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Trachurus trachurus:   (click for more)

Trachurus trachurus:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Trachurus capensis  , , (of authors).
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  • Caranx trachurus  non Linnaeus, 1758, Guichenot in Gay, 1848: 238.
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  • Scomber trachurus  Linnaeus, 1758: 298 (original description).
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  • Scomber lacerta  Pallas, 1811:218.
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  • Trachurus vulgaris  Fleming, 1828:218.
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  • Caranx semispinosus  Nilsson, 1832:84.
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  • Trachurus europaeus  Gronovius, 1854:125.
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  • Trachurus linnaei  Malm, 1877:421.
    FAO Names
    En - Atlantic horse mackerel, Fr - Chinchard d'Europe, Sp - Jurel.
    3Alpha Code: HOM     Taxonomic Code: 1702300401
    Diagnostic Features
    Body elongate, fairly compressed. Head large; posterior end of upper jaw reaching anterior margin of eye; lower jaw projected. Maxilla large, wide, not covered by lachrymal. Adipose eyelid well developed. Small nostrils closely situated each other, anterior nostril oval and posterior nostril crescent. A distinct notch on posterior margin of opercle. Dorsal accessory lateral line terminating below soft dorsal rays 23-31.  Gillrakers, including rudiments, 41-48 on lower limb of first gill arch. Interorbital region slightly arched, its width usually slightly larger than eye diameter. Shoulder girdle (cleithrum) margin smooth, without papillae.  First dorsal fin with 8 spines and I + 29-33. Anal fin with I + 24-29 preceded by 2 strong spines. Pelvic fin (I,5) moderate in size, originating below end of pectoral fin base.  Scales in curved lateral line 33-40, expanded dorsolaterally and scute-like; in straight lateral line 31-36 scutes; total scales and scutes 66-75.  Colour no distinctive markings except for a small, black opercular spot on edge near upper angle. Upper part of body and top of head dusky to nearly black or grey to bluish green; lower two thirds of body and head usually paler, whitish to silvery. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    North-eastern Atlantic from Iceland to Senegal, included Cape Verde islands; Mediterranean and Marmara Seas, rare in Black Sea.
    Habitat and Biology
    Benthopelagic species; usually over sandy bottom in100-200 m, but reported to 1050 m (Lloris & Moreno, 1995),also pelagic and near surface at times; often shoals with juvenile herrings and other species of Trachurus (T. mediterraneus, T. picturatus ).Feeding primarily on crustaceans (copepods), shrimps, but also small fishes and squids.
    All have pelagic eggs and spawning generally occurs during the summer (reported from Tunisia: January to April). 
    Size
    To about 60 cm fork length, common 15 to 30 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Caught commercially with trawls, longlines, purse seines (using light), traps and on line gear. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 322 207 t. The countries with the largest catches were Netherlands, (84 891 t) and Ireland, (58 201 t).
    Utilized fresh, frozen, dried salted, smoked and canned; can be fried, broiled and baked.
    Local Names
    Albanian : Stavrid .
    Arabic : Chourou ,  Chourou europi ,  Chrenne ,  Chrène ,  Esfer ,  Esferi ,  Hringa ,  Seif ,  Seig ,  Shakhoura ,  Shaurou ,  Shourou .
    Bulgarian : Okeanski safrid .
    Catalan : Sorell ,  Xixarro .
    Danish : Hestemakrel .
    Dutch : Marsbanker ,  Hordmakreel .
    English : Common scad ,  Horse mackerel ,  Maasbanker ,  Pollock ,  Scad .
    Finnish : Piikkimakrilli .
    Fon : Silivi .
    French : Cagnassum ,  Chinchard ,  Chinchard commun ,  Saurel ,  Severeau .
    German : Bastardmakrele ,  Holzmakrele ,  Stöcker .
    Greek : Savrídi .
    Hebrew : Trakhon gedol magen ,  Trakhon gedol moginim ,  Turvlus .
    Icelandic : Brynstirtia .
    Italian : Scombro bastardo ,  Sorello ,  Sugarella ,  Sugarello ,  Suro ,  Suro di fondo .
    Japanese : Aji ,  Maaji ,  Muroaji .
    Maltese : Sawrella kahla .
    Manx : Breac frengagh .
    Norwegian : Taggmakrell .
    Polish : Ostrobok pospolity .
    Portuguese : Carapau ,  Carapau do Atlântico ,  Chicharro .
    Rumanian : Stavrid ,  Stravrid mare ,  Snjur ,  Sredizemnomorsko ,  Stavrida .
    Serbo-Croat : Sarum ,  Sarun ,  Snjur ,  Trnobok .
    Spanish : Jurel ,  Chicharro .
    Swedish : Taggmakrill .
    Turkish : Istavrit ,  Karagöz istavrit .
    Bibliography
    Base de datos ICTIMED (WWW Work: D. Lloris & Justino Martínez).
    Fischer, W.; G. Bianchi; W. B. Scott (eds.). - 1981Fiches FAO d'identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. Atlantique centre-est; zones de pêche 34, 47 (en partie). Canada Fonds de Dépôt. Ottawa, Ministère des Pêcheries et Océans Canada, en accord avec l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture, Vol. 1-7: pag. var.
    Bini, G. - 1965 Catálogo de los nombres de peces, moluscos y crustáceos de importancia comercial en el Mediterráneo. FAO, Rome: i-xv + 407 pp.
    Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2003. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
    Lloris, D., J. Rucabado, LL del cerro, F. Portas, M. Demestre & A. Roig. - 1984Tots els peixos del mar Català. I: Llistat de Cites i de referències. Treballs Soc. Cat. Ict. Herp., 1: 1-208.
    Lloris, D. & T. Moreno. - 1995Distribution model and association in three pelagic congeneric species (Trachurus spp.) present in the Mediterranean Iberic Sea. Sci. Mar., 59 (3-4): 399-403.
    Shaboneyev, I. Y. - 1980 Systematics, Morpho-Ecological Characteristics and Origin of Carangids of the genus Trachurus. J. Ichthyol., 20 (6): 15-25.
    Smith-Vaniz, W. F. - 1986 Carangidae. In: P.J.P. Whitehead et al., (eds.). Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM). Unesco, Paris, vol. II: 815-844.
    Smith-Vaniz, W. F., J.C. Quéro & M. Desoutter. - 1990 Carangidae. In: J.C. Quero et al., (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). Unesco, Portugal, vol. II: 729-755.
     
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