ministry and the entrepreneur or his/her representatives. The project files are sent to the Governor of the relevant province for public hearing, and to members of the commission. Data/information included in EIA files for fish farm applications:
        • Description and project objectives.
        • Cost-benefit analysis.
        • Locations of the production units (e.g. size and numbers of cages) .
        • Detailed maps/plans of the area/site.
        • Other farms and settlements around project site.
        • Physical and biological characteristics and utilization of natural resources at site or impact area: coast and water use, species and ecosystems, meteorological data, currents, transport, socio-economic properties.
        • Potential environmental impacts of the project and measure will be taken.
        • Impacts after ceasing the activity and mitigation plans.
        • Emergency action/response plans and monitoring.
        Operation
        Water and wastewater
        According to Environmental Law No. 2872, recipient environment standards concerning the fisheries production areas are defined by MoFAL. The main legislation concerning water quality and the discharge of wastewater is Fisheries Regulation No. 22223. Article 11 of the Regulation bans the discharge of any pollutants into marine and freshwater bodies used for fishery production that might harm fish well being and consumer health. Annex 5 of the Regulation defines harmful substances forbidden to be discharged into production areas in inland waters and seas and defines as well the acceptable thresholds that may be discharged. The Regulation further specifies wastes that can be discharged into the waters and the acceptable chemical, toxic, and microbiological values in live, chilled and frozen bivalve molluscs. In addition Circular No. 2008-29 on Water Quality Standards for Shellfish Production Sites describes in detail the shellfish (mainly bivalve molluscs) production waters, their quality standards, monitoring program, sampling procedure, and congruity to quality standards. The Circular also lists approved shellfish production sites. The Circular No.2008-29 is mainly based on Council Directive 91/492/EEC, which lays down health conditions for the production and the placing on the market of live bivalve molluscs, and Directive 2006/113/EC, which covers the quality required for shellfish waters.

        Article 21 of Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507 also provides measures concerning environmental impacts and protections. Accordingly, producers shall take required actions to protect environment. Any pollutant that will spoil water quality and harm the environment, fish, or human health cannot be used. In addition, measures shall be taken to prevent visual pollution. Effluent waters of land based fish farms and hatcheries should be consistent with the criteria defined in Fisheries Regulation No. 22223 and they should have waste water treatment systems.
        The Notice on Application Principles with Regard to the Regulation on Aquaculture No. 2006/1 provides water quality criteria as a guideline for fish culture, ongrowing and hatchery production of salmonids, carp, and marine species.

        In general, Regulation on Control of Water Pollution No. 25687, based on Environmental Law No. 2872, is the major legislation governing control of water pollution. This Regulation comprises quality classifications of water bodies and utilization of these classes, planning principles concerning protection of water quality, guidelines and permits, wastewater processing plants, and monitoring and control principles to prevent water pollution. Water bodies are classified as:
        • Class I : High quality.
        • Class II : Slightly polluted.
        • Class III : Polluted.
        • Class IV : Over polluted.
        Class I waters are classified according to their utilization purposes.

        Classification of Class I waters:
        • To be utilized for disinfection and drinking.
        • To be utilized for recreational purposes.
        • To be utilized for trout farming.
        • To be utilized for aquaculture.
        • Others.
        It has been emphasized that high quality water is suitable for trout farming, while other fish species can be farmed in slightly polluted waters. Fisheries and aquaculture activities are forbidden in drinking water reservoirs. Fisheries production areas are classified as Class I D.

        Aquaculture effluent discharge standards are given under discharge standards of food industry wastewaters into recipient environment as chemical oxygen demand of 50 mg/l and 30 mg/l for 2 hour and 24 hour composite samplings.
        Fish movement
        The competent authority for movements of live fish and fish as food is the DG for Protection and Control of MoFAL. According to Fisheries Regulation No. 22223, import and export of live aquatic life shall be conducted only through customs declared by MoFAL in the Official Gazette.

        It is compulsory to present a Health Certificate and Certificate of Origin prepared by official intuitions of the country of origin for imported aquatic animals. In the case of live fish intended for broodstock, these certificates should be approved by Turkish Consulate in that country of origin.

        Tuna caught in international waters for fattening purpose and directly imported into the country need veterinary control on the border.

        The Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock arranges Certificates of Origin and Health Certificates for live aquatic animals that are exported out of the country. Private and public companies producing and marketing broodstock need to obtain Broodstock Health Certificates from the Ministry.

        Article 18 of Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507 provides the following provisions for eggs, fry and broodstock importation:
        • Importing eggs, fry or broodstock for aquaculture production requires a permit from MoFAL’s Central Office or Provincial Directorates.
        • Documentation is needed for importation, as defined by MoFAL’s Central Office.
        • Egg, fry, and broodstock importers must apply to the relevant Provincial Directorate, giving amount/number of requirements. The Provincial Directorate arranges a Certificate of Need. These documents are sent to the Central Office of the Ministry. If the Central Office approves the importation of required live material, a Control Document is prepared and approved. Then, the Control Document, Certificate of Origin, Health Certificate, and invoice are sent to the Provincial Directorate, where the material will enter through customs.
        None of the current regulations mention quarantine requirements for imported live aquatic material. In case of the introduction of non-native/exotic species, the Ministry requests universities’ and NGOs’ written approaches, and decides according to these views. Currently there is no strict regulation on the movement of live material within the country.
        Disease control
        Rules and procedures on aquatic animal diseases and disease control are regulated by the following legislations:
        • Law No. 5996 of 2010 on Veterinary Services, Plant Health, Food and Feed.
        • Regulation No. 28190 of 2012 on Aquatic Animal Health and Protection and Fight Against Aquatic Animal Diseases.
        • Circular No. 2007/32 on Listed Diseases To Be Registered According to Article 4 of Animal Health and Sanitation Law.
        Law No. 5996 defines the responsibilities of the Ministry (MoFAL) in cases of epidemic animal diseases outbreak and the rules and procedures of compensation to be paid by the Ministry. The Regulation on Aquatic Animal Health and Protection and Fight Against Aquatic Animal Diseases sets forth the required health conditions in aquatic animals and aquaculture products, preventive measures to be taken by the authorities and aquaculture facilities and precautions to be taken in case of disease breakout. The Regulation also covers provisions on aquatic animal quarantine, vaccination and monitoring and control programs.

        In addition the Circular No. 2007/32 underlines some of the aquatic animal diseases listed above, as diseases to be reported and registered if it is suspected to be present or approved that it is present.

        The DG for Food and Control (DGFC) of MoFAL is the competent authority for disease control. The Bornova Veterinary Control and Research Institute is the designated national reference laboratory responsible for coordinating diagnostic standards and methods, fish health surveillance, and diagnostic services. There are also university laboratories in Trabzon, Rize, Sinop, Istanbul, Izmir, Ankara, Elazig, Erzurum, Isparta, Mugla, Adana, as well as MoFAL Fisheries Institute laboratories in Trabzon, Elazıg, Egirdir, Antalya. All these laboratories deal with fish health issues. In addition, private diagnostic and therapeutic services and material providers are located in Istanbul, Izmir and Mugla.

        According to Law No. 5996 on Veterinary Services, Plant Health, Food and Feed and the Fisheries Regulation No. 22223 in cases of contagious disease in an aquaculture facility, or upon suspicion of such a disease, the competent authority can order necessary measures in order to limit the spread of the disease, including taking the area or farm(s) under control, or engaging in killing and destruction. They can also order the reconstruction of facilities, transport units and equipment in these cases. Provincial Directorates publicize the measures taken via local and/or regional press and media.

        Articles 4 of Law No. 5996 and 20 of Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507 provide measures that shall be taken to maintain the health of farmed fish:
        • The Ministry has the authority to take or order to take any actions to protect aquaculture production areas and fish health.
        • Dead fish shall be collected regularly and disposed with lime in hollows.
        • The Ministry has authority for control, audit, to make sampling and analysis in production areas and aquaculture facilities.
        • Relevant Provincial Directorates should be informed immediately when a disease outbreak is observed or suspected, at that point the Provincial Directorate either begins monitoring the situation or takes quarantine measures.
        • If the disease outbreaks/occurs in land-based systems, all ponds and other production units are cleaned and disinfected. Live materials are extirpated via recommended methodology by veterans.
        • The facilities should stop operation until further notice from the relevant Provincial Directorate.
        Drugs
        The competent authority on use of chemicals and veterinary drugs is the DGFC of MoFAL. The use of chemicals and veterinary drugs in general, including in aquaculture, is mainly regulated by Law No. 5996 on veterinary services, plant health, food and feed, Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507, Regulation on veterinary medical products. Legislation requires the use of chemicals and drugs to be carried out under the control of veterinarians and the Ministry may restrict or prohibit the use of certain chemicals or drugs if considers necessary.
        Feed
        Restrictions on the use of feed is regulated by Law No. 5996 on veterinary services, plant health, food and feed, Regulation on Feed Hygiene, Feed Regulation. The Ministry (MoFAL) is the competent authority. According to Law No. 5996 the Ministry prohibits the presentation to the market and usage of feed when it is considered unsafe. The Law encloses matters such as, production, processing and distribution of feed and the Regulation encloses the following topics concerning feed:
        • Definitions, classifications, norm and standards.
        • Declaration, registry, license and control.
        • Laboratory inspection and analyses.
        • Methods for laboratory analysis.
        • Minimum technical and health conditions of processing plants.
        • Provisions for stores and sales points.
        • Production permits or licenses, sale prices, import and export.
        However, neither the Law nor the Regulation mentions aquafeeds.
        Food safety
        In general, Law No. 5996 on veterinary services, plant health, food and feed, covering the production, processing, and distribution of foodstuffs, is the main law addressing food safety. Under the Law, trade in or distribution of unsafe foodstuffs, i.e. foodstuffs that can be considered harmful to human health or unsuitable for consumption, is prohibited. The Regulation on Turkish Food Codex covers quality and hygenic issues of foodstuff, additives, aromatic substances, pesticides and veterinary drug residues, foostuff contaminants, package and labelling, storage and transport rules, sampling and methods for analysis. The Regulation Concerning Food Safety and Checking and Control of Food Quality covers rules and procedures of production, processing and distribution phases of food, and substances and materials contacting foodstuff, provisions on the minimum technical and hygenic requirements, checking, controlling and monitoring of food.

        Fisheries Regulation No. 22223 is the main legislation regulating food safety in fisheries and aquacultaure. Chapter IX (Articles 25-32) provides “Technical and Hygienic Conditions of Fishery Products Processing Establishment and Characteristics of the Fishery Products that will be Consumed and Processed,” including operating licences for the establishment, general hygiene conditions of the facilities, technical requirements related to the processing of fresh marine products, technical requirements related to frozen fishery products, technical requirements related to processed seafood products, characteristics of the seafood that are to be processed and consumed, the characteristics of food goods and industrial products, packaging, labelling and transportation.

        Another important legislation is the Regulation on Wholesale and Retail Sale Places of Fishery Products. This Regulation addresses control and inspection procedures and principles in relation to minimum general, technical, hygienic, physical and infrastructure conditions to be conformed in the wholesale fish markets that are established by the municipalities and/or real and juristic persons. This Regulation also addresses working conditions in wholesale fish markets and the operation, management and sale of the fish and fishery products. Principles and rules are laid out for the following:
        • wholesale fish and fishery products, establishment and operational permits (HACCP required) for wholesale fish markets.
        • infrastructure, physical, technical and hygienic conditions of the wholesale fish market, such as necessary units to be situated in the wholesale fish market and their properties.
        • minimum physical and infrastructure conditions.
        • minimum technical and hygiene conditions.
        • conditions related to place assignment in the wholesale fish market.
        • conditions concerning the movement of the products within the wholesale fish market, such as product entrance, wholesale operations, trade operations, exit and transfer of products.
        • establishment and working permissions of wholesale fish market centers and product sale, characteristics of establishment places, necessary units and their properties, minimum physical and infrastructure conditions, minimum technical and hygienic conditions, place assignment, product entrance, and sale and exit.
        • retail markets, retail sale, technical and hygienic conditions of retail sale stores.
        • sale of fish and fishery products in mobile places, taxes, guarantees and fees, control and inspection performed by MoFAL staff.
        The Turkish Grand National Parliament has been sent a Draft Bill to amend Fisheries Law No. 1380 in order to align it with 104/2000/EC (the common organisation of the markets in fishery and aquaculture products), 2406/96/EC (laying down common marketing standards for certain fishery products), and 2065/2001/EC (laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 104/2000 as regards informing consumers about fishery and aquaculture products.

        Regulation on Measures for Monitoring certain Substances and Residues for Livestock lays down residue and substance monitoring plans, auto-control and producers’ responsibilities, official controls, national reference laboratories and responsibilities, and maximum residue limits. Bornova (Izmir) Veterinary Control and Research Institute is the designated national reference laboratory. Residue monitoring was initiated in 1998 mainly for farmed fish, which will be exported and in recent years this practice has been extended to farmed fish destined for the domestic market.

        The Regulation is fully compatible with Council Directive 96/23/EC of 29 April 1996 on “Measures to Monitor Certain Substances and Residues Thereof in Live Animals and Animal Products.”
        Miscellaneous
        Aquaculture investment 
        Aquaculture investment does not receive direct financial support from the public funds. However, since the 2005 Decision on Supporting Animal Husbandry No. 2005/8503, and the Notification No. 2011/26 on supporting livestock government provides supports for agriculture, livestock and fisheries. Articles 13 and 14 of the Notification No. 2011/31 regulate the support policies in 2011 period for aquaculture and the rules and procedures of application for demand of support.
        References
        Legislation
        Law on the membership to ICCAT (No: 4589) (Official Gazette Dated 28.05.2003 and No 25121)
        State Tendering Law of 2886 (Official Gazette Dated 10.09.1983 and No: 18161)
        Decree-Law No. 441 establishing functions of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Official Journal No. 20955 dated 09.08.1991)
        REGULATIONS
        Aquaculture Regulation (Official Gazette dated 29.06.2004 and No. 25507, amended by Official Gazettes No. 25967 dated 15.10.2005, No. 26556 dated 18.06.2007, No. 27243 dated 30.05.2009.)
        Fisheries Regulation (Official Gazette dated 10.03.1995 and No: 22223, amended by Official Gazettes No. 25052 dated 18.03.2003, No. 25374 dated 15.02.2004, No. 27455 dated 07.01.2010, No. 27517 dated 10.03.2010)
        Regulation of Environmental Impact Assessment (Official Gazette dated 17.07.2008 and No. 26939, amended by Official Gazette No. 27437 dated 19.12.2009)
        Regulation on Turkish Food Codex - Consolidated (Official Gazette Dated 16.11.1997 and No: 23172, last amendment Official Gazette No. 27572 dated 05.05.2010)
        Regulation on measures to be taken to monitor certain substances and their residues in live animals and animal products (Official Gazette No. 28145 dated 12.12.2011)
        Regulation on Wholesale and Retail Sale Places of Fishery Products – Consolidated (Official Gazete dated 19.06.2002 and No: 24790, Amended by Official Gazette dated 14.07.2004 and No. 25522, dated 27.04.2007 and 26505)
        Regulation on Principles and Implementation of Organic Agricultural Production (Official Gazette Dated 10.06.2005 and No: 25841, amended by Official Gazette No. 26332 dated 17.10.2006 and No. 27379 dated 17.10.2009)
        Regulation on Implementation of Coastal Law (Official Gazette Dated 03.08.1990 and No: 20594, amended by Official Gazettes No. 21374 dated 13.10.1992, No. 22709 dated 27.07.1996, No. 25418 dated 30.03.2004.)
        Regulation on Control of Water Pollution (Official Gazette Dated 31.12.2004 and No: 25687, amended by Official Gazette No. 27537 dated 30.03.2010)
        Regulation on concession of aquaculture production rights in seas and inland waters and concession of use of water needed in aquaculture investments (Official Gazette No. 27951 dated 01.06.2011)
        Regulation on aquatic animal health and protection and fight against aquatic animal diseases (Official Gazette No. 28190 dated 31 January 2012)
        Regulation on Veterinary Medical Products (Official Gazette No. 28152 dated 24.12.2011)
        Regulation Concerning Food Safety and Checking and Control of Food Quality (Official Gazette No. 270009 dated 26.09.2008)
        OTHER LEGISLATION
        (Circular, Communiqué, Decision, Directive, Principles, Prospectus, Protocol)
        Application Principles with Regard to the Regulation on Aquaculture (Notice 2006/1)
        Circular on Determination of Sensitive Enclosed Bays and Gulfs Areas where Fish Farms Excluded (Circular: 4.01.2007 and No: 26413)
        Principle Decision High Council of Protection of Cultural and Natural Assets ConcerningMariculture and Aquaculture Facilities at Natural/Historic Sites (Date: 19.12.2206, No: 725).
        Circular (No: 2003/46) Leasing Fisheries/Aquaculture Production Sites (Official Gazette Dated 16.01.2004 and No: 25348)
        Circular on National Estate (Official Gazette Dated: 20.08.2003 and No: 25205)
        Circular (No: 2008-29) on Water Quality Standards for Shellfish Production Sites (Official Gazette Dated 02.06.2008 and No: 26894, amended by Official Gazette No. 27517 dated 10.03.2010)
        Circular (No: 2007/32) on Listed Diseases To Be Registered According to Article 4 of Animal Health and Sanitation Law (No: 3285) (Official Gazette Dated 12.07.2007 and No 2650)
        Notification No. 2011/26 on supporting livestock.(Official Gazette No. 27926 dated 06.05.2011
        Circular 2011/7 on measures to be taken to monitor certain substances and their residues in live animals and animal products.
        European Community
        Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2377/1990 laying down a Community Procedure for the Establishment of Maximum Residue Limits of Veterinary Medicinal Products in Foodstuffs of Animal Origin.
        Council Directive 91/492/EEC of 15 July 1991 Laying Down the Health Conditions for the Production and the Placing on the Market of Live Bivalve Molluscs.
        Council Regulation (EC) No 2406/96 of 26 November 1996 Laying Down Common Marketing Standards for Certain Fishery Products.
        Council Directive 96/23/EC of 29 April 1996 on Measures to Monitor Certain Substances and Residues Thereof in Live Animals and Animal Products and Repealing Directives 85/358/EEC and 86/469/EEC and Decisions 89/187/EEC and 91/664/EEC.
        Council Regulation (EC) No 104/2000 of 17 December 1999 on the Common Organisation of the Markets in Fishery and Aquaculture Products.
        Commission Regulation (EC) No 2065/2001 of 22 October 2001 laying down detailed rules for the application of Council Regulation (EC) No 104/2000 as regards informing consumers about fishery and aquaculture products Directive 2006/113/EC of 12 December 2006 on the Quality Required of Shellfish Waters.
        Council Directive 2006/88/EC of 24 October 2006 on Animal Health Requirements for Aquaculture Animals and Products Thereof, and on the Prevention and Control of Certain Diseases in Aquatic Animals.
        Related resources

        faolexSearch parameters: country=TUR, Keywords=aquaculture;mariculture
        Records Returned: 15
        Title of textDate of textConsolidated dateEntry into forceCountries
        Directive of the Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock concerning the duties of central units.2013Turkey

        Regulation on sustainable use and protection of aquatic genetic resources.2012-08-29This Regulation enters into force on the day it is published in the Official Journal.Turkey

        Decree Law No. 639 on the establishment and functions of the Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock.2011-06-08This Decree Law enters into force on the day it is published in the Official Journal.Turkey

        Regulation on concession of aquaculture production rights in seas and inland waters and concession of use of water needed in aquaculture investments.2011-06-01This Regulation enters into force on the day it is published in the Journal.Turkey

        Notification No. 2011/26 on supporting livestock.2011-05-06This Notification enters into force on 01.01.2011.Turkey

        Notification on the monitoring of the fish farming facilities.2009-06-13This Notification enters into force on the day it is published in the Official Journal.Turkey

        Communiqué on water quality standards for shellfish.2008-06-02Turkey

        Regulation on wholesale and retail sale places of fishery products.2007-04-27The Regulation enters into force on 19 June 2004.Turkey

        Notification prohibiting fish farming in enclosed bays and gulf areas.2007-01-24Turkey

        Principle Decision High Council of Protection of Cultural and Natural Assets concerning mariculture and aquaculture facilities at Natural/Historic Sites.2006-12-19Turkey

        Aquaculture Regulation No. 25507.2004-06-29Turkey

        Circular No. 2003/46 leasing fisheries and aquaculture production sites.2004-01-16The Regulation enters into force on the day it is published in the Official Journal.Turkey

        Fisheries Law No. 1380.2003-07-22Turkey

        Fisheries Regulation No. 22223.1995-03-10Turkey

        Circular No. 2006/1 on implementation of the Aquaculture Regulation.Turkey

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