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Chiloscyllium punctatum:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
Other Combinations:  Hemiscyllium punctatum (Müller and Henle, 1838).
FAO Names
En - Brownbanded bambooshark, Fr - Requin-chabot bambou, Sp - Bamboa estriada.
3Alpha Code: ORB     Taxonomic Code: 1070401506
Scientific Name with Original Description
Chiloscyllium punctatum  Müller and Henle, 1838d, Syst. Beschr. Plagiost., pt. 1: 18, pl. 3, 4 (pls 4 labelled as C. griseum). Holotype: Rikjsmuseum van Natuurlijke Histoire, Leiden, probably lost, Java. Neotype: American Museum of Natural History, AMNH-38153, 352mmTL female, Batavia (Djakarta), Java, Indonesia, designated by Dingerkus and DeFino, 1983, Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist., 176(1): 30. Fowler, 1941, Bull. U. S. Natl. Mus., (100) 13: 85 gave an earlier reference to this species as "Scyllium punctatum van Hasselt, Algemein Konst., L
Diagnostic Features
fieldmarks: Mouth well in front of eyes; spineless dorsal fins far posterior on tail, greatly elongated thick precaudal tail, long and low anal fin just anterior to caudal fin, no lateral ridges on trunk, dorsal fins with concave posterior margins and elongated free rear tips, first dorsal-fin origin opposite anterior halves of pelvic-fin bases; usually no colour pattern in adults but young with bold dark transverse bands and a few dark spots.

Prepectoral length 16.2 to 18.4% of total length. Snout rounded anteriorly. Eyes moderately large, lengths 1.5 to 2.4% of total length. Body and tail moderately slender. No lateral ridges on trunk, and predorsal and interdorsal ridges not prominent. Interdorsal space fairly short, slightly greater than first dorsal-fin base and 9.1 to 12.7% of total length. Snout to vent length 32.7 to 35.8% of total length; distance from vent to tail tip 61.1 to 64.4% of total length.  Dorsal fins large and angular, larger than pelvic fins, and with concave posterior margins and prominently projecting free rear tips. First dorsal-fin origin varying from slightly anterior to pelvic-fin origins to over anterior halves of pelvic-fin bases, first dorsal-fin base longer than second dorsal-fin base, first dorsal-fin height 6.8 to 9.9% of total length. Second dorsal-fin height 6.4 to 8.4% of total length. Origin of anal fin somewhat behind free rear tip of second dorsal fin, anal-fin length from origin to free rear tip less than hypural caudal lobe from lower caudal-fin origin to subterminal notch, anal-fin base less than six times anal-fin height.  Total vertebral count between 136 and 170 (mean = 154.7, n = 6).  Pectoral fins of "macroceanic" type with straight and very broad tips.  Intestinal valve count 20 (n = 4).  Light brown in adults, usually without a colour pattern, but young with broad dark transverse bars and usually a scattering of small blackish spots, bars not prominently edged with black. 
Geographical Distribution

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Indo-West Pacific: India (east coast, Andaman Islands), Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Komodo), Viet Nam, China, Taiwan (Province of China), Japan, Philippines, south coast of New Guinea (Papua-New Guinea and Irian Jaya, Indonesia), north coast of Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia, Queensland).
Habitat and Biology
An inshore bottom shark found on coral reefs, often in tidepools, on tidal flats, and on reef faces, but probably also present on soft bottom offshore.Found in the intertidal down to at least 85 m.

A common shark but not often seen; young hide in crevices at the bases of coral heads, and adults under table corals. Very tenacious of life, can survive out of water for a long period (half a day).
Oviparous, eggs deposited in rounded egg cases about 11 by 5 cm.  Feeds on bottom invertebrates and possibly small fishes, but biology little-known despite its abundance in some parts of its range.Gills sometimes infested by larval isopods (praniza-larvae of the isopod Gnathia).
Size
Maximum total length about 105 cm; hatchlings about 13 to 17 cm; adult males about 68 to 76 cm; an adult female 62.9 cm.
Interest to Fisheries
Regularly taken in inshore fisheries in India, Thailand, probably Singapore, Malaysia, and Philippines, and utilized for human food.
It was seen in large numbers by the writer in the fish market at Samut Sakon, near Bangkok, Thailand, in 1993.In Australia it is taken in beach seines and on hooks and lines and is said to prefer squid bait; it is little utilized but regarded as good eating. It also is taken in the aquarium trade and displayed in numerous public aquaria in Australia, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and the United States; breeds in captivity. The live young are particularly handsome, with brilliant black and whitish bands on the body and fins.

Conservation Status : Conservation status uncertain.
Local Names
Japan : Brownbanded bamboo shark ,  Gray carpet shark ,  Brown-banded catshark ,  Brownbanded catshark ,  Spotted catshark ,  Brown-banded bamboo shark ,  Brownspotted catshark ,  Inuzame .
Remarks
Müller and Henle (1839) listed "Scyllium punctatum Kuhl and van Hasselt" under their Chiloscyllium punctatum, but I was unable to examine Kuhl and van Hasselt's account of their species and so could not determine if Scyllium punctatum as proposed by Kuhl and van Hasselt was a valid species and not a nomen nudum. As per Dingerkus and DeFino (1983) and Compagno (1984), Müller and Henle's account is retained as the first valid description of this species. Fowler (1967a:103) termed this species Chiloscyllium russellianum, because the Squalus (Scyliorhinus) russellianus of Blainville (1816) was "assumed as based on Bokee sorah Russell, F. of Coromandel I 1803, 10 pl. 16. Vizagapatam, India". However, Fowler (1941) had previously hesitated to replace the extensively-used C. punctatum with Blainville's nomen nudum.
Threat to humans: It may nip divers if provoked.
Source of Information
Sharks of the world An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Volume 2 Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontiformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). Leonard J.V. Compagno 2001.  FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 1, Vol. 2. Rome, FAO. 2001. p.269.
Bibliography
Compagno, 1984
Cook & Compagno, 1994
Dingerkus & DeFino, 1983
Garman, 1913
Gubanov & Schleib, 1980
Herre, 1953
Last & Stevens, 1994
Marshall, 1964
Michael, 1993
Nakaya & Shirai, 1984
Smith, 1913
Stead, 1963
Whitley, 1940
Whitley & Pollard, 1980
 
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