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Mugil cephalus:   (click for more)

Mugil cephalus:   (click for more)

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Synonyms
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  • Mugil oeür  Forsskål, 
    FAO Names
    En - Flathead grey mullet, Fr - Mulet à grosse tête, Sp - Pardete.
    3Alpha Code: MUF     Taxonomic Code: 1650100102
    Diagnostic Features
    Body cilindrical, robust. Head broad, its width more than width of mouth cleft; adipose eyelid well developed, covering most of pupil; upper lip thin, without papillae,  labial teeth of upper jaw small, straight, dense, usually in several rows;  mouth cleft ending below posterior nostril.  Two dorsal fins; the first with 4 spines; the second with 8-9 soft rays; origin of first dorsal fin nearer to snout tip than to caudal fin base; origin of second dorsal fin at vertical between a quarter and a half along anal fin base. Anal fin with 8 soft finrays. Pectoral fins with 16-19 rays; pectoral axillary about one-third length of fin.  Pyloric caeca 2.  Scales in leteral series 36-45.  Colour back blue/green, flanks and belly pale or silvery; scales on back and flanks usually streaked to form longitudinal stripes; dark pectoral axillary blotch. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    A cosmopolitan species from tropical and temperate waters of the Atlantic (from Bay Biscay southward, also whole of Mediterranean and Black Sea), Pacific, and Indian Ocean. Introduced into Caspian Sea.
    Habitat and Biology
    Occurs at temperatures ranging from 8-247deg; C  in calm waters close to shore, around mouths of stream and inlets, and brackish bays and lagoons, rivers and harbors.Usually found in schools over sand ot mud bottom.Mainly diurnal, feeds on zooplancton, benthic organisms and detritus. Also takes diatom algae and small invertebrates. Feeds occasionally at the surface.
    Size
    Maximum 120 cm; common 35-50 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Caught with beach seines, gillnets, castnets, liftnets, barriernets, trammel nets, and other artisanal gear. Can be used in aquaculture if stock is collected from the sea. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 27 306 t. The countries with the largest catches were Korea, Republic of (9 678 t) and Venezuela (5 151 t).
    Marketed fresh dried, salted, and frozen; roe sold fresh or smoked.
    Local Names
    Afrikaans : Platkop-harder .
    Albanian : Qefulli i verës .
    Arabic : Anubah ,  Araaby ,  Asfatiya ,  Beyah Biah ,  Biyah ,  Bouchkfa ,  Bouri ,  Gawafa ,  Gutarana .
    Bulgarian : Keffal .
    Cantonese : Wu tau ,  Wu tau tze .
    Catalan : Cabeçut ,  Cabut ,  Capgròs ,  Llissa cabuda ,  Llissa llobarrera ,  Llíssera ,  Llíssera testona ,  Retallat .
    Danish : Multe ,  Storhovedet multe .
    Dutch : Diklipharder .
    English : Black mullet ,  Bully mullet ,  Common grey mullet ,  Flathead mullet ,  Grey mullet ,  Hardgut mullet ,  Sea mullet ,  Striped mullet .
    Fijian : Koto .
    Finnish : Juovakeltti .
    Fon : Guéseou .
    French : Muge cabot ,  Mulet cabot ,  Poisson queue bleue .
    German : Grosskopf .
    Greek : Cephalos ,  Képhalos .
    Hawaiian : Ama-ama ,  Pua .
    Hebrew : Kifon gedol hazosh .
    Icelandic : Röndungur .
    Italian : Cefalo ,  Cefalo mazzone ,  Muggine .
    Japanese : Bora .
    Krio : Kunungui ,  Lombbie ,  Ma sek ,  Mollit .
    Malay/Indonesian : Belanak ,  Jumpul ,  Kedera ,  Rapang .
    Maltese : Mulett tal-iswed .
    Maori : Kanae .
    Nââ Kwênyi : Kôrômii ,  Kûrûmil .
    Nenema : Maalan ,  Naxoc .
    Norwegian : Multe .
    Polish : Mugil cefal .
    Portuguese : Mugem ,  Tainha cabeça achatada .
    Rapan : Auaree ,  Kapae .
    Rumanian : Chefal .
    Russian : Loban .
    Saipanese Carolinian : Aitam ,  Laiguan-asut .
    Serbo-Croat : Cipal ,  Cipal glavas ,  Cipli ,  Haskefal .
    Spanish : Capitón ,  Galupe ,  Lisa común ,  Lisa pardete ,  Mújol ,  Mugil común ,  Pardete .
    Swahili : Mkizi .
    Swedish : Stothovad multe ,  Tjockläppad multe .
    Tagalog : Aligasin ,  Banak ,  Talilong .
    Tokelauan : Miil-budhi-dhirr .
    Turkish : Haskefal baligi ,  Kefal .
    Bibliography
    Fischer, W.; G. Bianchi (eds.). - 1984 FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Prepared and printed with the support of the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). Rome, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Vol. I-6: pag. var.
    Fischer, W.; G. Bianchi; W. B. Scott (eds.). - 1981Fiches FAO d'identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. Atlantique centre-est; zones de pêche 34, 47 (en partie). Canada Fonds de Dépôt. Ottawa, Ministère des Pêcheries et Océans Canada, en accord avec l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture, Vol. 1-7: pag. var. Fishbase: ICLARM .
    Alegre, M., J. Lleonart & J. Veny. - 1992 Espècies Pesqueres d'interès comercial. Nomenclatura oficial catalana. Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament de Cultura, DARP, TERMCAT. 64 pp. Base de datos ICTIMED (WWW Work: D. Lloris & Justino Martínez).
    Ben-Tuvia, A. - 1986 Mugilidae. In: P.J.P. Whitehead et al., (eds.). Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM). Unesco, Paris, vol. III: 1197-1204.
    Bini, G. - 1965Catálogo de los nombres de peces, moluscos y crustáceos de importancia comercial en el Mediterráneo. FAO, Rome: i-xv + 407 pp.
    Lloris, D., J. Rucabado, LL del cerro, F. Portas, M. Demestre & A. Roig. - 1984Tots els peixos del mar Català. I: Llistat de Cites i de referències. Treballs Soc. Cat. Ict. Herp., 1: 1-208.
    Thomson, J. M. - 1990 Mugilidae. In: J.C. Quero et al., (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). Unesco, Portugal, vol. II: 855-859.
     
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