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Perna viridis:   (click for more)

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  • Mytilus smaragdinus  Chemnitz, 1785
    FAO Names
    En - Green mussel, Fr - Moule verte asiatique, Sp - Mejillón verde.
    3Alpha Code: MSV     Taxonomic Code: 3161003202
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Mytilus viridis  Linnaeus, 1758. Description of several species of chondropterygious fishes of North America. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Edition 10, Tomus 1, Holmiae. 824 pp.
    Diagnostic Features
    The shell tapers to a sharp, downturned beak and has a smooth surface covered with a periostracum. The ventral margin of the shell is straight or weakly concave.  The ridge which supports the ligament connecting the two shell valves is finely pitted. The beak has interlocking teeth: one in the rigth valve and two in the left. The wavy posterior end of the paleal line and the large kidney-shaped adductor muscle are diagnostic features of this species.  Periostracum can be vivid green to dark brownish-green near the outer edge and olive-green near the attachment point. The interior of the shell valves is shiny and pale bluish green. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    This species is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region, extending from Japan to New Guinea and from the Persian Gulf to South Pacific Islands (Siddall, 1980).
    Habitat and Biology
    Up to 10 m depth.Forms dense populations (up to 35000 individuals per square metre).On a variety of structures including vessels, wharves, mariculture equipment, buoys and other hard substrata.This species is an efficient filter feeder, feeding on small zooplankton, phytoplankton an dother suspended fine organis material.
    Sexes are separate and fertilisation is external. Spawning generally occurs twice a year between early spring and late autumn (Rajagopal et al., 1998), howeveer, in the Philippines and Thailand spawning occurs year round. Sexual maturity occurs at 15-30 mm shell length.  Life spans is about 3 years.Found in estuarine habitats with salinities ranging from 18-33 ppt and temperatures from 11-32 °C (Segnini de Bravo et al.,1998). This species showed a broad salinity and temperature tolerance in experimental testing. 
    This species can reach 150 mm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    A popular food, the green mussel is harvested in the wild and grown in aquaculture facilities in its native area. FAO's Yearbook of Fishery Statistics reports a range of yearly capture production from around 20550 mt in 1995 to 21520 mt in 1999 (Philippines, Singapore, Thailand). FAO's Yearbook of Fishery Statistics reports a range of yearly aquaculture production from around 69153 mt in 1995 to 68509 mt in 1999 (India, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand).
    In China, the Philippines, and Malaysia the green mussel is highly prized as food.

    Perna viridis can have economic, ecological and human health impacts. Economically, it can cause problems with water systems of industrial complexes by clogging pipes, increasing corrosion and reducing efficiency. It is also a problem for vessels: fouling can raise cost for owners due to increased maintenance, decreased fuel efficiency and blocked or damaged internal pipes. Fouling on mariculture equipment alters maintenance routines, harvest times and may restrict water flow thus effecting product quality.

    Ecologically, P. viridis is able to outcompete many other fouling species (native mussels), causing changes in community structure and trophic relationships.
    The green mussel is originally from the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and were first found in the western hemisphere in waters surrounding the Caribbean island of Trinidad in 1990 and then later along the nearby coast of Venezuela in 1993. The first known occurrence of the green mussel in the United States was in Tampa Bay, Florida, during the summer of 1999. Scientists suspect that the method of transportation presumably was as larvae in the sea water ballast tanks of ships (http://www.fcsc.usgs.gov/greenmussel2.pdf).
    Threat to humans: They can be carriers of diseases and parasites harmful to native species. P. viridis has also been recorded with high levels of accumulated toxins and heavy metals and is linked to shellfish poisoning in humans.
    Poutiers, J. M. - 1998. Bivalves (Acephala, Lamellibranchia: Pellecypoda). In: The living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific.  Volume 1. Seaweeds, corals, bivalves and gastropods. (Carpentier, K. E., Niem, V. H. eds) FAO, Rome, Italy.
    Rajagopal, S., Venugopalan, V. P, Nair, K.V.K, van der Velde, G, Jenner, H. A. & den Hartog, C - 1998. Reproduction, growth rate and culture potential of the green mussel, Perna viridis (L.) in Edaiyur backwaters, east coast of India. Aquaculture .  162: 187-202..
    Segnini de Bravo, M.I, Chung, K.S & Perez, J.E - 1998. Salinity and temperature tolerances of the green and brown mussels, Perna viridis and Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Revista de Biologia Tropical. .  Supplemento 46(5): 121-126..
    Siddall, S.E. - 1980. A clarification of the genus Perna Mytilidae. Bull. Mar. Sci. .  30, 858-870..
    Sivalingam, P.M. - 1977. Aquaculture of the green mussel, Mytilus viridis Linnaeus in Malaysia. Aquaculture. .  11: 297-312..
    Vakily, J.M. - 1989. The biology and culture of mussels of the genus Perna. ICLARM Studies and Reviews. .  17, 63 .pp.
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