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Synonyms
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  • Engraulis amara  Risso, 1827:456 (southern Europe, ? Nice; see Whitehead & Bauchot, 1986:47).
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  • Engraulis meletta  Cuvier, 1829:323 (on Melet of Duhamel, 1772;see Whitehead & Bauchot, 1986:49).
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  • Engraulis vulgaris  Nilsson, 1832:25 (Sweden).
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  • Engraulis argyrophanus  Valenciennes, 1848:49 (Atlantic en route for Cape of Good Hope;see Whitehead, 1969a:125).
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  • Engraulis russoi  Dulzetto, 1947:27, figs 1-6 (Messina); Scuderi, 1957:242 (var. oliveri from Lago Verde)
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  • Anchoviella guineensis  Rossignol & Blache, 1961:285 (off Cape Lopez, Gabon and Pointe Noire, Congo); Daget & Iltis, 1965:54, fig.29 (Ebrié lagoon, Ivory Coast); Marchal, 1967:1 et seq. (West Africa, eggs, larvae, key).
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  • Engraulis guineensis  Fagetti & Marak, 1972:5 (Senegal to Pointe Noire, Congo, larvae).
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  • Anchoa guineensis  Bravo de Laguna & Santaella Alvarez, 1973:32 (21°30' to 16°45'N).
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  • Engraulis encrasicolus  Fage, 1920(misspelt encrasicholus by many authors) Fage, 1920:6, 33 (Atlantic and Mediterranan races, each with two groups; misspelt encrassicholus). Pusanov, 1926:93 (subspecies atlanticus and mediterraneus after the Atlantic and Mediterranean races proposed by Fage, 1920; also subspecies maeoticus of Black Sea).
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  • Engraulis encrasicolus  Aleksandrov, 1927:77, 98 (subspecies atlanticus on Fage's northern group of the Atlantic race and aquitanicus on southern group; also mediterraneus and adriaticus on Fage's eastern and western groups of the Mediterranean race; also ponticus for Adriatic); Majorowa, 1934:18, 19 (subspecies ponticus, natia occidentalis and orientalis); Dulzetto,1940:397, pis I, ll, figs 2,4 (subspecies symaetensis , Catania eastern Sicily); Demir, 1963:1et seq.
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  • Engraulis encrasicolus  Banarescu, 1964:247, figs 108, 109 (larvae) (Black Sea, subspecies ponticus); Svetovidov, 1946a:127, fig.38 (Black Sea, subspecies ponticus and maeoticus; synopsis, very large bibliography); Demir, 1955a:1 et seq. (Revision of 1963 version); Tortonese, 1967:59 (subspecies ponticus,maeoticus , symaetensis, also E. russoi); Whitehead, 1967a:125 (types of argyrophanus; meletta discussed); Wheeler, 1969:126 (Europe, synopsis).
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  • Engraulis encrasicolus  Wheeler, 1978:71, 74 (fig.) (Europe, synopsis); CLOFNAM, 1973:111 (full synonymy); Bauchot & Pras, 1980:101, pl.10 (synopsis); CLOFRES, 1984:43 (Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez); Lloris et al., 1984:60 (list of Catalan refs); FNAM, 1984:282, fig. (Synopsis, misspelt encrasicholus); Whitehead & Bauchot, 1986:30, 31, 49 (types of argyrophanus, guineensis and meletta).
    FAO Names
    En - European anchovy, Fr - Anchois, Sp - Boquerón.
    3Alpha Code: ANE     Taxonomic Code: 1210600201
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Clupea encrasicolus  Linnaeus, 1758, Syst.nat., 10th ed.:318 (European Seas).
    Diagnostic Features
    Body slender, elongate, oval in cross-section, its depth about 6 times in standard length. Snout pointed; maxilla short, tip blunt, reaching almost to front border of pre-operculum, not projecting beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; tip of lower jaw reaching to below nostril.  Lower gillrakers 27 to 43; gillrakers present on hind face of third epibranchial. Pseudobranch longer than eye, reaching onto inner face of operculum.  Anal fin short, with iii 13 to 15 finrays, its origin well behind base of last dorsal finray.  A silver stripe along flank, disappearing with age. Unmistakable since the only anchovy species in its range. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Eastern North and Central Atlantic (coasts of Europe south from about Bergen, Norway, but not Baltic and rare in the north; whole Mediterranean and Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; southward along coast of West Africa to Angola, also recorded from St. Helena).
    Habitat and Biology
    Mainly marine, pelagic,coastaland forming large schools,but recorded down to 400 m depth off West Africa and descending in winter to 100 to 150 m depth in the Mediterranean;euryhaline, tolerating salinities of 5 to 41°/oo and in some areas entering lagoons, estuaries or lakes, 
    especially in the warmer months during the spawning season.  A tendency to extend into more northern waters in summer and generally to move into the surface layers, retreating and descending in winter.Feeds on planktonic organisms, especially calanoid copepods, cirrepede and mollusk larvae, and fish eggs and larvae.
    Spawning over an extended period from April to November with peaks usually in the warmest months, the limits of the spawning season dependent on temperature and thus more restricted in northern areas. Eggs ellipsoidal to oval, floating in the upper 50 m, hatching in 24 to 65 hours. 
    Size
    To 20 cm standard length, but usually about 12 to 15 cm, those in tropical waters smaller than those in northern waters.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Chiefly caught in the Mediterranean and Black Seas area (508 959 t in 1995) but also in Eastern Central Africa (83 746 t) and Northeast Atlantic (26 564 t) areas. Three fourth of the Mediterranean catches are reported by Turkey. Total catches have exceeded 800 000 t in 1984 and 1988 but, since 1950, they have never been less than 140 000 t. Caught by purse seines, lampara nets, beach seines and also by midwater trawl in winter. The recorded catch in 1996 for FAO Statistics was 527 486 t
    Usually canned, salted or processed, but also marketed fresh or frozen in African countries.
    Local Names
    ALGERIA : Anchovba .
    FRANCE : Anchois .
    ITALY : Acciuga .
    ROMANIA : Hamsia .
    SPAIN : Anchoa ,  Boquerón .
    former USSR : Hamsa .
    Remarks
    The southern limit of the species was formerly considered to be Morocco, with accidental strays south to Cape Blanc (CLOFNAM, 1973:112). Whitehead (1964c) extended the range to West Africa as far south as Angola and St. Helena. The southern limit at the Angola/Namibia border is arbitrary since there is perhaps no distributional break between these populations and those of the Southern African anchovy (here recognized as E. capensis ). Attempts to split the European anchovy into races and even subspecies have not been wholly successful. Svetovidov (in CLOFNAM, 1973:111) thought that only E. russoi of Aleksandrov (1927) and E. russoi var. oliveri of Scuderi (1957:242 - Lago Verde) might prove to be subspecies, but more studies are needed.
    Source of Information
    FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 2. Engraulididae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125) Vol.7 Pt. 2:305-579.
    Bibliography
    Banarescu, (1964 - Black Sea, synopsis), see also CLOFNAM and CLOFETA for large synonymies.
    Demir, (1963, 1965a - excellent summary of biological data, good bibliography).
    Svetovidov, (1964a - Black Sea, very large list of references).
     
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