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Synonyms
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  • Sardinops sagax  Mann, 1954:131; Hildebrand, 1946:86; de Buen, 1960:265 (synopsis); Bore & Martinez, 1981: unpaged (synopsis); Leible & Alveal, 1982:18 (synopsis).
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  • Alosa musica  Girard, 1854:199 (Chile).
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  • Clupea advena  Phillippi, 1879:161, pl. 10 (Chile).
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  • Arengus sagax  Fowler, 1945:3 (all Chile refs).
    FAO Names
    En - South American pilchard, Fr - Pilchard sudaméricain, Sp - Sardina sudamericana.
    3Alpha Code: CHP     Taxonomic Code: 1210501303
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Clupea sagax  Jenyns, 1842, Zool.voy.Beagle, fishes:134 (Lima, San Lorenzo Island, Peru).
    Diagnostic Features
    The radiating bony striae on the operculum distinguish this species from all other clupeids in the area; in addition, Ethmidium maculatum has dark spots on the flank, but is deeper-bodied and has a distinct median notch in the upper jaw; Strangomera bentincki has a slender body, but lacks the spots and last two anal finrays not enlarged. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Peru and Chile (Sechura Bay at 5°S southward to Mocha Island, Chile, at 38°30'5; also Galapagos Islands).
    Habitat and Biology
    Coastalpelagic,caught down to depths of about 40 m,in summer at 16° to 23° C, in winter at 10° to 18° C.  Forms large schools in the Peru Current.Feeds mainly on planktonic crustaceans.
    Breeds twice in one year (at least off Chile), from July to September and a lesser spawning from February to March throughout the area between Africa and southwest of Antofagasta (eggs also recorded off Valparaiso);  mature from about 24 cm.
    Size
    To about 30 cm standard length, usually around 20 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Catches for Sardinops sagax started to be reported to FAO in 1961 (2 700 t by Peru) but up to 1973 they did not exceeded 100 000 t. Starting that year, there was a fast increase of the catches, which reached a peak of 6 509 301 t in 1985, in correspondence of the dramatic decrease of catches of the Peruvian anchovy due to El Niño phenomenon. Since 1985, the total catch is strongly decreased totalizing 1 503 131 t in 1995, mostly from Peru. Caught with purse seines ("small pelagic purse seining"). The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 442 690 t. The countries with the largest catches were Chile (246 045 t) and Peru (187 824 t).
    Local Names
    CHILE : Sardina española .
    ECUADOR : Sardina .
    PERU : Sardina .
    Remarks
    De Buen (1958, 1960:270) recognized two subspecies and suspected that the Galapagos population represented at least an isolated stock: S. sagax sagax: head length 27 or 28.5% of standard length, pre-dorsal distance 47 to 50% of standard length, pectoral fin length 53 to 55.5% of headlength; Peru. S. sagax musica : head length 25.5 to 26.1% of standard length, pre-dorsal distance 45.1 to 47.6% of standard length, pectoral fin length 51.5 to 58% of head length; Chile.
    Source of Information
    FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1. Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125)Vol.7 Pt. 1:303 p.
    Bibliography
    Alberti, (1960 - fishery, Antofagasta and Iquique)
    Bore & Martinez, (1981; Chile, synopsis, fishery data)
    de Buen, (1960 - biology, synopsis)
    Hildebrand, (1946 - Peru)
     
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