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Coregonus clupeaformis:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Salmo clupeaformis  Mitchill, 1818: 321 (Original description).
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  • Coregonus albus  LeSueur, 1818: 232.
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  • Salmo ostego  Clinton, 1822: 188.
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  • Coregonus clupeiformis  Agassiz, 1850: 339.
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  • Coregonus sapidissimus  Agassiz, 1850: 344.
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  • Coregonus neohantoniensis  Prescott, 1851: 343.
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  • Salmo (Coregonus) labradoricus  Richardson, 1836: 206.
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  • Coregonus labradoricus  Evermann & Smith, 1896: 302.
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  • Coregonus clupeaformis latus  Koelz, 1931: 373.
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  • Coregonus clupeaformis medorae  Koelz, 1931: 378.
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  • Coregonus clupeaformis dustini  Koelz, 1931: 379.
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  • Coregonus clupeaformis gulliveri  Koelz, 1931: 380.
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  • Coregonus odonoghuei  Dymond, 1943: 228.
    FAO Names
    En - Lake(=Common) whitefish, Fr - Corégone de lac, Sp - Coregono de lago.
    3Alpha Code: WHL     Taxonomic Code: 1231200112
    Diagnostic Features
    Body elongate fairly deep (largest specimen have a conspicuously humped back so that nape appears concave in outline), head relatively small, snout prominent and projecting well beyond tip of lower jaw, the upper jaw short and usually not reaching back beyond front margin of eye;  mouth almost toothless.  Gill rakers on the first gill arch are comparatively few, 19-33 (variable sensu populations, average about 22); similar problem for the vertebrae, lateral line, dorsal and anal finrays.  Piloric caeca 140-222.  Vertebrae 55-64 (range in Lake Opeongo, Algonquin Park, Ont., 55-63).  Scales cycloid, large, extreme range 70-97 in lateral line.  Dorsal fin with i + 11-13 rays. Anal fin with 10-14 rays; Pectoral rays 14-17.  Overall colouration silvery; back pale greenish brown (Great Lakes) or light brown and sometimes dark brown to almost black (inland lakes), becoming silvery on the sides and silvery white below. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Widely distributed in North American freshwaters from the Atlantic coastal watersheds westward across Canada and the northern United States, to British Columbia, the Yukon Territory, and Alaska.
    Habitat and Biology
    Inhabits lakes and large rivers; enters brackish water.Adults feed mainly on aquatic insect larvae, molluscs, and amphipods, but also on other fish and fish eggs, including their own. Young feed on copepods and cladocerans.
    Size
    Very variable with habitat; in Europe it grows to a maximum of only 50 cm, and in many populations it rarely exceeds 30 cm. In Asia and North America it grows much larger and specimens of 5.8 kg, aged 28 years, have bee reported (Wheleer, 1978).
    Interest to Fisheries
    Most of the catch is taken by gill net in lakes. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 13 681 t. The countries with the largest catches were Canada (8 328 t) and USA (5 353 t).
    Valued for its meat as well as for its roe, which is made into an excellent caviar, utilized fresh, smoked and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked. In Siberia and northern Russia this is a commercially important species, as in the far north is the Canadian representative.
    Local Names
    Cree : Atihkamekw ,  Atekamek ,  Atikamek ,  Attikumèk .
    Danish : Helt .
    Dutch : Marene .
    English : Eastern whitefish ,  Common whitefish ,  Gizzard fish ,  Grand coregone ,  Great Humpback whitefish ,  Inland whitefish ,  Lakes whitefish ,  Lake whitefish ,  Sault whitefish ,  Whitefish .
    Finnish : Siika ,  Sillisiika .
    French : Corégone ,  Grande corégone .
    German : Felchen ,  Maräne .
    Greek : Koregonos .
    Italian : Coregone .
    Norwegian : Sik .
    Portuguese : Coregono .
    Spanish : Coregono .
    Swedish : Sik .
    Remarks
    This species occurs across the northern land mass of North America, Asia and Europe. A vast range in which it exists in numerous forms and is subject to great nomenclatural confusion. Probably conspecific with Coregonus lavaretus or Coregonus pidschian. It is usually referred to as the C. clupeaformis complex. It occurs in the extreme north as migratory fish, entering rivers in autumn to spawn in winter.
    Bibliography
    Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2003. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
    Scott, W.B. & E.J. Crossman - 1973Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184: 966 pp.
    Vera, J.- 1992Diccionario multilingüe de especies marinas para el mundo hispano. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Secretaria General Técnica. 1282 pp.
    Wheeler, A. - 1978Key to the Fishes of Northern Europe. A guide to the identification of more than 350 species. Frederick Warne (Publishers) Ltd., London. 380 pp.
     
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