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  • Sardinella aurita  Raja & Hiyama, 1969
  • Clupea nymphaea  Richardson, 1846, Ichthyol.China Japan:304 (China Sea) (name suppressed by International Commission in 1970, Opinion 901, Bull. Zool . Nomencl., 26(5-6):217).
  • Amblygaster posterus  Whitley, 1931:144 (Western Australia).
  • Amblygaster postera  Munro, 1956:22, fig. 154.
  • Sardinella samarensis  Roxas, 1934:275, pl. 2, fig. 11 (Samar, the Philippines).
  • Sardinella longiceps  Whitehead, 1965
  • Sardinella lemuru  Wongratana, 1980:111, pls 47, 48 (revision). See Remarks for further western Pacific S. aurita references.
    FAO Names
    En - Bali sardinella, Fr - Sardinelle de Bali, Sp - Sardinela de Balí.
    3Alpha Code: SAM     Taxonomic Code: 1210501223
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Sardinella lemuru  Bleeker, 1853, Natuurk.Tijdschr.Ned.-Indië, 4:500 (Batavia).
    Diagnostic Features
    Body elongate, subcylindrical, its depth less than 30% of standard length, belly rounded. The pelvic finray count of i 8 distinguished S. lemuru from all other clupeids in the eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Very closely resembles Sardinella longiceps (whose range it may overlap in the Andaman Sea), but head shorter (26 to 29% of standard length; cf.-29 to 35% in S. longiceps and lower gillrakers fewer (77 to 188 in fishes of 6.5 to 22 cm standard length; cf. 150 to 253 in S. longiceps of 8 to 15.5 cm, usually more than 180).  A faint golden spot behind gill opening, followed by a faint golden midlateral line; a distinct black spot at hind border of gill cover (absence of pigment). 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Eastern Indian Ocean (Phuket, Thailand, southern coasts of East Java and Ball; Western Australia) and western Pacific (Java Sea north to the Philippines, Hong Kong, Taiwan Island to southern Japan - see Remarks).
    Habitat and Biology
    Coastal,pelagic, schooling, strongly migratory.Feeds on phytoplankton, also zoo plankton (chiefly copepods).
    In the Ball region spawning probably occurs at the end of the annual rainy season migration into the Ball Strait (usually September-February, but a peak mainly in December-January, at least judging by numbers caught), but the spawning grounds are not known.  As in the case of the related species (Sardinella aurita, Sardinella longiceps ), spawning and major migrations appear closely linked with hydrological conditions (especially temperature), but sudden appearances or disappearances of shoals have no ready explanation. Spawning in the East China Sea reaches a peak in late March to May, but continues through August.
    To 23 cm standard length, usually to 20 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Of major interest in the East China Sea (100 000 t in 1971) mainly off southern Fujian and eastern Guandong provinces; and in Indonesia, the bulk of the catch being from the Ball Strait. The total catch since 1983 was 59 980 t (all from Indonesia). The total catch reported for FAO Statistics in 1999 was 161 470 t (all from Indonesia).
    Local Names
    HONG KONG : Hwang tseih .
    INDONESIA : Lemuru .
    TAIWAN ISLAND : Hwang sha-tin .
    Regan (1917:378) included two Japanese specimens in his wideranging S. aurita, while Fowler (1931:116) included Chinese specimens (Amoy, Swatow, Canton; he later added a Japanese specimen (Fowler, 1941:602 - as Sardinella allecia ). It seems much more likely that S. lemuru extends its range northward from the Philippines to China and southern Japan. Much more work is needed before it can be definitely stated that S. lemuru is not merely an eastern form of S. aurita, from which, given the variation in body shape and gillraker numbers in Atlantic S. aurita, it cannot be distinguished as yet on morphological grounds.
    Source of Information
    FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1. Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125)Vol.7 Pt. 1:303 p.
    Chiu & Tsongchion , (1982 - East China Sea, biology fishery)
    Li Kwan-Ming, (1960 - biology, fishery)
    Ritterbush, (1974 - Ball, population biology)
    Soerjodinoto, (1960 - biology, fishery)
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