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Trachurus murphyi:   (click for more)

Trachurus murphyi:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Caranx trachurus  non Linnaeus, 1758, Guichenot in Gay, 1848: 238.
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  • Trachurus trachurus  (non Linnaeus) Günther, 1880: 24.
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  • Trachurus picturatus  non Bowdich, 1825, Delfin, 1901:54.
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  • Caranx peruanus  Tschudi, 1846: 19.
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  • Trachurus symmetricus  non Ayres, 1855, Fowler, 1951: 299.
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  • Trachurus symmetricus murphyi  Mann, 1954: 231.
    FAO Names
    En - Chilean jack mackerel, Fr - Chinchard du Chili, Sp - Jurel chileno.
    3Alpha Code: CJM     Taxonomic Code: 1702300405
    Diagnostic Features
    Body elongate, fairly compressed. Head large; posterior end of upper jaw reaching anterior margin of eye; lower jaw projected. Maxilla large, wide, not covered by lacrymal. Adipose eyelid well developed. Small nostrils closely situated each other, anterior nostril oval and posterior nostril crescent. A distinct notch on posterior margin of opercle. Dorsal accessory lateral line terminating below soft dorsal rays 9-15.  Gillrakers, including rudiments, 41-47 on lower limb of first gill arch; total gillrakers 53-65.  First dorsal fin with 8 spines and I + 31-36. Anal fin with I + 25-31 preceded by 2 strong spines. Pectoral fin rays 19-22. Pelvic fin moderate in size, originating below end of pectoral fin base.  Scales in curved lateral line 45-62 expanded dorsolaterally and scute-like, in straight lateral line 38-50 scutes; total scales and scutes 89-107. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Souther Pacific. Along coast of Chile and Perú (including Central and Chinha Is.) and Australian waters.
    Habitat and Biology
    A epipelagic species;often confined to neritic zones of coast or island shelves, banks and sea mounts;a schooling species.Feeding primarily on crustaceans (copepods), shrimps, but also small fishes and squid.
    All have pelagic eggs and spawning generally occurs during the summer. 
    Size
    Attains a maximum size of 60 cm (24 in) or not very more.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Caught commercially with trawls, purse seines ("small pelagic purse seining, mackerels purse seining"), traps and on line gear. Marketed fresh. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 1 423 447 t. The countries with the largest catches were Chile (1 219 689 t) and Peru (184 679 t).
    Utilized canned for human consumption and also made into fishmeal.
    Local Names
    English : Peruvian horse mackerel ,  Peruvian jack mackerel .
    Japanese : Chiri-maaji .
    Spanish : Boliche ,  Furel ,  Furrel ,  Hurel ,  Jurel ,  Jurel del norte ,  Jurelito ,  Pavo ,  Yurel .
    Remarks
    The common jack mackerel (Trachurus declivis ) is almost identical in appearance to the Inca scad or Peruvian jack or horse mackerel, or Southern jack mackerel (FAO name). The best characteristics for differentiating betwen the two species are total number of gillrakers (50-57 in T. declivis and 51-65 in T. murphyi ) and the number of scales and scutes in the lateral line (81-82 in T. declivis and 89-113 in T. murphyi ) and their relative heigths.
    Bibliography
    Ben Salem, M. - 1988. Taxinomie numérique des espèces du genre Trachurus
    Evseenko, S.A. - 1987. Reproduction of Peruvian jack mackerel, Trachurus symmetricus murphyi, in the Southern Pacific. J. Ichthyol., 27 (3): 151-160.
    Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2003. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
    Kawahara, S., Y. Uozumi & H. Yamada. - 1988. First record of a carangid fish, Trachurus murphyi from New Zealand. Jap. J. Ichthyol., 35 (2): 212-214.
    Konstantinov, V.V., A. T. Ostapenko & I. Y. Shaboneyev. - 1979On the population structure of the Peruvian horsemackerel Trachurus symmetricus murphyi (Nichols). In: Proceedings of all-Union Conf. On the stocks and the population dynamics of pelagic fishes of the seas and oceans. Atlantic Research Institute for sea Fisheries and oceanography, Kaliningrad, Department of Scientific and Technical Information.
    Mann, G. - 1954. La vida de los peces en aguas chilenas. Inst. Inves. Vet. y Facultad de Filos. Educ. Univ. Chile: 342 pp.
    Nakamura, I. - 1986. Carangidae. In: I. Nakamura; T. Inada; M. Takeda; H. Hatanaka (eds.). Important Fishes trawled off Patagonia. Japan Mar. Fish. Resource Res. Center: 210-211.
    Pequeño, G. - 1968. Los peces chilenos y sus nombres vulgares. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat., Chile, Not. Mens. 12 (142): 7-10.
    Pequeño, G. - 1984. Peces marinos comunes de Valdivia. Guía para profesionales y aficionados del litoral. Univ. Austr. Chile, Dir. Ext.: 62 pp.
    Pullen, G., H. Williams & P. Last. - 1989. South American fish found off Tasmania. Australian Fisheries (Research briefs), june, 1989: 35.
    Rafinesque - 1810. (Poissons, Téléostéens, Carangidae). Cybium, 12 (1): 45-58.
    Shaboneyev, I. Y. - 1980. Systematics, Morpho-Ecological Characteristics and Origin of Carangids of the genus Trachurus. J. Ichthyol., 20 (6): 15-25.
     
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