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  • Sardinops sagax  Mann, 1954:131; Hildebrand, 1946:86; de Buen, 1960:265 (synopsis); Bore & Martinez, 1981: unpaged (synopsis); Leible & Alveal, 1982:18 (synopsis).
  • Sardinops ocellata  Hubbs, 1929:265; Smith, 1953:92, pl. 5 (as Arengus sagax in Smith, 1969:92); Monteiro, 1960:1105 (Angola); CLOFETA, in press; SFSA, in press (southern Africa).
    FAO Names
    En - Southern African pilchard, Fr - Pilchard de l'Afrique australe, Sp - Sardina de Africa austral.
    3Alpha Code: PIA     Taxonomic Code: 1210501305
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Clupea ocellata  Pappe, 1854, Syn.edible fish Cape of Good Hope:20 (Cape of Good Hope).
    Diagnostic Features
    The radiating bony striae on the operculum distinguish this fish from all other clupeids in the area; in addition, species of Sardinella and Herklotsichthys have two fleshy outgrowths along the hind margin of the gill opening and no series of dark spots along flank (Amblygster sirm has similar spots, but not recorded from South African coasts); Hilsa kelee has spots on flanks but is deeper-bodied and has a distinct median notch in the upper jaw; and species of Etrumeus and Dussumieria lack scutes along the belly. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Angola (Baia dos Tigres, Porto Alexandre) southward to Cape Town and north to Natal (Durban); possibly to Mauritius.
    Habitat and Biology
    Coastalpelagic, forming large schools,migratory (but northern stocks perhaps rarely moving south of Orange River, thus South African stocks separate; on east coast, seasonal migration northward to Durban in June/July).Feeds on zooplankton (mainly copepods) when young, but on phytoplankton (mainly diatoms) from about 10 cm standard length; a non-selective filter feeder.
    Breeds mainly from September to February. 
    To 28 cm standard length, usually to 25 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    The total catch for 1983 was 110 229 t (South Africa 61 814 t; Namibia 44 014 t), virtually all from the western and southern coasts. Small catches by foreign nations, chiefly Poland. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 175 969 t. The countries with the largest catches were South Africa (131 316 t) and Namibia (44 653 t). Most common fishing technique is "small pelagic purse seining".
    Local Names
    SOUTH AFRICA : Sud Afrikaanse pelser .
    Source of Information
    FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1. Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125)Vol.7 Pt. 1:303 p.
    Davies, (1957 - biology, synopsis)
    De Jager, (1960 - biology)
    Du Plessis, (1960 - fishery)
    King & Macleod, (1976 - feeding). Biology and fishery data are given in many of the Investigational Reports of the Sea Fisheries Branch of the South African Department of Industries from 1954 onward.
    Mathews, (1960, 1964 - biology)
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