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Chiloscyllium arabicum:   (click for more)

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  • Chiloscyllium confusum  Dingerkus and DeFino, 1983: 9, figs 2, 4-7, 51, 57, 61-64. Holotype: American Museum of Natural History, AMNH-44126, 408 mm TL subadult male, 18.5 km (10 mi) offshore of Calicut (Kozhikode), Kerala, India.
    Other Combinations:  None.
    FAO Names
    En - Arabian carpetshark, Fr - Requin-chabot camot, Sp - Bamboa arábiga.
    3Alpha Code: ORA     Taxonomic Code: 1070401501
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Chiloscyllium arabicum  Gubanov, 1980, in Gubanov and Schleib, Sharks Arabian Gulf: 14, figs 6-7, pl. Type material? Persian Gulf.
    Diagnostic Features
    fieldmarks: Mouth well in front of eyes; spineless dorsal fins far posterior on tail, greatly elongated thick precaudal tail, long and low anal fin just anterior to caudal fin, prominent predorsal and interdorsal ridges on back, dorsal fins with nearly straight posterior margins, first dorsal-fin origin opposite or just behind pelvic-fin insertions, second dorsal fin usually with a longer base than first; no colour pattern in young and adults.

    Prepectoral length 16.1 to 19.6% of total length. Snout fairly thick and rounded anteriorly. Eyes moderately large, lengths 1.4 to 1.8% of total length. Body and tail moderately slender. Lateral ridges absent from trunk but interdorsal and predorsal ridges prominent. Interdorsal space fairly long, nearly or over twice first dorsal-fin base and 8.7 to 14.5% of total length. Snout to vent length 33.1 to 36.3% of total length; distance from vent to tail tip 61.0 to 67.6% of total length.  Dorsal fins large and subangular, subequal to or larger than pelvic fins, and without concave posterior margins and projecting free rear tips. First dorsal-fin origin over or behind rear halves of pelvic-fin bases, first dorsal-fin base usually slightly shorter than second dorsal-fin base (rarely about equal), first dorsal-fin height 4.3 to 8.4% of total length. Second dorsal-fin height 4.2 to 7.1% of total length. Origin of anal fin somewhat behind free rear tip of second dorsal fin, anal-fin length from origin to free rear tip somewhat less than hypural caudal lobe from lower caudal origin to subterminal notch, anal-fin base less than six times anal-fin height.  Total vertebral count between 141 and 175 (mean = 158.2, n = 23).  Intestinal valve count unknown.  Colour pattern absent in adults, juveniles with light spots on fins but otherwise unmarked. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Western Indian Ocean: India, Pakistan, and the Persian Gulf between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula (including Saudi Arabia and Kuwait).
    Habitat and Biology
    Found on coral reefs, lagoons, rocky shores, and mangrove estuaries,depths from 3 to 100 m.

    A common inshore to offshore bottom shark in the Persian Gulf, especially during the summer.Biology sketchily known.Feeds on squid (Loliginidae), shelled molluscs (Gastropoda?), crustaceans, and snake eels (Ophichthidae).
    It has reproduced in aquaria, and the male grabs the pectoral fin of the female while mating. Lays up to four egg-cases on coral reefs, with hatching after 70 to 80 days. 
    Maximum total length about 70 cm. Freeliving at 101 mm, size at hatching uncertain; matures between 45 and 54 cm long; an adult male 58 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Interest to fisheries minimal at present, apparently little utilized in the Persian Gulf (Gubanov and Schleib, 1980) but probably is used in Pakistan and India.

    Conservation Status : The conservation status of this species is uncertain; an immediate question is whether the Gulf War had an adverse effect on populations of this shark and other Gulf species.
    Local Names
    Widespread : Arabian bamboo shark ,  Confusing bamboo shark .
    This species was first described by Gubanov and Schleib (1980) but Dingerkus and DeFino (1983) described it as a separate species, Chiloscyllium confusum, without mention of C. arabicum. Compagno (1984) provisionally recognized C. arabicum but noted that it was apparently very close to Chiloscyllium punctatum. Dingerkus and DeFino's account clearly establishes this species as being separable from C. punctatum.
    Source of Information
    Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
    Compagno, 1984, and unpub. data.
    Dibelius, 1993
    Dingerkus & DeFino, 1983
    Gubanov & Schleib, 1980
    Kuronuma & Abe, 1972
    Michael, 1993
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