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Oncorhynchus nerka:   (click for more)

Oncorhynchus nerka:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Salmo nerka  Walbaum, 1792: 71 (original description).
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  • Salmo lycaodon  Pallas, 1814: 370.
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  • Oncorhynchus adonis  Jordan & McGregor, (in Jordan & Hubbs, 1925: 127).
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  • Oncorhynchus nerka ovetsch  Taliev, 1932: 350.
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  • Oncorhynchus nerka infra. asabatsch  Berg, 1932: 126.
    FAO Names
    En - Sockeye(=Red) salmon, Fr - Saumon rouge, Sp - Salmón rojo.
    3Alpha Code: SOC     Taxonomic Code: 1230100906
    Diagnostic Features
    Body elongate, becoming deeper with age, spawning males a little hump-backed. Tip of upper jaw reaching well behind eye; snout and lower jaw becoming hooked and teeth enlarged in spawning males.  Numerous fine gillrakers 28-44; numering about 35. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    A Pacific fish from Hokkaido, through Okhotsk Sea, Kamchatka, and Alaska to northern California; rare in streams south of the Columbia R. system. The land-locked form was introduced to several lakes, such as lake Shikotsu, Towada, Cûzenji, and Saiko (Japan).
    Habitat and Biology
    Anadromous, enters rivers in summer and spawns from autumn to winter in lake tributaries. Fecundity is about 2,000 to 4,000, and eggs are deposited by several redds. Incubation period varies from 2 to 5 months depending on temperature. Emerged fry go down to lakes and spend several years feeding on lake plankton.  Young move to sea when the water temperature reaches over 7° C.  Main food items in the open ocean are squid, small fish, and plankton such as amphipods and copepods.After 2 to 4 years of life in the sea, the salmon migrate to rivers. Thus mode of life of red salmon has many variations.
    Ages at spawning runs are between 2 to 8. 
    Size
    To about 84 cm and 6.8 kg; usually to around 2.3-3.6 kg.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Caught by gillnets and trawl nets. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 130 118 t. The countries with the largest catches were Russian Federation (14 889 t) and USA (110 836 t).
    Sashimi, smoked, and salt-broiled fish are favored.
    Local Names
    English : Blueback salmon ,  Kickininee ,  Kokanee ,  Little redfish ,  Red salmon ,  Sockeye ,  Sockeye salmon ,  Yank .
    French : Saumon nerka ,  Saumon rouge .
    German : Rotlachs .
    Japanese : Beni-zake .
    Spanish : Salmón rojo .
    Bibliography
    Catalog On Line. Fishbase: ICLARM . Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald & H. Hammann.- 1983A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Petersen Field Guide Series. Nº 28: i-xii+1-336 pp. 
    Ida, H. - 1984 Salmonidae. In: H. Masuda; K. Amaoka; C. Araga; T. Uyeno; T. Yoshino (eds.). The Fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Tokai. Univ. Press. 40.
    Vera, J. - 1992Diccionario multilingüe de especies marinas para el mundo hispano. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Secretaria General Técnica. 1282 pp.
     
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