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Mullus surmuletus:   (click for more)

Mullus surmuletus:   (click for more)

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  • Mullus fuscatus  Rafinesque, 1810: 35.
  • Mullus barbatus surmuletus  Day, 1880: 22.
    FAO Names
    En - Surmullet, Fr - Rouget de roche, Sp - Salmonete de roca.
    3Alpha Code: MUR     Taxonomic Code: 1704100701
    Diagnostic Features
    Body moderately compressed. A pair of stout barbels under chin, their length greater than that of pectoral fins; opercle without spine; snout less steep, anterior head profile parabolic; maxilla at most reaching below anterior eye margin;  small villiform teeth in lower jaw; upper jaw toothless (see remarks); teeth also present on roof of mouth (vomer and palatines).  First dorsal fin with 7 - 8 spines, the first minute; second dorsal fin with I + 8 soft rays;  33 to 37 scales in lateral line.  Colour reddish, usually with a darker red longitudinal stripe from eye to caudal fin and 3 yellow-brown lines on lower sides; first dorsal fin with dark markings. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Northern part of West Africa from Gibraltar to Dakar. Along the coast of Western Europe up to the English Channel; also in the Mediterranean and Black Seas.
    Habitat and Biology
    Benthic species on gravel and stones inshallow waters (1 - 460 m), usually 5-60 m.Gregarious fish.Feeds predominantly on small bottom-living invertebrates (crustaceans, worms, molluscs, etc.).
    Reproduction in February to May at depths between 30 and 70 m. 
    To 40 cm standard length; common 10-25 cm.
    Interest to Fisheries
    Caught mainly with gillnets, trammel nets and bottom trawls . The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 12 301 t. The countries with the largest catches were Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (4 000 t) and France (2 541 t).
    Marketed fresh or frozen; the flesh is highly esteemed.
    Local Names
    Arabic : Barbouni ,  Mellou ,  Mlal el Hadjra ,  Rocca .
    Catalan : Moll ,  Moll borratxo ,  Moll roquer ,  Moll ver ,  Roger de roca ,  Roger de sorra .
    Danish : Mulle .
    Dutch : Koning van de poon ,  Mul .
    English : Red mullet ,  Surmullet ,  Woodcock of the sea .
    Finnish : Keltajuovamullo ,  Mullo .
    French : Rouget barbet ,  Rouget barbet de roche ,  Rouget de roche .
    German : Meerbarbe ,  Streifenbarbe .
    Greek : Barboúni ,  Koutsomoúra .
    Hebrew : Mulit happassim .
    Icelandic : Saeskeggur .
    Italian : Triglia ,  Triglia di scoglio .
    Japanese : Himeji .
    Maltese : Trilja tal-qawwi .
    Norwegian : Mulle .
    Polish : Barwena .
    Portuguese : Salmonete ,  Salmonete legitimo ,  Salmonete vermelho .
    Serbo-Croat : Trlje ,  Trlje od kamena .
    Spanish : Salmonete ,  Salmonete de roca .
    Swedish : Mullus ,  Gulstrimming mullus .
    Turkish : Barbunya ,  Nil barbunyasi ,  Tekir .
    The genus Mullus is usually described as lacking teeth in the premaxilla. Contrary to generic descriptions (based on adult specimens), the juveniles of M. barbatus and M. surmuletus have teeth in the premaxilla; however, the teeth are not visible in specimens >50 mm total length, because they are covered by lip tissue. The number of teeth decrease with juvenile growth and disappears after 100 mm total length is attained (Aguirre, 1997).
    Fischer, W.; G. Bianchi; W. B. Scott (eds.). - 1981Fiches FAO d'identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. Atlantique centre-est; zones de pêche 34, 47 (en partie). Canada Fonds de Dépôt. Ottawa, Ministère des Pêcheries et Océans Canada, en accord avec l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture, Vol. 1-7: pag. var.
    Aguirre, H. - 1997Presence of dentition in the premaxilla of juvenile Mullus barbatus and M. surmuletus . Journal of Fish Biology, 51: 1186-1191.
    Alegre, M., J. Lleonart & J. Veny. - 1992 Espècies Pesqueres d'interès comercial. Nomenclatura oficial catalana. Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament de Cultura, DARP, TERMCAT. 64 pp. Base de datos ICTIMED (WWW Work: D. Lloris & Justino Martínez).
    Ben-Tuvia, A. - 1990 Mullidae. In: J.C. Quero et al., (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). Unesco, Portugal, vol. II: 827-829.
    Bini, G. - 1965Catálogo de los nombres de peces, moluscos y crustáceos de importancia comercial en el Mediterráneo. FAO, Rome: i-xv + 407 pp.
    Djabali, F., B. Brahmi & M. Mammasse. - 1993Poissons des cotes Algeriennes. Bulletin de l'Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de l'Aménagement du littoral. 215 pp.
    Hureau, J.-C. - 1986 Mullidae. In: P.J.P. Whitehead et al., (eds.). Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (FNAM). Unesco, Paris, vol. II: 877-882.
    Lloris, D. & J. Rucabado. - 1998Guide FAO d'Identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. Guide d'Identification des Ressources Marines Vivantes du Maroc. Rome, FAO: 263 pp.
    Lloris, D., J. Rucabado, LL del cerro, F. Portas, M. Demestre & A. Roig. - 1984Tots els peixos del mar Català. I: Llistat de Cites i de referències. Treballs Soc. Cat. Ict. Herp., 1: 1-208.
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