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Sardina pilchardus:   (click for more)

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  • Arengus minor  Cornide, 1788:91 (suppressed by Opinion 799, Int. Comm. Zool. Nomencl.).
  • Clupanodon sardina  Risso, 1827:452 (Nice).
  • Clupea sardinia (cheironym?)  Lowe, 1837:189 (Madeira).
  • Clupea laticosta  Lowe, 1843:90 (Madeira).
  • Clupea pilchardus var.2 sardinia  Günther, 1868:440 (Madeira).
  • Sardina dobrocgica  Antipa, 1906
  • Sardina pilchardus  Svetovidov, 1952:188 pl. 6, fig. 2.
  • Sardina pilchardus  Svetovidov, 1963:205 pl. 6, fig. 2.
  • CLOFNAM   , 1973:102; FNAM, 1984:276, fig. (synopsis).
  • FNAM   , 1984:276, fig. (synopsis).
  • CLOFETA   , (in press).
    FAO Names
    En - European pilchard(=Sardine), Fr - Sardine commune, Sp - Sardina europea.
    3Alpha Code: PIL     Taxonomic Code: 1210506401
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Clupea pilchardus  Walbaum, 1792in Artedi, Gen.pisc. :38 Cornwall, on Pennant,1769.
    Diagnostic Features
    Body subcylindrical, belly rather rounded (but body more compressed in juveniles).
      Hind margin of gill opening smoothly rounded (without fleshy outgrowths); 3 to 5 distinct bony Strive radiating downward on lower part of operculum; lower gillrakers 44 to 106, not becoming shorter at angle of first gill arch, ping the lower.
      Pelvic fin insertion well behind dorsal fin origin; last two anal finrays enlarged.
      A series of dark spots along upper flanks, sometimes with a second or even third series below. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Coasts of eastern North Atlantic, from Iceland (rare) and North Sea, southward to Bay de Goree, Senegal (14° 43' N) (extension of southern limit by about 15° in the last decade); also Mediterranean (common in western part and in Adriatic, rare in eastern part), Sea of Marmara and Black Sea.
    Habitat and Biology
    Coastal, pelagic,usually at 25 to 55 or even 100 m by day, rising to 10 to 35 m at night,schooling, migratory.

    Breeds at 20 to 25 m, near the shore or as much as 100 km out to sea from April (English Channel), June to August (North Sea, also Black Sea), September to May (off European coasts of Mediterranean) and November to June (off African coasts of Mediterranean). 
    Feeds mainly on planktonic crustaceans, also larger organisms.
    To 25 cm standard length, usually to 20 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Sardina pilchardus is an important fishery species in the areas 34 (783 564 t in 1995), 37 (236 928 t) and 27 (186 636 t). Since 1950 the catches have been steadily increasing, reaching two peaks in 1976 (1 315 685 t) and 1990 (1 525 184 t). Caught with purse seines and lamparas (light fishing), also gillnets, beach seines, trap nets and occasionally high opening bottom trawls (French Mediterranean Coast). The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 901 427 t. The countries with the largest catches were Morocco (429 732 t) and Spain (128 231 t).
    Local Names
     Variations on Sardele, Sardina, Sardine, etc. (see also Gómez Larrañeta, 1960:140).
    Authors (e.g. Svetovidov, 1952,Svetovidov, 1963) have often recognized two subspecies, based mainly on gillrakers counts and head length, but the separation is not satisfactory: (a) S. pilchardus pilchardus: lower gillrakers more than 60, head length 20 to 23% of standard length; Atlantic (Bergen to Gibraltar). (b) S. pilchardus sardina: lower gillrakers 44 to 70 (but sometimes to 106), head length 18.5 to 21.0% of standard length; Mediterranean, Black Sea, Atlantic (Gibraltar to C. Blanc). However, specimens from Goree Bay, Senegal, have 59 to 90 lower gillrakers and head length 24.55 to 28.2% of standard length (Freon & Stequert, 1978). Other races, forms, varieties and possible subspecies have been suggested for populations in the western Mediterranean (reviewed by Gómez Larraneta, 1960), off western Sahara (Furnestin, 1955) and off Mauritania (Maurin, 1968).
    Source of Information
    FAO Species catalogue Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. (Suborder CLUPEOIDEI) An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1. Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae.Whitehead, P.J.P. 1985.  FAO Fish. Synop., (125)Vol.7 Pt. 1:303 p.
    Banarescu, 1968(Black Sea)
    Bini, 1970(Mediterranean)
    FNAM, 1984(synopsis)
    Gómez Larrañeta, 1960(biology, synopsis)
    Svetovidov, 1952, 1963(Russia)
    Wheeler, 1969(UK)
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