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  • Clupea delicatula  Nordmann, 1840:524 (pre-occupied by Clupea delicatula Bennett, 1831 = Spratelloides delicatulus).
  • Clupeonella delicatula  Svetovidov, 1952:194, pl. 8, figs 1, 2, 3; Idem, 1963:212, pl. 8, figs 1, 2, 3 (in English); CLOFNAM, 1973:101 (full synonymy); FNAM, 1984:274, fig. (synopsis).
    FAO Names
    En - Black and Caspian Sea sprat, Fr - Clupeonelle, Sp - Espadín del Mar Negro y Caspio.
    3Alpha Code: CLA     Taxonomic Code: 1210505901
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Clupea cultriventris  Nordmann, 1840, Faune pontique, 3:522 (northern coast of Black Sea).
    Diagnostic Features
    Body moderately deep, its depth about 21 to 27% of standard length; head short and wide, inter-orbital width at least 17.5% of standard length; belly sharply keeled, with 24 to 29 scutes.  Gillrakers 49 to 62.  Pectoral fin tips pointed. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Black Sea (northwestern parts), Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea, also most of the affluent rivers of the area, reaching as far as 60 km inland.Also, Lake Palaeostomi (Bulgaria)and in Bay of Feodosiya (Romania), also Lake Apolyont (Turkey).
    Habitat and Biology
    Pelagic,euryhaline, essentially a brackishwater species (tolerating sali nities up to 34%o), but with semi-anadromous and purely freshwater forms in rivers and lakes;  migratory between winter or autumn feeding and summer spawning grounds.Feeds on zooplankton.
    Breeds in early summer in Sea of Azov (peak in May), and from about May in the lower reaches of rivers (Dneiper, Dneister). 
    To 14.5 cm standard length, usually to 10 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Of major importance in Sea of Azov (one of the top commercial fishes); stocks depleted in southern part of Caspian Sea (Coad, 1980:71 - C. delicatula). The total catch in 1983 was 396 731 t. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 180 687 t. The countries with the largest catches were Russian Federation (152 934 t) and Ukraine (9 992 t).
    Local Names
    BULGARIA : Tzatza .
    ROMANIA : Gingirica .
    former USSR : Tyul'ka .
    Svetovidov (1952:194; 1963:212) recognized 2 subspecies, based on pectoral and pelvic fin length: (a) C. cultriventris cultriventris: pectoral and pelvic fins long (17.5 to 21.5% and 11.5 to 14% of standard length respectivel, Black Sea, Sea of Azov. (b) C. cultriventris ca ia: pectoral and pelvic fins shorter (15.5 to 19% and 8.5 to 12.5% of standard length respectively); Caspian Sea and basin.
    Source of Information
    FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1. Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125)Vol.7 Pt. 1:303 p.
    Meric, (1984 growth, reproduction, distribution).
    Svetovidov, (1952, 1963)
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