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Synonyms
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  • Scomber commersonii  Shaw, 1803
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  • Cybium commersonii  Cuvier, 1829
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  • Cybium konam  Bleeker, 1851a
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  • Scomberomorus commersoni  Jordan & Seale, 1906
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  • Cybium multifasciatum  Kishinouye, 1915
    FAO Names
    En - Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Fr - Thazard rayé indo-pacifique, Sp - Carite estriado Indo-Pacífico.
    3Alpha Code: COM     Taxonomic Code: 1750101503
    Scientific Name with Original Description
    Scomber commerson  Lacepède, 1800, Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, 1:598, 600-603, pl. 20 (fig. 1) (based on a figure from Commerson's manuscripts).
    Diagnostic Features
    Gillrakers on first arch few: 0 to 2 on upper limb; 1 to 8 on lower limb; 1 to 8 total.  First dorsal fin with 15 to 18 spines, usually 16 or 17; second dorsal with 15 to 20 rays, usually 17 or 18, followed by 8 to 10 finlets; anal fin with 16 to 21 rays, usually 18 or 19 followed by 7 to 12 finlets, usually 9 or 10; pectoral fin rays 21 to 24.  Lateral line abruptly bent downward below end of second dorsal fin.  Vertebrae 19 or 20 precaudal plus 23 to 27 caudal, total 42 to 46.  Intestine with 2 folds and 3 limbs.  Colour: sides silvery grey marked with transverse vertical bars of a darker grey; bars narrow and slightly wavy, sometimes breaking up into spots ventrally; bars number 40 to 50 in adults but are usually fewer than 20 in juveniles up to 45 cm fork length; cheeks and lower jaw silvery white; first dorsal fin bright blue rapidly fading to blackish blue; pectoral fin light grey turning to blackish blue; caudal fin lobes, second dorsal, anal, and dorsal and anal finlets pale greyish white turning to dark grey. Juveniles have the anterior membranes of the first dorsal jet black contrasting with pure white posteriorly. 
    Geographical Distribution

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    Widespread throughout the Indo-West Pacific from South Africa and the Red Sea east through the IndoAustralian Archipelago to Australia and Fiji and north to China and Japan (Collette & Russo, 1979:fig. 9).A recent immigrant to the eastern Mediterranean Sea by way of the Suez Canal.
    Habitat and Biology
    An epipelagic, neriticspecies known to undertake lengthy longshore migrations (Lewis, 1981), but permanently resident populations also seem to exist. Migrations extend along the entire east coast of Queensland (McPherson, 1981). The migration route in the Gulf of Thailand has been mapped by Tongyai (1970)
    Depending on temperature regime, the spawning season may be more or less extended. In east Africa it extends from October to July, off Madagascar from December to February, in the coastal waters off Madras State from May to July (Chacko, Thomas & Pillay, 1968), off Taiwan Island in spring, off Papua New Guinea from July to December (Lewis, Smith & Kearney, 1974), on the Great Barrier Reef from October to December (Munro, 1947), and around Fiji from October to February with peaks in December and January (Lewis, Chapman & Sesewa, 1983).  Like other species of the genus, S. commerson feeds primarily on small fish, particularly anchovies such as Anchoviella and Stolephorus, and clupeids such as Sardinella (Chacko, Thomas & Pillay, 1968; Prado, 1970; Mergeron, 1970; van der Elst, 1981). Other prey include small carangids, slipmouths (Leiognathus), squids (i.e. Loligo) and penaeoid shrimps. Feeding apparently takes place day and night.
    Size
    Maximum fork length is about 220 cm, common to 90 cm. The all-tackle angling record is a 44.9 kg fish taken off Scottburgh, Natal, South Africa, in 1982. The smallest mature males and females had fork lengths between 65 and 70 cm respectively (Lewis, Chapman & Sesewa, 1983).
    Interest to Fisheries
    This species is taken throughout its range by commercial, artisanal, and recreational fisheries. There are important fisheries in three Fishing Areas: 51, 57 and 71. The world catch increased from 55 452 t in 1978 to 72 281 t in 1981 (FAO, 1983). The five countries with the largest reported catch in this period were Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Democratic Yemen, and Pakistan. Approximately 1 000 t a year are landed in Queensland, Australia (McPherson, 1981), while the 1982 catch in Fiji probably exceeded 300 t (Lewis, Chapman & Sesewa, 1983). There is also an important driftnets (gillnets) fishery in India but the catch is not identified to species in the statistics. In Thailand and Malaysia drift nets also seem to be the most important gear deployed to catch this species. Other gear include shore seines in Taiwan (Province of China) and India; trolling lines on Taiwan Island, in Malaysia and in east Africa, where it is a priced market fish, and handlines (bett-tok) baited with mackerel or squid (Rastrelliger and Loligo) and trolling lines (bett-laak) with spoons in the Gulf of Thailand (Tongyai, 1970).
    In Samoa it is sold fresh and canned.The fishing seasons change according to differential availability of fish as a function of variation in hydrographical conditions and weather conditions for fishing. They peak from August to September on the Great Barrier Reef, in spring off the island of Taiwan, in the dry season between October and April/May off Kampuchea and in the Gulf of Thailand, in March/April, June/July, and December in northeastern India, from September to April in southeastern India, and in February/March, and October to December off the southwestern coast of Indiai, south of Bombay.
    It is marketed fresh, on ice, or salted and dried.The total catch reported for this species to FAO for 1999 was 183 425 t. The countries with the largest catches were Indonesia (78 870 t) and India (32 181 t).
    Local Names
    AUSTRALIA : Narrowbarred mackerel ,  Doggie ,  Kingfish ,  Snook .
    BANGLADESH : Champa ,  Matia .
    FIJI : Walu .
    GERMANY : Spanische Makrele .
    INDIA : Ah-ku-lah (Tamil),  Ayakora ,  Chumbum (Malayalam),  King seer ,  Konam (Tamil),  Konerna (Tellugu),  Mah-wu-leachi (Tamil),  Yellari (Tellugu).
    INDONESIA : Tenggirri .
    JAPAN : Yokoshimasawara .
    KENYA : Nguru ,  Nguru-mtwane (Swahili).
    MADAGASCAR : Angoho ,  Lamatra .
    PACIFIC ISLANDS TRUST TERRITORIES: Palau : Ngelngal .
    PHILIPPINES : Maladyong ,  Tangigi ,  Tanguigue ,  Tanigi .
    SOMALIA : Nguru ,  Nguru-mtwane (Swahili).
    SOUTH AFRICA : Katonkel ,  King mackerel .
    SRI LANKA : Barred Spanish mackerel ,  Konam (Tamil),  Striped seer .
    TANZANIA : Nguru ,  Nguru-mtwane (Swahili).
    THAILAND : Insi ,  Thu insi .
    former USSR : Dairek ,  Ispanskaya makrel ,  Korolevskaya pyatnistaya makrel ,  Poperechnopolosataya pelamida ,  Sierra ,  Uzkopolosaya makrel .
    Remarks
    A lipid-soluble toxin, similar to ciguatoxin has been found in the flesh of S. commerson caught between 24° and 26° S on the east coast of Queensland (Lewis & Endean, 1983). At least 38 toxic individuals, resulting in 217 poisonings, came from this area.
    Source of Information
    FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of Tunas, Mackerels, Bonitos and related species known to date.Collette, B.B.  &  C.E. Nauen 1983..  FAO Fish. Synop., (125)Vol.2:137 p.
    Bibliography
    Fischer & Whitehead, eds (1974, Species Identification Sheets, Eastern Indian Ocean/Western Central Pacific)
    Devaray, (1977, 1982, India)
    Lewls, Chapman & Sesewa, (1983)
    MePherson, (1981, Australia)
    Prado, (1970, Madagascar)
    Tongyai, (1970, Thailand)
     
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