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Synonyms
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  • Scomber loo  Lesson, 1829
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  • Scomber canagurta  Cuvier, 1829
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  • Scomber chrysozonus  Ruppell, 1836
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  • Scomber moluccensis  Bleeker, 1856
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  • Scomber reani  Day, 1870
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  • Scomber lepturus  Agassiz, 1874
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  • Rastrelliger kanagurta  Jordan & Dickerson, 1908
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  • Rastrelliger chrysozonus  Kishinouye, 1915
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  • Rastrelliger serventyi  Whitley, 1944
    FAO Names
    En - Indian mackerel, Fr - Maquereau des Indes, Sp - Caballa de la India.
    3Alpha Code: RAG     Taxonomic Code: 1750101403
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Scomber kanagurta  Cuvier, 1817, Règne Animal, 2:313 (based on Russell's pl. 136, India).
    Diagnostic Features
    Body moderately deep, its depth at margin of gill cover 4.3 to 5.2 times in fork length; head longer than body depth. Maxilla partly concealed, covered by the lacrimal bone, but extending to about hind margin of eye;  gillrakers very long, visible when mouth is opened, 30 to 46 on lower limb of first arch; a moderate number of bristles on longest gillraker, 105 on one side in specimens of 12.7 cm, 140 in specimens of 16 cm, and 160 in specimens of 19 cm fork length.  Intestine 1.4 to 1.8 times fork length.    Colour: narrow dark longitudinal bands on upper part of body (golden in fresh specimens) and a black spot on body near lower margin of pectoral fin; dorsal fins yellowish with black tips, caudal and pectoral fins yellowish; other fins dusky. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Widespread in the Indo-West Pacific from South Africa, Seychelles and Red Sea east through Indonesia and off northern Australia to Melanesia, Micronesia, Samoa, China and the Ryukyu Islands. It has entered the eastern Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal.
    Habitat and Biology
    An epipelagic,neriticspecies occurring in areas where surface water temperatures are at least 17° C.  Schooling is by size.
    The spawning season around India seems to extend from March through September. Spawning is in several batches.  Juveniles feed on phytoplankton (i.e. diatoms) and small zooplankton such as cladocerans, ostracods, larval polychaetes, etc. With growth they gradually chance their dietary habits, a process that is reflected in the relative shortening of their intestine. Hence, adult Indian mackerel prey primarily on macroplankton such as larval shrimps and fish.Longevity is believed to be at least 4 years.
    Size
    Maximum fork length is 35 cm, common to 25 cm; in Philippine waters, length at first maturity is about 23 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Indian mackerel is a very important species in many parts of its range. Catches are usually recorded as Rastrelliger spp. or combined with R. brachysoma . In the last 25 years, the world catch for R. kanagurta alone fluctuated between about 96,000 t in 1975 and a peak of 351,193 t in 1994; since 1984, catches reported to FAO as Rastrelliger spp. have exceeded 300,000 t. In the Western Indian Ocean area most of the catches (about 185 000 t in 1995) are identified as R. kanagurta while in in the Eastern Indian Ocean 224 000 t are reported as Rastrelliger spp. and 43 000 t as R. kanagurta . Instead, in the Western Central Pacific, which ranks as the area of major catches for Rastrelliger species, 252 000 t are not identified at the species level, 104 000 t are identified as R. kanagurta and 26 000 t as R. brachysoma . Indian mackerel is caught with purse seines , encircling gillnets, high-opening bottom trawl, lift nets, and bamboo stake traps. ("indian mackerel fishing")
    Marketed fresh, frozen, canned, dried salted, and smoked. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 302 387 t. The countries with the largest catches were India (146 367 t) and Pilippines (53 606 t).
    Local Names
    AUSTRALIA : Long-jawed mackerel .
    BURMA : Indian mackerel .
    INDIA : Ayala ,  Ayila (Malayalam),  Ailai ,  Augalai (Tamil),  Bangada (Canarese),  Indian mackerel ,  Kaula gedar (Marathi),  Kanagurta (Telugu),  Kanangeluthi (Tamil),  Kannangadatha (Telugu) ,  Kumla (Tamil),  Karan-kita (Oriya),  Oibia gedar (Sindhi),  Bangadi (Hindi).
    INDONESIA : Banjar ,  Kembung ,  Kembunglelaki .
    JAPAN : Agifurakiya ,  Gurukunmuchji ,  Naha .
    KAMPUCHEA : Ca bac ma ,  Ca be lau ,  Ca nung nuc ,  Trey kamong .
    MALAYSIA : Kedah ,  Kembong ,  Kuala muda .
    PAKISTAN : Surmai .
    PHILIPPINES : Alumahan (Tagalog),  Bunatan (llokano),  Burau (Bikol) ,  Buyaw (Visayan-Banton),  Chub mackerel ,  Hasa-hasa ,  Kabalyas (Panga-Sinan),  Lumahan (Tagalog),  Mataan (llokano),  Striped mackerel ,  Salimburaw (Kuyano and Tagbanwa).
    SAUDI ARABIA : Bagha .
    SINGAPORE : Kembong .
    SOMALIA : Bagha (Mij),  Burei (Kism),  Carmu ,  Numa (Baj).
    SOUTH AFRICA : Langkaak-makriel ,  Longjaw mackerel .
    SRI LANKA : Ailai (Tamil),  Indian mackerel ,  Karung kuluttan ,  Kumbala (Tamil),  Kumbalava ,  Maha kara bolla (Sinhalese).
    THAILAND : Pla-long ,  Pla-thu ,  Tu .
    former USSR : Kanagurta ,  Indijskaya okeanicheskaya skumbriya ,  Makrelehab ,  Odnoglachaya makrel ,  Polosataya makrel .
    VIET NAM : Ca ban ma ,  Ca be lau ,  Ca nung nun ,  Trey kamong .
    Remarks
    Some local names listed here may in fact be associated with R. faughni, a species recognized only in 1967, or be in use for both.
    Source of Information
    FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of Tunas, Mackerels, Bonitos and related species known to date.Collette, B.B.  &  C.E. Nauen 1983..  FAO Fish. Synop., (125)Vol.2:137 p.
    Bibliography
    Fischer & Whitehead, eds (1974, Species Identification Sheets, Eastern Indian Ocean/Western Central Pacific)
    Jones & Rosa Jr., (1967)
    Jones & Silas, (1964a)
     
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