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Selar crumenophthalmus:   (click for more)

Selar crumenophthalmus:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Scomber crumenophthalmus  Bloch, 1793: 77 (original description).
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  • Scomber plumieri  Bloch, 1793: 79.
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  • Caranx daubentonii  Lacepède, 1801: 58.
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  • Scomber balantiophthalmus  Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 29.
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  • Caranx mauritianus  Quoy & Gaimard, 1824: 359.
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  • Caranx macrophthalmus  Rüppell, 1828: 97.
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  • Caranx novae guineae  Cuvier, 1833: 63.
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  • Caranx plumieri  Cuvier, 1833: 65.
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  • Caranx blochii  Cuvier, 1833: 69.
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  • Caranx torvus  Jenyns, 1841: 69.
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  • Caranx or Trachurus crumenophthalmus  , (the authors).
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  • Trachurops brachychirus  Gill, 1862: 261.
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  • Trachurops crumenophthalmus crokeri  Nichols, 1935: 3.
    FAO Names
    En - Bigeye scad, Fr - Sélar coulisou, Sp - Chicharro ojón.
    3Alpha Code: BIS     Taxonomic Code: 1702329101
    Diagnostic Features
    Body elongate and moderately compressed, with lower profile slightly more convex than upper. Eye very large, shorter than snout length and with a well developed adipose eyelid completely covering eye except for a vertical slit centred on pupil; upper jaw moderately broad at end and extending to below anterior margin of pupil;  teeth small and recurved, upper jaw with a narrow band, tapering posteriorly; lower jaw with an irregular single row.  Gillrakers (including rudiments) 9 to 12 upper, 27 to 31 lower on first gill arch.  Shoulder girdle (cleithrum) margin with a deep furrow, a large papilla immediately above it and a smaller papilla near upper edge.  Dorsal fin with 8 spines and I + 24-27 soft rays. Anal fin with 2 spines and I + 21-23 soft rays; dorsal and anal fins without a detached terminal finlet. Pectoral fins shorter than head.  Scales moderately small and cycloid (smooth to touch), covering body except for a small area behind pectoral fins, scutes relatively small, chord of the curved part of lateral line contained 0.7 to 1.2 times in straight part (to caudal fin base); scales in curved part with 48 to 56 anterior scales; 0 to 4 scutes in curved part; straight part with 0 to 11 anterior scales and 29 to 42 scutes; total scales and scutes in lateral line (excluding caudal scales) 84 to 94.  Colour in fresh fish, upper third of body and top of head metallic blue or bluish-green; tip of snout dusky or blackish; lower two thirds of body and head silvery or whitish; a narrow, yellowish stripe may be present from edge of opercle to upper part of caudal peduncle; blackish areas above and below pupil with a reddish area sometimes present; a small elongated, blackish opercular spot on edge near upper margin. First dorsal fin dusky on margins with rest of fin clear; second dorsal fin dusky over most of fin with dorsal lobe blackish; anal fin clear or slightly dusky along base; caudal fin dusky with tip of upper lobe dark; pectoral fins clear or slightly dusky near base and with a yellowish tint sometimes present; pelvic fins clear. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Worldwide in tropical and subtropical marine waters. Eastern Atlantic waters from Cape Verde Islands to southern Angola; in the Western Atlantic from Canso (Nova Scotia) to Rio de janeiro (Brazil); also present in Bermuda. Broadly distributed throughout the Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Central Pacific Ocean.
    Habitat and Biology
    Found small to large schools,mainly inshore or in shallow water; at times over shallow reefs but may reach depths of 170 m.Prefers clean, clear insular waters but occasionally in turbid waters. Mainly nocturnal,it feeds primarily on planktonic or benthic invertebrates, including shrimps, crabs and foraminifers; also on fish.
    Size
    Length not well established, but unverified report of 60 cm standard length; documented record of 27 cm standard length; common to about 24 cm fork length and 0.23 kg.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Coastal waters throughout its range; rather important commercially in Indian waters. Caught on hooks and lines, with beach seines, trawls, purse seines and traps. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 69 149 t. The countries with the largest catches were Philippines (65 776 t) and Venezuela (3 765 t).
    Marketed fresh and dried salted.
    Local Names
    Arabic : Balegge ,  Derdaman ,  Haima ,  Sima .
    Bikol : Atuloy .
    Chammoro : Atulai .
    Creole : Coulisou .
    English : Big-eye scad atulai ,  Purse-eyed scad ,  Silver scad ,  Steenbrass .
    Fijian : Yatule .
    French : Chinchard ,  Coulisou ,  Maquereau gros veux ,  Sélar coulisou .
    Fon : Kpintomessis ou chiyi .
    Fwâi : Nyaô .
    Hawaian : Aji ,  Akule ,  Halalu .
    Japanese : Me-aji .
    Malay/Indonesian : Mata besar ,  Pelata bulat ,  Selar ,  Selar pucat ,  Temenong .
    Niuean : Atule .
    Pidgin : Torro .
    Palauan : Terekrik .
    Polish : Selar wielkooki .
    Portuguese : Carapau ,  Carapau preto .
    Nenema : Juama .
    Rapan : Orare .
    Saipanese Carolinian : Atulai ,  Peti .
    Satawalese Carolinian : Páti .
    Spanish : Cataco ,  Chicharro ojón ,  Cocinero ,  Cojinoa ,  Cojinua ,  Jiguagua ,  Jurel de ojo grande ,  Medregal ,  Ojón ,  Ojona ,  Ojotón ,  Olho largo ,  Pepona ,  Sábalo de ojo grande ,  Tamalito .
    Tagalog : Bunutan ,  Matang baka .
    Tahitian : Aramea ,  Ature ,  Orare .
    Tokelauan : Atule .
    Visayan : Bigsawan ,  Bulao ,  Guma-a ,  Gutlob ,  Haguma-a ,  Marot ,  Mat-an .
    Woleaian : Pati .
    Bibliography
    Fischer, W. (ed.). - 1978FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (fishing area 31). Vols. 1-7: pag. var.
    Fischer, W.; G. Bianchi (eds.). - 1984FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Prepared and printed with the support of the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). Rome, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Vol. I-6: pag. var.
    Fischer, W.; G. Bianchi; W. B. Scott (eds.). - 1981Fiches FAO d'identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. Atlantique centre-est; zones de pêche 34, 47 (en partie). Canada Fonds de Dépôt. Ottawa, Ministère des Pêcheries et Océans Canada, en accord avec l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture, Vol. 1-7: pag. var.
    Chan, W. & F. Talbot. - 1974 Carangidae. In: W. Fischer and P.J.P. Whitehead (eds.).- 1974. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Indian Ocean (fishing area 57) and Western Central Pacific (fishing area 71). Vol. 1: pag. var.
    Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2003. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
    Smith-Vaniz, W. F., J.C. Quéro & M. Desoutter. - 1990 Carangidae. In: J.C. Quero et al., (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). Unesco, Portugal, vol. II: 729-755.
     
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