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Chelidonichthys lucerna:   (click for more)

Chelidonichthys lucerna:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Trigla hirundo  non Linnaeus : Bloch, 1785, 2 : 115, pl. 60.
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  • Trigla corvus  Rafinesque, 1810. Caratt. Gen. Spec. Sicil. : 32, pl. VI.
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  • Trigla microlepidota  Risso, 1827. Hist. nat. Eur. Mérid., 3 : 399 (Mediterranean).
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  • Trigla poecioloptera  Cuvier, 1829, in Cuv. and Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., 4 : 47 ('Dieppe').
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  • Trigla corax  Bonaparte, 1834. Icon. Fauna italica, 3 :(99), pl. (94) (fig.1) ('per tutto il Mediterraneo').
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  • Chelidonichthys lucernus  Richards, 1968: 94, fig. 7.
    FAO Names
    En - Tub gurnard, Fr - Grondin perlon, Sp - Begel.
    3Alpha Code: GUU     Taxonomic Code: 1780200302
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Trigla lucerna  Linnaeus, 1758: 301 ('Habitat in Oceano Septentrionali'). Syst. Nat., ed X. No type specimen.
    Diagnostic Features
    Head large, triangular, bony, with many ridges and spines, but without a deep groove.  Total gillrakers on first gill arch 7 to 11 (not including rudiments).  Two separate dorsal fins, the first with 8 to 10 spines, the second with 16 or 17 segmented soft rays; anterior edge of first dorsal spine smooth. Anal fin with 14 to 16 segmented soft rays.  Cleithral spine (above pectoral fin) short.  Body scales small, 18 to 20 rows above, and 37 to 60 rows below lateral line; lateral line scales small, composed of unmodified tubes; scales absent from breast and anterior part of belly.  Colour pink or reddish brown, sometimes mottled on back, golden to white ventrally; outer face of pectoral fins pinkish violet or blue, spotted with white or green, and light blue or red on margins; inner face often with a bluish-black blotch and small white spots. 
    Geographical Distribution
    Distributed from Norway and the North Sea south along the Atlantic coast of Europe, around the British Isles. In the Mediterranean and Black seas, south along the northwest coast of Africa to 20° N. Not recorded at Madeira and the Azores Islands. Records further south in the Gulf of Guinea and Angola probably based on specimens of either Trigla (Chelidonichthys) gabonensis (Chelidonichthys gabonensis) or Trigla (Trigla) capensis (Chelidonichthys capensis) or both (Richards and Saksena, 1990).
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    Habitat and Biology
    Benthic on the continental shelf.From about 20 to 300 m. depth. Usually inhabits sand, muddy sand or gravel bottoms.Occurs at temperatures ranging from 8.0 to 24.0° C.  Feeds on fish, crustaceans and molluscs.Has three isolated rays on the pectoral fin which function as legs on which the fish rests and also help in locating food on the bottom.Maximum weight: 6 kg. Maximum reported age: 14 years.
    Size
    Maximum 75 cm; common to 35 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Caught with bottom trawls. Separate statistics are not reported for this species.
    An excellent food fish. Marketed fresh or frozen. Eaten pan-fried, broiled, microwaved or baked. Also smoked, but also reduced to fishmeal and oil by offshore fleets.
    Local Names
    ALBANIA : Gjel I hirte .
    DENMARK : Rød Knurhane ,  Roed knurhane .
    FINLAND : Isokurnusimppu .
    FRANCE : Grondin perlon .
    GERMANY : Roter Knurrhahn ,  Seeschwalbe .
    GREECE : Selachi .
    IRELAND : An cnúdan gorm ,  Tub gurnard .
    ITALY : Capone gallinella .
    LEBANON : Hôbô ,  Djâj Ramly .
    MAURITANIA : Grondin .
    NETHERLANDS : Rode poon .
    NORWAY : Rødknurr ,  Rødknurre .
    POLAND : Kurek czerwony .
    PORTUGAL : Cabra-cabaço .
    ROMANIA : Rândunica-de-mare .
    SPAIN : Alfondiga ,  Bejel ,  Lluerna ,  Lluerna rosa ,  Perlón .
    SWEDEN : Fenknot .
    TURKEY : Kirlangiç baligi .
    UKRAINE : Szeltyi morskoi petukh .
    UNITED KINGDOM : Sapphirine gurnard ,  Tub ,  Tubfish ,  Tub gurnard ,  Yellow gurnard .
    UNITED STATES : Searobin .
    YUGOSLAVIA : Kokot balavica ,  Lastavica balavica .
    Remarks
    New combination of original scientific name: Trigla (Chelidonichthys) lucerna, sensu Cerro, 1997. Chelidonichthys Kaup, 1873 (subgenus). Arch. Naturgesch., 39 (1): 87 (type: Trigla hirundo Linnaeus, 1758 (= T. lucerna Linnaeus, 1758) by subs. design. of Jordan and Evermann, 1896. The presence of this species south of Cape Blanc mat be based on misidentifications especially those records south of Cape Verde (see Geographical distribution).
    Bibliography
    Alburquerque, R. M. - 1954-1956. Peixes de Portugal e ilhas adjacentes. Chaves para a sua determinação. Port. Acta biol. ser. B, .  5: xvi+1167 p., 445 fig..
    Bauchot, M.-L - 1987. Triglidae In: W. Fischer and M.-L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds). Fiches FAO d'Identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche (Révison 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. .  Vol. II. Vértebrés: 1406-1417..
    Blanc, M., & J.-C. Hureau - 1973. Triglidae In: J.-C. Hureau and Th. Monod (eds). Check-list of the fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean (CLOFNAM). Unesco, Paris .  Vol. I: 586-590..
    Bonaparte, C. L. - 1834. Iconografia della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Tomo III. Pesci. Fasc. 6-11, puntate 29-58, 12 pls.. Roma.
    Cerro, Ll. del. - 1997. Revisió taxonòmica mundial de la família Triglidae (Pisces, Scorpaeniformes). Tesis Doctoral. Fac. Biologia, Univ. Barcelona. 254 pp..
    Cuvier, G. - 1829. Histoire naturelle des poissons. In Cuv. and Val., Tome quatrième. Livre quatrième. Des acanthoptérygiens á joue cuirassée. .  v. 4: i-xxvi + 2 pp. + 1-518, Pls. 72-99, 97 bis..
    Hureau, J.-C - 1986. Triglidae In: P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds). Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM). Unesco, Paris. .  Vol. III: 1230-1238..
    Kaup, J. J. - 1873. Ueber die Familie Triglidae, nebst einigen Worten über die Classification. Arch. Naturgeschichte .  v. 39 (no. 1): 71-93..
    Linnaeus, C. - 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. v. 1: i-ii + 1-824. Nantes and Pisces in Tom. 1, pp. 230-338..
    Rafinesque, C. S. - 1810. Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della sicilia, con varie osservazioni sopra i medisimi. (Part 1 involves fishes, pp. [i-iv] 3-69 [70 blank], Part 2 with slightly different title, pp. ia-iva + 71-105 [106 blank])., Pls. 1-20..
    Richards, W.J, & V.P. Saksena - 1990. Triglidae In: J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds). Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT-Portugal, SEI-France, Unesco. .  Vol. II: 680 - 684..
    Richards, W.J. - 1981. Triglidae In: W. Fischer, G. Bianchi and W. Scott (eds). FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic; fishing areas 34, 47 (in part). Canada Funds-in-Trust. Ottawa, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, by arrangement with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations .  Vol. IV : pag. var ..
    Richards, W. J. - 1968. Eastern Atlantic Triglidae (Pisces, Scorpaeniformes). Atl. Rep. No. 10: .  77-114..
    Richards, W. J., & V.P. Saksena. - 1990. Sparidae. In: J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds). Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT-Portugal, SEI-France, Unesco. .  Vol. II: 680 - 684..
    Risso, A. - 1827. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale, et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes. F. G. Levrault, Paris and Strasbourg. v. 3: i-xvi + 1-480, Pls. 1-16..
     
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