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Diplodus sargus:   (click for more)

Diplodus sargus:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Sargus rondelettii  Valenciennes, 1830, in Cuv. Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., 6: 14, pl. 141 (Mediterranean). Syntypes: MNHN no. 8602, A 8098. (Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France).
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  • Sargus vetula  Valenciennes, 1830, in Cuv. Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., 6: 48 (Martigues, Naples). Holotype: MNHN no. 8544; 2 paratypes: MNHN no. 8543. (Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France).
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  • Sargus sargus  Cadenat, 1951: 211, fig. 144.
    FAO Names
    En - White seabream, Fr - Sar commun, Sp - Sargo.
    3Alpha Code: SWA     Taxonomic Code: 1703903303
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Sparus sargus  Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., ed X: 278 ('Habitat in Mare infero').
    Diagnostic Features
    Body oval and deep, more or less compressed, back elevated.  Scales on cheeks and opercle.  Mouth terminal, slightly protusible, lips thin  In each jaw, 8 incisors (exceptionally 10 in upper one). Molars behind incisors and at back of jaws in several series, 3-4 (rarely 5) in upper, 2-3 (rarely 4) in lower.  Gillrakers 9 to 12 lower, 6 to 9 upper.  Dorsal fin with 11 or 12 spines (rarely 13) and 12 to 16 soft rays. Anal fin with 3 spines and 12 to 14 soft rays. Caudal fin forked.  Lateral line scales 58-68 to caudal base.  Colour silvery grey, inter-ocular space and snout darker; 9 transverse stripes (crossbars) alternately very dark and paler or only darker or absents; dark saddle on caudal peduncle, just behind last dorsal rays; black spot at upper pectoral axil; dorsal and anal dusky, distally darker; hind caudal edge black; in juveniles, only the 5 darker stripes appear. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Atlantic coast, from Bay Biscay to Cape Verde, southwards Angola, South Africa to Malagasy including the Madeira, Canaries, Cape Verde, Ascension and St. Helena Islands. Also present in the Mediterranean (common) and Black Sea (very rare Tortonese and Cautis, 1967).
    Habitat and Biology
    Benthopelagic (demersal behaviour).Coastal, schooling species inhabiting rocky bottoms interspread with sand down to depths of 150 m, but especially abundant in the surf zone. The young occur in Zostera seagrass beds. Uses estuaries as nurseries.Omnivorous, feeding on seaweeds and benthic invertrebrates (mainly small crustaceans and molluscs; also seaweeds and corals.
    Probably protandric hermaphrodite (first male and then becoming female). 
    Size
    Maximum 45 cm; common to 25 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Throughout its range, mainly in artisanal fisheries. Caught mainly on line gear. Separate statistics are not reported for this species.
    Marketed fresh, the flesh is not highly esteemed.
    Local Names
    ALBANIA : Sargu .
    ALGERIA : Ouarka ,  Sar rayé .
    EGYPT : Shargoush .
    FINLAND : Isosargi .
    FRANCE : Sar ,  Sar commun ,  Sar rayé .
    GERMANY : Bindenbrasse ,  Geißbrasse .
    GREECE : Sargòs .
    ISRAEL : Sargus .
    ITALY : Sarago ,  Sarago maggiore .
    LEBANON : Sarghoûs .
    MALTA : Sargu .
    MAURITANIA : N'Gaté en gor ,  Sar rayé ,  Sargo ,  Taouajtt .
    MOROCCO : Ouarka .
    PORTUGAL : Bicudo ,  Sargo ,  Sargo legitimo ,  Sargo-legitimo-do-Mediterrâneo .
    ROMANIA : Sparos cu coada neagra .
    RUSSIAN : Belyi sarg .
    SPAIN : Sarg ,  Sargo .
    SOUTH AFRICA : Blacktail .
    TUNISIA : Ouarka .
    TURKEY : Karagoz .
    UKRAINE : Belyi sagrus .
    UNITED KINGDOM : White seabream .
    YUGOSLAVIA : Crnoprugac ,  Fratar ,  Sarag .
    Remarks
    Polytypic with 7 Subspecies: Diplodus sargus ascensionis (Valenciennes, 1830): found around Ascension Island. Diplodus sargus cadenati de la Paz, Bauchot and Daget, 1974: common along the West African coast from the Straits of Gibraltar to Cape Verde, and around Madeira and the Canary Islands, but absent from the Cape Verde Islands. Northward extending up to the Bay Biscay. Diplodus sargus capensis (Smith, 1846): from Angola southward, around South Africa, northwards to south of Malagasy. Diplodus sargus helenae (Sauvage, 1879): endemic to St. Helena Island. Diplodus sargus kotschyi (Steindachner, 1876): Persian Gulf; Madagascar. Diplodus sargus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1830): endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Diplodus sargus sargus (Linnaeus, 1758): common in the Mediterranean and Black sea (rare).
    Bibliography
    Bauchot, M.-L. - 1987. Sparidae In: W. Fischer and M.-L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds). Fiches FAO d'Identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche (Révison 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. .  Vol. II. Vértebrés: 761-1530 ..
    Bauchot, M.-L. & J.-C. Hureau - 1986. Sparidae In: P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds). Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM). Unesco, Paris. .  Vol. II: 883-907 ..
    Bauchot, M.-L. & J.-C. Hureau - 1990. Sparidae In: J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds). Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT-Portugal, SEI-France, Unesco. .  Vol. II: 790 - 812. ..
    Bauchot, M.-L., J.-C. Hureau & J.C. Miquel - 1981. Sparidae In: W. Fischer, G. Bianchi and W. Scott (eds). FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic; fishing areas 34, 47 (in part). Canada Funds-in-Trust. Ottawa, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, by arrangement with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. .  Vol. IV : pag. var ..
    Cadenat, J. - 1951. Initiations Africaines. III. Poissons de Mer du Sénégal. Inst. Francais d'Afrique Noire. .  1-345 .. 1950 on cover, apparently published in 1951.
    Cadenat, J. - 1964. Notes d'ichtyologie ouest-africaine. XLII. - Les "Sars" des genres Puntazzo et Diplodus des eaux tropicales ouest-africaines. Bull. Inst. Fr. Afr. Noire (Sér. A) Sci. Nat. .  v. 26 (no. 3): 944-988..
    de la Paz, R., M. L. Bauchot & J. Daget - 1974. Les Diplodus (Perciformes, Sparidae) du groupe Sargus: systématique et phylogénie. Ichthyologia .  v. 5 (no. 1): 113-128..
    Linnaeus, C. - 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. v. 1: i-ii + 1-824. Nantes and Pisces in Tom. 1, pp. 230-338..
    Sauvage, H. E. - 1879. Description de quelques poissons d'espèces nouvelles de la collection du Muséum d'histoire naturelle. Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris (Ser. 7) .  v. 3: 204-209..
    Smith, A. - 1838-47. Pisces. In: Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa; consisting chiefly of figures and descriptions of the objects of natural history collected during an expedition into the interior of South Africa in 1834-36. .  v. 4: 77 unnumb. pp, accompanying Pls. 1-31 ..
    Steindachner, F. - 1876. Ichthyologische Beiträge (V). [Subtitles i-v.] Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. .  v. 74 (1. Abth.): 49-240, Pls. 1-15 .. Also as a separate, pp. 1-192, Pls. 1-15.
    Tortonese, E. & I. Cautis. - 1967. Révision des poissons de la famille des Sparidés vivant près des côtes de Roumanie. Annali Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Giacomo Doria. .  77: 295-306, 4 fig..
    Valenciennes, A. - 1830. Historie naturelle des poissons. In: G. Cuvier and A. Valenciennes. Historie naturelle des poissons. Tome Sixième. Livre sixième. Partie I. Des Sparoïdes. .  1-425., in Strasbourg ed.
     
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