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Sparus aurata:   (click for more)

Sparus aurata:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Chrysophrys aurata  Valenciennes, 1830: in Cuv. and Val., 6: 85, pl. 145 (Mediterranean).
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  • Chrysophrys crassirostris  Valenciennes, 1830in Cuv. and Val., Hist. nat. Poiss., 6: 98, pl. 146 ('Ajaccio, Péloponnèse'). Two syntypes: MNHN no. 8615, 8617.
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  • Pagrus (Chrysophrys) auratus  Steindachner, 1867, 56: 658 (Spain).
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  • Pagrus auratus  Day, 1880: 32, pl. 12.
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  • Chrysophrys aurata  Murray and Hort, 1912: 403.
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  • Aurata aurata  de Buen, 1935: 114 (Spain).
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  • Sparus aurata[-us  Fowler, 1936, 2: 820, fig. 354
    FAO Names
    En - Gilthead seabream, Fr - Dorade royale, Sp - Dorada.
    3Alpha Code: SBG     Taxonomic Code: 1703923508
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Sparus aurata  Linnaeus, 1758: 277. Syst. Nat., ed X ('Habitat in Mari Mediterraneo, et Oceano inter Europam Americamque'). Type probably lost.
    Diagnostic Features
    Body oval, rather deep and compressed. Head profile regularly curved. Eye small.  Mouth low, very slightly oblique. Lips thick.  Four to 6 canine-like teeth anteriorly in each jaw, followed posteriorly by blunter teeth which become progresively molar-like and are arranged in 2 to 4 rows (teeth in the 2 outer rows stronger).  Total gill rakers on first arch short, 11 to 13, 7 or 8 lower and 5 (rarely 4) to 6 upper.  Dorsal fin with 11 spines and 13 to 14 soft rays. Anal with 3 spines and 11 or 12 soft rays.  Cheeks scaly, preopercle scaleless. Scales along lateral line 73 to 85.  Colour silvery grey; a large black blotch at origien of lateral line extending on upper margin of opercle where it is edged below by a reddish area; a golden frontal band between eyes edged by two dark areas (not well defined in young individuals); dark longitudinal lines often present on sides of body; a dark band on dorsal fin; fork and tips of caudal fin edged with black. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Common throughout Mediterranean, les frequent in eastern and south-eastern Mediterranean, very rare in black Sea. Atlantic from British Isles to Cape Verde and around the Canary Islands.
    Habitat and Biology
    Benthopelagic (demersal behaviour).A coastal species, inhabiting seagrass beds, rocky and sandy bottoms as well as in the surf zone commonly to depts of about 30 m, but the adults may occur to 150 m depth.Euryhaline, entering brackish waters.  A sedentary fish, solitary or forming small aggregations.
    A protandric hermaphrodite; the majority individuals are first males, then become females. Spawning occurs from October to December; maturity at 1-2 years (20-30 cm) for males, 2-3 years (33-40 cm) for females; do not spawn in Black Sea.  Mainly carnivorous, (molluscs, particularly musels which it can easily crush, crustaceans and fish); but accessorily herbivorous.
    Size
    Maximum 70 cm; common to 35 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Caught on line gear, with trammel nets, bottom trawls, beach seines and traps. The richest fishing grounds are located between 36°N to 21°S, the species being less common further south and around the Canary Islands. Fished most intensively from February to October. Separate statistics are not reported for this species.
    Flesh highly esteemed. Marketed fresh or frozen. Also used for fishmeals and oil.
    Local Names
    ALBANIA : Koce .
    ALGERIA : Aura .
    DENMARK : Guldbraxen .
    EGYPT : Denis .
    FINLAND : Kultaotsa-ahven .
    FRANCE : Daurade ,  Dorade ,  Dorade royal .
    GERMANY : Goldbrasse .
    ITALY : Orata .
    LEBANON : Ajâj .
    MALTA : Orata .
    MAURITANIA : Daurade royale ,  N'tad ,  Zapata morisca .
    NETHERLANDS : Goud brasem .
    NEW ZEALAND : Snapper ,  Tamure .
    POLAND : Dorada .
    PORTUGAL : Dourada ,  Douradinha ,  Safata .
    ROMANIA : Dorada .
    SPAIN : Chaparreta ,  Daurada ,  Dorada ,  Dourada ,  Orada .
    SWEDEN : Guldbrasse .
    TUNISIA : Gerraf .
    TURKEY : Cipura .
    UNITED KINGDOM : Gilt-head .
    YUGOSLAVIA : Komarca ,  Ovrata .
    UNITED KINGDOM : Gilthead ,  Gilthead seabream .
    UNITED STATES : Gilt head bream ,  Gilthead bream .
    Bibliography
    Bauchot, M.-L - 1987. Sparidae In: W. Fischer and M.-L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds). Fiches FAO d'Identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche (Révison 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. .  Vol. II. Vértebrés: 761-1530 ..
    Bauchot, M.-L., , Hureau, J.-C., & J.C. Miquel. - 1981. Sparidae In: W. Fischer, G. Bianchi and W.Scott (eds). FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic; fishing areas 34, 47 (in part). Canada Funds-in-Trust. Ottawa, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, by arrangement with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. .  Vol. IV : pag. var ..
    Bauchot, M.-L., & J.-C. Hureau - 1986. Sparidae In: P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds). Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM). Unesco, Paris. .  Vol. II: 883-907..
    Bauchot, M.-L., & J.-C. Hureau - 1990. Sparidae In: J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds). Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT-Portugal, SEI-France, Unesco. .  Vol. II: 790-812..
    Buen, F de. - 1935. Fauna ictiológica. Catálogo de los peces Ibéricos: de la planicie continental, aguas dulces, pelágicos y de los abismos próximos. Segunda parte. Notas Resúm. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr., ser. II. .  (89): 91-143, pl XXI-LII (fig. 40-115)..
    Cuvier, G., & A. Valenciennes. - 1830. Historie naturelle des poissons. Tome Sixième. Livre sixième. Partie I. Des Sparoïdes; Partie II. Des Ménides. v. 6: i-xxiv + 6 pp. + 1-559, Pls. 141-169.. Valenciennes author of pp. 1-425, 493-559; Cuvier 426-491. i-xviii + 1-470 in Strasbourg ed.
    Day, F. - 1880. The Fishes of Great Britain and Ireland. vol. 1(1): 1-64, pl. I -XXVII.. London-Edinburgh.
    Fowler, H. W. - 1936. The Marine Fishes of West Africa, based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition 1909-15. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. .  70 (2), Nov. 18: 607-1493 ..
    Murray, J., & J. Hort. - 1912. The depths of the ocean. A general account of the modern science of oceanography based largely on the scientific researches of the norwegian steamer Michael Sars in the North Atlantic. xx+821 p. 575 fig. + unnumbered fig., 4 maps, 9 pl .. London.
    Steindachner, F. - 1867. Ichthyologischer Bericht über eine nach Spanien und Portugal untermommene Reise. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. .  56 (1): 603-708, 9 pl ..
    Tortonese, E. - 1973. Sparidae In: J.-C. Hureau and Th. Monod (eds). Check-list of the fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean (CLOFNAM). Unesco, Paris. .  Vol. I: 405-415..
     
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