FAO Aquaculture Global and Regional Reviews
 
Cover Review Europe

Europe. This update considers the wider European region comprising the 43 countries that were the object of the more detailed 2010 review of aquaculture in Europe (Váradi et al., 2011) and in particular notes significant changes related to aquaculture in that region since 2010. Aquaculture production data have been obtained from FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Fishery Information, Data and Statistics Unit.
The most notable development in the period has been the continuing increase in the production of Atlantic salmon (by 43 percent for the period 2009–2014), mainly in the Kingdom of Norway but with significant increases also in the Faroe Islands, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Russian Federation. Production technologies have undergone significant changes in this period with increasing use of very large scale Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) for the production of large smolts and in some cases for ongrowing fish to up to 1 kg in fresh water before transfer to sea cages.

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Cover Review North America

North America. The review summarizes status and trends of aquaculture development in North America for the period 2010–2015 and concentrates on activities in Canada and the United States of America. Relevant aspects of the social and economic background of each country are followed by a description of current and evolving aquaculture practices (species, methods, amounts and values) and the needs of the industry in terms of resources, services and technologies. Impacts of aquacultural practices on the environment are discussed, followed by a consideration of the industry’s response to market demands and opportunities and its contribution to social and economic development at the regional, national and international levels. External pressures on the sector, including climate change and economic events are described, along with associated changes in governance. The review concludes with an analysis of North American aquaculture’s contribution to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, the FAO Strategic Objectives, and the FAO Blue Growth Initiative. Throughout the review, outstanding issues and success stories are identified and a “way forward” suggested for each main topic.


Cover Review Latin America and Caribbean

Latin America and the Caribbean. With a land surface of 21 million square kilometers and a population of 634 million (2015), Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has drastically diminished its capture fish production, from 19.8 to 10.8 million tonnes between 2000 and 2014, as a result of decaying pelagic fisheries off Peru and Chile and a decline in catches in several coastal areas. In contrast, aquaculture evolved from 0.8 to 2.8 million tonnes and values from US$3.8 to US$15.9 billion in the same period. These facts have allowed aquaculture to increase its contribution to total regional landings from 4.1 percent in 2000 to 20.5 percent in 2014.The region also contributed 3.8 percent to world aquaculture production in volume but to a more substantial 10.7 percent in value terms, and 11.6 percent to total wild catches, in 2014. The region is second only to Oceania in the average value per kilogram of its farmed production.

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Cover Review Sub-Saharian Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa. The present regional review and synthesis for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) provides an overview of major issues and trends in the aquaculture sector between 2004 and 2014 with emphasis on outstanding issues over the last five years. The regional review reflects development in 41countries in SSA for which production was reported to FAO in 2014. The production volume and value data have been derived from the latest FAO global aquaculture dataset 1950–2014 (FishStat), compiled by Xiaowei Zhou. The population of SSA in mid-2014 was 920 million. The annual growth rate was 2.5 percent. The population is projected to be between 1.5 and 2 billion by 2050. Unemployment rates were 6.9 percent for males and 8.8 percent for females in 2014. The informal economy absorbs nearly 70 percent of workers, mostly women and youth. In 2014, the average income per capita ranged from US$604 for the Central African Republic to US$32 266 for the Republic of Equatorial Guinea.

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Cover Revire Near East and North Africa

Near East and North Africa. The Near East and North Africa (NENA) region comprises 20 countries with a total land area of about 12 million km2. It is mostly desert and arid lands, with a total population of about 415 million people. All NENA countries have sea borders, but fresh water resources are very scarce. Except in the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Islamic Republic of Iran, the contribution of aquaculture to national gross domestic product (GDP) in the region is negligible. Aquaculture production in the NENA region has doubled over the past decade (2005–2014), from 702 340 tonnes in 2005 to 1 531 318 tonnes in 2014, with an average annual growth rate of 9.7 percent. However, Egypt and Iran contributed 74 and 21 percent, respectively, to total aquaculture output. Meanwhile, the role of aquaculture in total fish production is steadily increasing in the region.

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Cover Review Asia-Pacific

Asia-Pacific. Aquaculture is still the fastest growing food producing sector in the world. In 2014, aquaculture produced 73.8 million tonnes of aquatic animals, with an estimated first-sale value of US$160.2 billion and 27.3 million tonnes of aquatic plants worth US$5.6 billion. Almost all fish produced from aquaculture are destined for human consumption, although by-products may be used for non-food purposes. Thirty-five countries produced more farmed than wild-caught fish in 2014 and four top producers in Asia-Pacific, namely, the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, the People’s Republic of China, the Republic of India and the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam are included in this group. Historically, the Asia-Pacific region (in particular the People’s Republic of China, South Asia and South-East Asia sub-regions) has dominated global aquaculture production, both in quantity and value; the region contributed 65.2 million tonnes of aquatic animals, amounting to 88 percent of the global total in 2014.

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