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Oncorhynchus gorbuscha:   (click for more)

Oncorhynchus gorbuscha:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Salmo gorbuscha  Walbaum, 1792: 69 (original description).
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  • Salmo gibber  Walbaum, 1792: 69 (alternate name for Salmo gorbuscha).
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  • Salmo proteus  Pallas, 1814: 376.
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  • Salmo scouleri  Richardson, 1836: 158.
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  • Salmo tschwytschiformis  Smitt, 1886: 154.
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  • Onchorhynchus gorbuscha natio amurensis  Pravdin, 1932: 53.
    FAO Names
    En - Pink(=Humpback) salmon, Fr - Saumon rose, Sp - Salmón rosado.
    3Alpha Code: PIN     Taxonomic Code: 1230100902
    Diagnostic Features
    Body elongate, becoming deeper with age, spawning males developing a hump on back before dorsal fin. Tip of upper jaw reaching well behind eye; snout and lower jaw becoming strongly hooked in spawning males.  Gillrakers 24-36.  Piloric coeca 120-140.  Dorsal finrays iii-iv + 9-12, and an adipose fin behind it; pelvic finrays i + 9-10, base below about middle of dorsal fin. Anal finrays ii-iv + 12-16. Caudal fin slightly forked.  Scales very small, 143-230 in lateral line.  Vertebrae 68-72.  Colour silvery, almost without dark spots, but during spawning developing blotches on head, upper flanks and caudal fin, the colour almost black. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    A Pacific fish (from rivers of the eastern Korean Pen., eastern Hokkaido to northern California, and also from the Lena River to the Mackenzie River in the Arctic Sea), introduced into rivers affluent to White and Barents Sea (1956-63, 1967-75), now more widespread, the stocks maintained by both natural spawning and further stocking; well established in rivers from Ob to Finmark, but straying further south; records from southern Norway and south-eastern Sweden may have been strays from stocking in Bay of Riga. Feeding migrants are not rare along the coast of northern Japan and the Sea of Japan.
    Habitat and Biology
    Anadromous, pelagicat 0-50 m.
    Deeper in winter, forming dense shoals during spawning run and making considerable migrations; juveniles in estuarine areas for several months before migration to sea.  Fry may sometimes feed on nymphal and larval insects or none at all while in freshwater; feeds on copepods, euphausiids, amphipods, ostracods, decapods larvae, cirripeds, tunicates, and dipterous insects while inshore; feeds also on fishes, squid, and pteropods while in the sea; in freshwaters, adults do not feed.
    Size
    To about 75 cm and 5 kg; usually 40-56 cm (spawning adults).
    Interest to Fisheries
    Caught by gillnets and trawl nets. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 386 900 t. The countries with the largest catches were Russian Federation (187 142 t) and USA (173 315 t).
    Mostly sold canned and also utilized fresh, smoked and frozen; also valued for caviar, especially in Japan; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked.
    Local Names
    Danish : Pukkellaks .
    Dutch : Pink zalm ,  Rode zalm .
    English : Humpback ,  Humpback salmon ,  Pink ,  Pink salmon .
    Finnish : Kyttyrälohi .
    French : Saumon rose .
    German : Buckellachs .
    Greek : Salomós .
    Icelandic : Bleiklax ,  Hnúolax .
    Italian : Salmone rosa .
    Japanese : Karafutomasu .
    Norwegian : Pukkellaks .
    Polish : Gorbusza .
    Portuguese : Salmao rosa .
    Russian : Gorbuscha .
    Spanish : Salmón rosado .
    Swedish : Puckellax .
    Turkish : Pembe alabalik .
    Bibliography
    Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2003. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
    Ida, H. - 1984 Salmonidae. In: H. Masuda; K. Amaoka; C. Araga; T. Uyeno; T. Yoshino (eds.). The Fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Tokai. Univ. Press. 39.
    Scott, W.B. & E.J. Crossman. - 1973Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184: 966 pp.
    Svetovidov, A.N. - 1984 Salmonidae. In: P.J.P. Whitehead et al., (eds.). Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM). Unesco, Paris, vol. I: 373-385.
    Wheeler, A. - 1978Key to the Fishes of Northern Europe. A guide to the identification of more than 350 species. Frederick Warne (Publishers) Ltd., London. 380 pp.
     
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