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Trachurus mediterraneus:   (click for more)

Trachurus mediterraneus:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Caranx trachurus var. mediterraneus  Steindachner, 1868: 383 (Original description).
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  • Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus  Aleev, 1956:178.
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  • Suareus furnestini  Dardignac & Vincent, 1958:445.
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  • Trachurus furnestini  Hureau & Tortonese, 1973:381.
    FAO Names
    En - Mediterranean horse mackerel, Fr - Chinchard à queue jaune, Sp - Jurel mediterráneo.
    3Alpha Code: HMM     Taxonomic Code: 1702300408
    Diagnostic Features
    Body elongate, fairly compressed. Head large; posterior end of upper jaw reaching anterior margin of eye; lower jaw projected. Maxilla large, wide, not covered by lachrymal. Adipose eyelid well developed. Small nostrils closely situated each other, anterior nostril oval and posterior nostril crescent. A distinct notch on posterior margin of opercle. Dorsal accessory lateral line terminating below eighth spine to soft dorsal ray 3.  Gillrakers, including rudiments, 36-41 on lower limb of first gill arch. Shoulder girdle (cleithrum) margin smooth, without papillae.  First dorsal fin with 8 spines and I + 29-35. Anal fin with I + 26-39 preceded by 2 strong spines. Pelvic fin (I,5) moderate in size, originating below end of pectoral fin base.  Scales in curved lateral line 39-48, expanded dorsolaterally and scute-like; in straight lateral line 35-44 scutes; total scales and scutes 75-89.  Colour no distinctive markings except for a small, black opercular spot on edge near upper angle. Upper part of body and top of head dusky to nearly black or grey to bluish green; lower two thirds of body and head usually paler, whitish to silvery; caudal fin yellowish. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Eastern Atlantic, from Morocco, Portugal to Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean. The subspecies T. mediterraneus ponticus occurs in the Marmara and Black Seas, and southern and western parts of the Azov Sea.
    Habitat and Biology
    Benthopelagic species;usually near bottom in 5-250 m, at times also in surface waters;pelagic and migratory in large schools; often shoals with other species of Trachurus (T. trachurus, T. picturatus ).Feeding primarily on small crustaceans (copepods), shrimps, but also small fishes (especially sardines, anchovies, etc.).
    All have pelagic eggs and spawning generally occurs during the summer. 
    Size
    To about 50 cm fork length, common 10 to 30 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Caught commercially with pelagic and bottom trawls, longlines and purse seines (using light); traps and on line gear. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 12 898 t. The countries with the largest catches were Turkey (9 220 t) and Greece (3 534 t).
    Utilized fresh, canned and for fishmeal.
    Local Names
    Arabic : Chbouka ,  Chrenne ,  Chréne ,  Saourine ,  Saourel imperial ,  Saorel impérial ,  Saorel-elzrag ,  Seif ,  Tonino ,  Torino ,  Tcherel .
    Catalan : Sorell ,  Sorell blancal .
    French : Saurel ,  Cagnassum .
    Greek : Savrídi .
    Hebrew : Trakhon mazuy .
    Italian : Sugarello maggiore .
    Maltese : Sawrella .
    Portuguese : Carapau .
    Rumanian : Stavrid .
    Serbo-Croat : Sarum .
    Spanish : Jurel ,  Jurel mediterráneo ,  Chicharro .
    Turkish : Karagöz ,  Istavrit .
    Bibliography
    Base de datos ICTIMED (WWW Work: D. Lloris & Justino Martínez).
    Fischer, W.; G. Bianchi; W. B. Scott (eds.). - 1981Fiches FAO d'identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. Atlantique centre-est; zones de pêche 34, 47 (en partie). Canada Fonds de Dépôt. Ottawa, Ministère des Pêcheries et Océans Canada, en accord avec l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture, Vol. 1-7: pag. var.
    Bini, G. - 1965 Catálogo de los nombres de peces, moluscos y crustáceos de importancia comercial en el Mediterráneo. FAO, Rome: i-xv + 407 pp.
    Djabali, F., B. Brahmi & M. Mammasse. - 1993 Poissons des cotes Algeriennes. Bulletin de l'Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de l'Aménagement du littoral. 215 pp.
    Lloris, D., J. Rucabado, LL del cerro, F. Portas, M. Demestre & A. Roig. - 1984Tots els peixos del mar Català. I: Llistat de Cites i de referències. Treballs Soc. Cat. Ict. Herp., 1: 1-208.
    Lloris, D. & T. Moreno. - 1995Distribution model and association in three pelagic congeneric species (Trachurus spp.) present in the Mediterranean Iberic Sea. Sci. Mar., 59 (3-4): 399-403.
    Shaboneyev, I. Y. - 1980 Systematics, Morpho-Ecological Characteristics and Origin of Carangids of the genus Trachurus. J. Ichthyol., 20 (6): 15-25.
    Smith-Vaniz, W. F. - 1986 Carangidae. In: P.J.P. Whitehead et al., (eds.). Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM). Unesco, Paris, vol. II: 815-844.
    Smith-Vaniz, W. F., J.C. Quéro & M. Desoutter. - 1990 Carangidae. In: J.C. Quero et al., (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). Unesco, Portugal, vol. II: 729-755.
     
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