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  • Clupea janeiro  Eigenmann & Bray, 1849, Ann.N.Y.Acad.nat.Sci.:626 (replacement name in view of the homonym Clupea brasiliensis Schneider, 1801 = Albula vulpes Linnaeus, 1758; the name janeiro seems never to have been adopted and although corect should be rejected on grounds of usuage).
  • Sardinella brasiliensis  FWNA, 1964:407, fig. 101;Whitehead, 1973a:30 (Guianas).
    FAO Names
    En - Brazilian sardinella, Fr - Sardinelle de Brésil, Sp - Sardinela del Brasil.
    3Alpha Code: BSR     Taxonomic Code: 1210501224
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Clupea brasiliensis  Steindachner, 1879, Sber.Akad.Wiss.Wien, 80:182 (Rio de Janeiro).
    Diagnostic Features
    See Sardinella aurita, from which it differs in having the anterior gillrakers on the lower limbs of the second and third gill arches distinctly curled downward (more or less flat in S. aurita . The pelvic finray count of i 8 distinguishes S. brasiliensis from all other species of Sardinella, also Harengula and Opisthonema
    Can be confused with: Resembles Strangomera of Argentina and Chile, but has two fleshy appendages along outer margin of gill opening (smooth in Strangomera ) and numerous fine fronto-parietal striae on top of head.

    Geographical Distribution
    Distribution Map
    Western Atlantic (Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, West Indies southward to Brazil and northern Uruguay,but identifications not always reliable).
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    Habitat and Biology
    Coastal,pelagic, schooling. Probably similar to S. aurita, but if indeed this species is distinct from S. aurita then
    it may account for one of the apparent double spawning peaks of that species. 
    To 25 cm standard length, usually around 20 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Large fishery in Venezuela, but 2 statistics do not separate if from S. aurita . The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 30 000 t. The countries with the largest catches were Brazil (30 000 t).
    Local Names
    USA : Orangespot sardine (Florida).
    Separation of S. brasiliensis from the widespread S. aurita on the basis of gillrakers shape and a higher gillraker count is tentative, the more so since fishes with the brasiliensis curled form of gillrakers occur off West Africa and in the Mediterranean.
    Source of Information
    FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1. Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125)Vol.7 Pt. 1:303 p.
    Figureido & Menezes, 1978:23, 27.
    Included in many of the western Atlantic references to S. aurita and perhaps mixed with S. aurita even in studies purporting to deal only with S.brasiliensisens e.g. Matsuura, 1975, 1977
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