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Synonyms
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  • Palaemon carcinus rosenbergii  Ortmann, 1891
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  • Palaemon whitei  Sharp, 1893
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  • Palaemon (Eupalaemon) rosenbergii  Nobili, 1899
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  • Palaemon spinipes  Schenkel, 1902
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  • Palaemon dacqueti  Sunier, 1925
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  • Cryphiops (Macrobrachium) rosenbergii  Johnson, 1966. In older literature the species is often, but incorrectly, indicated with the name Palaemon carcinus.
    FAO Names
    En - Giant river prawn, Fr - Bouquet géant, Sp - Langostino de río.
    3Alpha Code: PRF     Taxonomic Code: 2281202307
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Palaemon rosenbergii  De Man, 1879, Notes Leyden Mus., 1:167.
    Geographical Distribution

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    Indo-West Pacific: N.W. India to Viet Nam, the Philippines, New Guinea and Northern Australia.
    Habitat and Biology
    Fresh and brackish water, sometimes marine.
    Size
    Maximum total length 320 mm (male), 250 mm (female).
    Interest to Fisheries
    Qureshi (1956:362, under Palaemon carcinus) listed the species as recorded from commercial catches of prawns brought to the market in Pakistan. Jones (1967:1 1337, Fig. 5) indicated a regular fishery for the species in the following regions of India: Bombay area, Kerala, and the northern half of the coast of the Bay of Bengal; in other areas of the Indian coast the fishery was either "occasional" or "stray", the species also "contributes to a fairly good freezing industry in the Kerala backwaters". Longhurst (1970:281) stated that in S.W. India M. rosenbergii is caught in very limited quantities in certain areas only. Raman (1967:649-669) dealt extensively with the fishery and biology of the species on the Kerala coast of India. Kurian & Sebastian (1976: 93) stated that there is an intensive fishery in Kerala, India, during the monsoon and post-monsoon months, but that the harvest has diminished owing to indiscriminate fishing. Ahmad (1957:23, as Palaemon carcinus) mentioned that the species "is exploited throughout the year in the estuaries in [Bangladesh] and during the winter months from beels and rivers"; it "is much relished by everybody". In Malaysia and Indonesia the species is economically exploited on a considerable scale (Johnson. 1968:235; Longhurst, 1970:284.285). Djajadiredja & Sachlan (1956:370) indicated it as economically important in the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo. Celebes and the Lesser Sunda Islands. The annual catch of this species in Indonesia are (in metric tons):4 300 (in 1973), 3 065 (in 1974), 2 516 (in 1975), 2 530 (in 1976).
    In New Guinea the species is fished for by the population throughout the western part of the island. In Papua it is obtained from the Fly River. In the Philippines Cowles (1914:325 under Palaemon carcinus) called it "the most important species from a commercial point of view in the Philippines Islands". Longhurst (1970:289) indicated that there is a small fishery for this species in Thailand. The great size of this species and its excellent taste ("in my view, shared by many people, it is superior to the best of the penaeid prawns", Johnson, 1966:279), made this species fished for wherever it occurs. Also it has become the subject of intensive efforts to cultivate it. Ling (1969:589-619), in Malaysia was the first to manage to raise the species through complete metamorphosis and showed that it can be successfully cultivated in ponds. Also in other areas of South and East Asia (e.g., India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Birma, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines) experiments on a larger or smaller scale have been started to investigate the possibility of raising this species in ponds for commercial purposes. Similar experiments are under way, in Hawaii, Palau, Tahiti, Australia, Africa (Malawi, Mauritius, Seychelles), in various countries in America (U.S.A., Mexico, Puerto Rico, Honduras, Colombia) and even in England.The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 5 496 t. The countries with the largest catches were Indonesia (5 460 t) and Brunei Darussalam (26 t).
    Local Names
    U.S.A. : Giant freshwater shrimp ,  Giant freshwater prawn .
    India : Golda chingri (Calcutta),  Mocha chingri (Calcutta).
    Bangladesh : Golda chingri ,  Mocha chingri ,  Bharo chingri ,  Bara chingri ,  Chooan chingri ,  Mota chingri ,  Shala chingri .
    Indonesia : Udang satang (Java),  Udang duri (Java),  Udang galah .
    Malaya : Udang galah .
    Thailand : Koong yai .
    Source of Information
    FAO CATALOGUE Vol.1 - Shrimps and Prawns of the World. An Annotated Catalogue of Species of Interest to Fisheries.L.B. Holthuis 1980.  FAO Fisheries Synopsis No.125, Volume 1.
    Bibliography
    Cowles, 1914:324,Pl. 1, Fig. 1.
     
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