| ||Sardinops sagax Mann, 1954:131; Hildebrand, 1946:86; de Buen, 1960:265 (synopsis); Bore & Martinez, 1981: unpaged (synopsis); Leible & Alveal, 1982:18 (synopsis).|
| ||Sardinops ocellata Hubbs, 1929:265; Smith, 1953:92, pl. 5 (as Arengus sagax in Smith, 1969:92); Monteiro, 1960:1105 (Angola); CLOFETA, in press; SFSA, in press (southern Africa).|
|En - Southern African pilchard, Fr - Pilchard de l'Afrique australe, Sp - Sardina de Africa austral.|
3Alpha Code: PIA Taxonomic Code: 1210501305|
|Scientific Name with Original Description|
|Clupea ocellata Pappe, 1854, Syn.edible fish Cape of Good Hope:20 (Cape of Good Hope).|
|The radiating bony striae on the operculum distinguish this fish from all other clupeids in the area; in addition, species of Sardinella and Herklotsichthys have two fleshy outgrowths along the hind margin of the gill opening and no series of dark spots along flank (Amblygster sirm has similar spots, but not recorded from South African coasts); Hilsa kelee has spots on flanks but is deeper-bodied and has a distinct median notch in the upper jaw; and species of Etrumeus and Dussumieria lack scutes along the belly.
|Angola (Baia dos Tigres, Porto Alexandre) southward to Cape Town and north to Natal (Durban); possibly to Mauritius.|
|Habitat and Biology|
|Coastalpelagic, forming large schools,migratory (but northern stocks perhaps rarely moving south of Orange River, thus South African stocks separate; on east coast, seasonal migration northward to Durban in June/July).Feeds on zooplankton (mainly copepods) when young, but on phytoplankton (mainly diatoms) from about 10 cm standard length; a non-selective filter feeder.|
Breeds mainly from September to February.
|To 28 cm standard length, usually to 25 cm.|
|Interest to Fisheries|
|The total catch for 1983 was 110 229 t (South Africa 61 814 t; Namibia 44 014 t), virtually all from the western and southern coasts. Small catches by foreign nations, chiefly Poland. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 175 969 t. The countries with the largest catches were South Africa (131 316 t) and Namibia (44 653 t). Most common fishing technique is "small pelagic purse seining".|
|SOUTH AFRICA :
Sud Afrikaanse pelser .|
Davies, (1957 - biology, synopsis)
De Jager, (1960 - biology)
Du Plessis, (1960 - fishery)
King & Macleod, (1976 - feeding). Biology and fishery data are given in many of the Investigational Reports of the Sea Fisheries Branch of the South African Department of Industries from 1954 onward.
Mathews, (1960, 1964 - biology)