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Cyprinus carpio:   (click for more)

Cyprinus carpio:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Cyprinus cirrosus  Schaeffer, 1760
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  • Cyprinus viri-violaceus  Lacepède, 1803, Cyprinus rubrofuscus and Cyprinus nigroauratus.
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  • Cyprinus vittatus  Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1842
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  • Cyprinus conirostris  Schelegel, 1842, and Cyprinus haematopterus.
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  • Cyprinus acuminatus  Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus sculponeatus, Cyprinus flamm and Cyprinus atrovirens.
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  • Cyprinus melanotus  Schelegel, 1846
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  • Carpio vulgaris  Rapp, 1854
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  • Cyprinus chinensis  Basilewsky, 1855
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  • Carpio flavipinna  Bleeker, 1863
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  • Cyprinus tossicole  Elera, 1895
    FAO Names
    En - Common carp, Fr - Carpe commune, Sp - Carpa común.
    3Alpha Code: FCP     Taxonomic Code: 1400200201
    Diagnostic Features
    Body elongated and somewhat compressed. Lips thick. Two pairs of barbels at angle of mouth, shorter ones on the upper lip.  Dorsal fin base long with 17-22 branched rays and a strong, toothed spine in front; dorsal fin outline concave anteriorly. Anal fin with 6-7 soft rays; posterior edge of 3rd dorsal and anal fin spines with sharp spinules.  Lateral line with 32 to 38 scales.  Pharyngeal teeth 5:5, teeth with flattened crowns.  Colour variable, wild carp are brownish-green on the back and upper sides, shading to golden yellow ventrally. The fins are dusky, ventrally with a reddish tinge. Golden carp are bred for ornamental purposes. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    European lakes and rivers. It has been widely introduced to other parts of the world (North America, southern Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Asia).
    Habitat and Biology
    The natural conditions that suit carp are lowland lakes and rivers where there is abundant vegetation to provide food and shelter.They thrive in warm-water conditions, and require temperatures of at least 18º C to spawn.  Consequently the success of populations introduced to northern Europe and the British Isles is dependent on warm weather during spring and summer.Omnivorous, feeds mainly on bottom-living insect larvae, small snails, crustaceans, and some vegetable matter. They are most active at night, and feed little at low temperatures. The diet of the young includes small planktonic crustaceans, but the larvae, after they have utilized the yolk from the egg, feed on minute rotifers and algae, and the young stages of water-fleas.
    Size
    Growth is variable with local conditions. In south-eastern Europe (where conditions are optimum) an average length of 51-61 cm an weight of 1.8-4.5 kg is attained; in northern Europe it is rather less. A maximum weight of 32 kg is recorded (Italy, 1886).
    Interest to Fisheries
    The carp is very popular as a food-fish in Europe (and elsewhere), and is well suited for raising in fish farms; carp farming is now a considerable industry. Carp is also a popular anglers' fish and many waters are stocked with large fish. Owing to its popularity as a food or sporting fish. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 75 235 t. The countries with the largest catches were Turkey (17 797 t) and Thailand (14 000 t).
    Utilized fresh and frozen.
    Local Names
    Afrikaans : Karp .
    Albanian : Krapi .
    Bulgarian : Ponty .
    Cantonese : Lei ue .
    Czech : Karp obecny .
    Danish : Karpe .
    Dutch : Karper .
    English : Carp ,  European carp ,  German carp ,  Koi ,  Leather carp ,  Mirror carp .
    Finnish : Karppi .
    French : Carpe .
    Gaelic/Irish : Carban .
    German : Karpfen ,  Weißfische .
    Bibliography
    Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2003. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
    Sawada, Y. - 1984Cypriniformes. In: H. Masuda; K. Amaoka; C. Araga; T. Uyeno; T. Yoshino (eds.). The Fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Tokai. Univ. Press. 54-58.
    Wheeler, A. - 1978Key to the Fishes of Northern Europe. A guide to the identification of more than 350 species. Frederick Warne (Publishers) Ltd., London. 380 pp.
     
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