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Parastromateus niger:   (click for more)

Parastromateus niger:   (click for more)

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  • Apolectus niger  Bloch, 1795, (original description).
  • Formio niger  Block, 1795, (new combination).
  • Citula halli  Evermann & Seale, 1907: 65.
    FAO Names
    En - Black pomfret, Fr - Castagnoline noire, Sp - Palometa negra.
    3Alpha Code: POB     Taxonomic Code: 1702309901
    Diagnostic Features
    Body deep and compressed; dorsal and ventral profiles of body strongly and equally convex.  Scales smll and deciduous, and almost completely covering dorsal and anal fins.  Mouth terminal with upper jaw unrestricted dorsally and ending below and slightly before anterior margin of eye;  both jaws with a single row of small conical teeth.  Gill openings unrestricted laterally and ventrally.  Dorsal fin with 4-5 short spines (embedded and not apparent in adults) followed by I + 41-44 soft rays. Anal fin with 2 (embedded and not apparent in adults) followed by I + 35-39 soft rays; profile of second dorsal and anal fins nearly identical, with elevated, broadly rounded anterior lobes. Pelvic fins absent in specimens larger than about 10 cm fork and falcate.  Lateral line very weakly arched anteriorly, with junction of straight and curved parts below posterior third of dorsal fin; straight part of lateral line with 8 to 19 weak scutes, forming a slight keel on caudal peduncle.  Colour in life, adults uniformly silvery-grey to bluish-brown (yellowish-brown when deciduous scales are missing); fins with dark edges. Young with dark vertical bars and long black jugular pelvic fins. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    South Africa, Mozambique, Kenya, the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Indonesia, the Philippines, China, southern Japan and Australia. Most abundant on the west coast of India and Indonesia.
    Habitat and Biology
    Pelagic on the continental shelf.Generally near the bottom during the day, rising to near the surface at night. Often occurs in large schools, and not uncommonly observed swimming on their sides.Usually found in 15 to 40 m depth,generally over muddy bottoms.Feeds on zooplankton.A large parasitic isopod is often present clinging to the tongue.
    Maximum about 55 cm total length; common to 30 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 54 280 t. The countries with the largest catches were Indonesia (34 340 t) and Thailand (6 600 t).
    Most be sold fresh; a few are frozen.
    Local Names
    Arabic : Halway ,  Halwaya .
    Burmese : Nga-yuzana .
    English : Black batfish ,  Black pomfret ,  Black pompano ,  Blue skate ,  Brown pomfret ,  Butterfish ,  False buttefish ,  German-fish ,  Halibut ,  Jack-pomfret ,  Pomfret ,  Slade ,  Sweep ,  Turbot .
    Japanese : Kuro-Ajimodoki ,  Kuroaji-modoki .
    Malay/Indonesian : Bawar ,  Bawal hitam ,  Bawal tambak ,  Dueh hitam .
    Portuguese : Peixe manteiga .
    Tagalog : Duhay ,  Pampano .
    Catalog On Line. Fischer, W.; G. Bianchi (eds.). - 1984 FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Prepared and printed with the support of the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). Rome, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Vol. I-6: pag. var. Fishbase: ICLARM .
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