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Stizostedion lucioperca:   (click for more)

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  • Perca lucioperca  Linnaeus, 1758: 289 (original description).
  • Centropomus sandat  Lacepède, 1802: 248.
  • Lucioperca sandra  Cuvier, 1828: 110.
  • Lucioperca linnei  Malm, 1877: 381 (Tentatively regarded as an unneeded replacement name for Perca lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758 to avoid "Strickland tautonomy").
  • Lucioperca pepinus  Estes in Hallock, 1877: 322.
  • Lucioperca lucioperca  Berg, 1949: 1020.
  • Sander lucioperca  Bogutskaya & Naseka, 1996: 54.
    FAO Names
    En - Pike-perch, Fr - Sandre, Sp - Lucioperca.
    3Alpha Code: FPP     Taxonomic Code: 1701436103
    Diagnostic Features
    Body elongate, the snout pointed, head length greater than depth of body or equal to it.  Upper jaw extends past eye level, small teeth in jaws and several large fangs in front also (never more of 18 branched rays).  Two dorsal fins, the first spiny and separated by a narrow interspace from the second. Anal fin with 2-3 spines and 11-13 soft rays. Pelvic fins widely spaced, the distance between them almost as great as the base of one fin.  Lateral line with 84-95 scales.  Colour greenish-grey or brown on the back and sides becoming lighter on the lower sides and white on the belly. Young fish have 8-10 indistinct dusky bars on the sides; these are faint in the adult. Dorsal and tail fins dark spotted. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Native to eastern Europe (from Neederland to Caspian Sea), but has been introduced to the Rhine catchment and to England. It is now widespread in France and western Europe, and is rapidly extending its range in eastern and central England.
    Habitat and Biology
    Inhabits rivers.Feeds regularly on fishes also insects and crustaceans.This species has depleted stocks of native fish in some areas where it has been introduced for angling.
    Spawn between Abril to June over sandy or stony bottoms, or among the roots of larger aquatic plants, being earlier in lower latitudes. 
    Attains a maximum length of 130 cm and weight of 12-18 kg; usually 30-70 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Valuable sporting fish, and in inland Europe an important food-fish. Here considerable effort is made to increase the stock in fish farms. The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 17 892 t. The countries with the largest catches were Russian Federation (3 644 t) and Kazakhstan (3 250 t).
    Utilized fresh or frozen and eaten steamed, broiled and microwaved.
    Local Names
    Bulgarian : Biala ribba .
    Czech : Candat obecny .
    Danish : Sandart .
    Dutch : Snoekbaars .
    English : Perch pike ,  Pike perch ,  Pikeperch ,  Zander .
    Finnish : Kuha .
    French : Sandre .
    German : Schill ,  Zander .
    Hungarian : Fogas süllö .
    Italian : Lucioperca ,  Sandra .
    Norwegian : Gjörs ,  Gjørs .
    Polish : Sandacz .
    Portuguese : Lúcio perca .
    Rumanian : Salau .
    Russian : Sudak .
    Serbo-Croat : Smud ,  Smudj .
    Slovak : Zubac obycajny .
    Slovene : Smuc .
    Spanish : Lucioperca ,  Perca-lluci .
    Swedish : Abborrfisk ,  Gös .
    Turkish : Levrek ,  Sudak baligi .
    Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2003. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org
    Maitland, P.S. & K. Linsell. - 1980Guía de los peces de agua dulce de Europa. Ed. Omega S. A.Barcelona: 258 pp.
    Wheeler, A. - 1978Key to the Fishes of Northern Europe. A guide to the identification of more than 350 species. Frederick Warne (Publishers) Ltd., London. 380 pp.
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