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Oreochromis mossambicus:   (click for more)

Oreochromis mossambicus:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Chromis (Tilapia) mossambicus  Peters, 1852: 681 (original description).
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  • Chromis dumerilii  Steindachner, 1864: 225.
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  • Chromis vorax  Pfeffer, 1893: 151.
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  • Chromis natalensis  Weber, 1897: 147.
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  • Tilapia arnoldi  Gilchrist & Thompson, 1917: 497.
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  • Tilapia mossambica  Lee et al., 1980: 774.
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  • Sarotherodon mossambicus  Pethiyagoda, 1991: 236.
    FAO Names
    En - Mozambique tilapia, Fr - Tilapia du Mozambique, Sp - Tilapia del Mozambique.
    3Alpha Code: TLM     Taxonomic Code: 1705905101
    Diagnostic Features
    Body compressed; caudal peduncle longer than deep.  Scales cycloid.  A knob-like protuberance present behind upper jaw on dorsal surface of snout. Upper jaw length shows sexual dimorphism, and mouth of male larger than that of female.  First gill arch with 20 to 22 gillrakers.  Lateral line interrupted.  Spinous and soft ray parts of dorsal fin continuous. Dorsal fin with 15 to 18 spines and 10 to 13 soft rays. Anal fin with 3 spines and 9-10 rays. Caudal fin truncated.  Colour in spawning season, pectoral, dorsal and caudal fins becoming reddish; colour male shows much brighter orange tail than female. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Native of East Africa to Natal; Illovo, Mazoe, and Zambezi Rivers, Mozambique, Rhodesia, Natal. Brought into Japan from Thailand in 1954; distributed in hot spring areas from Hokkaido to Kyushu and Okinawa, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, and India.
    Habitat and Biology
    Freshwater and brackish water inhabitants. Lives in warm, weedy pools of sluggish stream, canals, and ponds. Is mainly diurnal.Occurs at temperatures ranging from 8º to 42º C. 
    The female usually incubates the spawn; the male should be removed as soon after spawning as possible.  May form schools.Omnivorous, feeds on almost anything from algae to insects but also crustaceans, and fishes.Can be reared under hypersaline conditions.
    Spawn all year around when kept in warm water (above 20º C). 
    Size
    To 36 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Important food fish in Southeast Asia. Caught with seines, set-nets, traps, and gillnets. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 20 500 t. The countries with the largest catches were Indonesia (18 190 t) and Papua New Guinea (2 310 t).
    Marketed fresh and frozen.Imported for the purposes of fish culture and now forms wild populations.
    Local Names
    Cantonese : Fai chau chak ue ,  Gam san tsak .
    English : African mouthbrooder ,  Java tilapia ,  Largemouth kurper ,  Mozambique mouthbrooder ,  Tilapia ,  Kurper bream .
    Japanese : Kawasuzume .
    Khmer : Trey tilapi khmao .
    Malay/Indonesian : Tilapia .
    Mandarin Chinese : Wu-kuo yu .
    Bibliography
    Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2003. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
    Rainboth, W.L. - 1996FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. Rome, FAO. 1996: 265 pp.
    Uyeno, T. & E. Fujii. - 1984 Cichlidae. In: H. Masuda; K. Amaoka; C. Araga; T. Uyeno; T. Yoshino (eds.). The Fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Tokai. Univ. Press. 190-191.
     
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