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Chiloscyllium indicum:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • [?Squalus] colax  Meuschen, 1781: (no pagination). Meuschen's Index to Gronovius' Zoophylacium was rejected by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1950: 504) as being nonbinomial. Holotype: British Museum (Natural History), BMNH-1853.11.12.205, 274 mm TL female (dried skin), "Oceano Indico", Gronow collection. Status confirmed by Dingerkus and DeFino (1983: 22).
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  • Squalus tuberculatus  Bloch and Schneider, 1801: 137. Based on "Le Squale dentele" of Lacépède, 1798: 281, pl. 11, fig. 1, no locality. Syntypes: British Museum (Natural History), BMNH-1853.11.12.205, 274 mm TL female (dried skin), "Oceano Indico", Gronow collection (status confirmed by Dingerkus and DeFino, 1983: 22); ?BMNH-1845.7.3.143, 419 mm, Cape Sea, South Africa (locality doubtful).
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  • Squalus (Scyliorhinus) tuberculatus  Blainville, 1816: 121 (nomen nudum).
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  • Chiloscyllium tuberculatus  Müller and Henle, 1838d: 20.
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  • Squalus gronovianus  Shaw, 1804: 353 (on Gronow's Squalus caudatus; see Gronow, in Gray, 1854: 8). Holotype: British Museum (Natural History), BMNH-1853.11.12.205, 274 mm TL female (dried skin), "Oceano Indico", Gronow collection. Status confirmed by Dingerkus and DeFino (1983: 22).
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  • ?Squalus (Scyliorhinus) dentatus  Blainville, 1816: 121, (nomen nudum), possibly based on "Le Squale dentele" of Lacépède, 1798: 281, pl. 11, fig. 1, no locality, according to Fowler (1941: 90).
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  • Chiloscyllium phymatodes  Bleeker, 1852: 21. Holotype: Probably Rikjsmuseum van Natuurlijke Histoire, Leiden, RMNH-7406, one of two, 410mmfemale, Semarang, Java, according to Dingerkus and DeFino (1983: 22).
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  • Squalus caudatus  Gronow, 1854(in Gray): 8. Holotype: British Museum (Natural History), BMNH-1853.11.12.205, 274mmTL female (dried skin), "Oceano Indico", Gronow collection. Status confirmed by Dingerkus and DeFino (1983: 22).
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  • Chiloscyllium colax  Whitley, 1939: 228.
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  • Hemiscyllium colax  Fowler, 1941: 89. Revival of [?Squalus] colax Meuschen, 1781.
    Other Combinations:   (Gmelin, in Linnaeus and Gmelin, 1788).
    FAO Names
    En - Slender bambooshark, Fr - Requin-chabot élégant, Sp - Bamboa elegante.
    3Alpha Code: ORI     Taxonomic Code: 1070401504
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Squalus indicus  Gmelin, 1788, in Linnaeus and Gmelin, Syst. Nat., ed. 13, Pisces 1(3): 1503. Holotype: British Museum (Natural History), BMNH-1853.11.12.205, 274 mm TL female (dried skin), "Oceano Indico", Gronow collection. Eastern Indian Ocean. Status confirmed by Dingerkus and DeFino, 1983, Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist. 176(1): 22.
    Diagnostic Features
    fieldmarks: Mouth well in front of eyes; spineless dorsal fins far posterior on tail, greatly elongated slender precaudal tail, long and low anal fin just anterior to caudal fin, lateral ridges on trunk, dorsal fins with straight or convex posterior margins, first dorsal-fin origin opposite or just behind pelvic-fin insertions; colour pattern of numerous small dark spots, saddles, and dashes.

    Prepectoral length 15.2 to 18.0% of total length. Snout narrowly rounded anteriorly. Eyes moderately large, lengths 1.4 to 1.9% of total length. Body and tail very slender. A lateral ridge present on each side of trunk, and strong predorsal and interdorsal ridges on midline of back. Interdorsal space fairly long, nearly twice first dorsal-fin base and 10 to 12% of total length. Snout to vent length 32.4 to 35.1% of total length; distance from vent to tail tip 62.3 to 67.0% of total length.  Dorsal fins small and rounded, subequal to or smaller than pelvic fins, and without concave posterior margins and projecting free rear tips. First dorsal-fin origin over or behind pelvic-fin insertions, first dorsal-fin base slightly longer than second dorsal-fin base, first dorsal-fin height 3.9 to 5.4% of total length. Second dorsal-fin height 3.9 to 5.1% of total length. Origin of anal fin far behind free rear tip of second dorsal fin, anal-fin length from origin to free rear tip about equal to or greater than hypural caudal lobe from lower caudal-fin origin to subterminal notch, anal-fin base over six times anal-fin height.  Total vertebral count between 166 and 170 (mean = 167.0, n = 4).  Intestinal valve count 14 to 15 (n = 6).  Colour pattern of numerous dark brown or blackish spots, dashes and bars on light brown background present in juveniles and adults; saddle-markings or bars of young without prominent black edging. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Indo-West Pacific: Possibly Arabian Sea and India, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Thailand, ?Malaysia, Indonesia, Viet Nam, Taiwan Island (Province of China), China, ?Republic of Korea, ?Japan, ?Philippines, ?Solomon Islands.
    Habitat and Biology
    A common but little-known inshore bottom shark. It possibly may occur in fresh water in the lower reaches of the Perak River in peninsular Malaysia.


    Oviparous. 
    Size
    Maximum total length about 65 cm; freeliving individual 13 cm but size at hatching unknown; males maturing between 39 and 42 cm and reaching at least 54 cm; adult female 43 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Interest to fisheries considerable. Regularly taken in inshore fisheries in India, Sri Lanka and Thailand, and utilized for human food.

    Conservation Status : Conservation status unknown.
    Local Names
    Sri Lanka : Ridgebacked bamboo shark ,  Slender bamboo shark ,  Ridge back shark .
    Tamil : Corungun sorrah ,  Karikkan schura .
    Malabar, India : Ettee .
    Telugi : Bokee sorrah ,  Ra sorrah .
    Baluchistan : Poos hee .
    Marathi : Balavala .
    Burma : Nga man ing-myong .
    Viet Nam : Ca cha beo ,  Ca nham ,  Ca cheo beo .
    Malaysia : Yu tokele ,  Yu belangkas ,  Yu bodoh ,  Ikan tjutjot kumbang ,  Ikan tjutjot tekeh .
    Thailand : Chalarm gope ,  Frog shark ,  Chalarm hin ,  Stone shark .
    China : Kau kang sha ,  Time teller shark .
    Japan : Ridgeback catshark ,  Nurse shark ,  Tenjikuzame .
    Remarks
    Whitley (1939) proposed that Squalus colax Meuschen, 1781 was the earliest name for this species. However, Meuschen's work (1781) indicates that although colax apparently refers to the Gronow species later named Squalus indicus, it was never proposed in the binomial form Squalus colax but simply listed as colax. Apparently colax is not available for this species.

    Dingerkus and DeFino (1983) listed specimens from South Africa, Indonesia (Java; Semarang-Riau Archipelago; Bintan Island; Bangka Island; Muntok), Malaysia (Penang Island), Thailand (Gulf of Thailand), Singapore, and China, and did not verify the wider distribution accorded this species by previous writers. They mentioned a stuffed specimen from "Cape Seas, South Africa" collected by Dr Andrew Smith (British Museum [Natural History], BMNH-1845.7.3.143, 419 mm), but no Chiloscyllium have been collected off southern Africa despite extensive collecting over the past two centuries. The specimen might have been a waif, but it is more likely to have been procured in India or the Far East and shipped to South Africa.
    Source of Information
    Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
    Bibliography
    Compagno, 1984
    Dingerkus & DeFino, 1983
    Fowler, 1941
    Garman, 1913
    Gubanov & Schleib, 1980
    Herre, 1953
    Nakaya & Shirai, 1984
    Smith, 1913
    Taniuchi, 1979
     
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